154 Works

Data from: Seed-dispersal networks in tropical forest fragments: area effects, remnant species, and interaction diversity

Carine Emer, Pedro Jordano, Marco Aurélio Pizo, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Fernanda Ribeiro Da Silva & Mauro Galetti
Seed dispersal interactions involve key ecological processes in tropical forests that help to maintain ecosystem functioning. Yet this functionality may be threatened by increasing habitat loss, defaunation and fragmentation. However, generalist species, and their interactions, can benefit from the habitat change caused by human disturbance while more specialized interactions mostly disappear. Therefore changes in the structure of the local, within fragment, networks can be expected. Here we investigated how the structure of seed-dispersal networks changes...

Guidelines for including bamboos in tropical ecosystem monitoring

Belen Fadrique, Joseph Veldman, James Dalling, Lynn Clark, Lia Montti, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Debora Rother, Francisca Ely, William Farfan-Rios, Paul Gagnon, Juan Carlos Camargo Garcia, Sonali Saha, Thomas Veblen, Ximena Londoño, Kenneth Feeley & Cara Rockwell
Bamboos are a diverse and ecologically important group of plants that have the potential to modulate the structure, composition and function of forests. With the aim of increasing the visibility and representation of bamboo in forest surveys, and to standardize techniques across ecosystems, we present a protocol for bamboo monitoring in permanent research plots. A bamboo protocol is necessary because measurements and sampling schemes that are well-suited to trees are inadequate for monitoring most bamboo...

Effect of stressors on the carrying capacity of spatially distributed metapopulations

Bo Zhang, Donald DeAngelis, Wei-Ming Ni, Yuanshi Wang, Lu Zhai, Alex Kula, Shuang Xu & David Van Dyken
Stressors such as antibiotics, herbicides and pollutants are becoming increasingly common in the environment. The effects of stressors on populations are typically studied in homogeneous, non-spatial settings. However, most populations in nature are spatially distributed over environmentally heterogeneous landscapes with spatially-restricted dispersal. Little is known about the effects of stressors in these more realistic settings. Here, we combine laboratory experiments with novel mathematical theory to rigorously investigate how a stressor’s physiological effect and spatial distribution...

Data from: Megafauna decline have reduced pathogen dispersal which may have increased emergent infectious diseases

Chris Doughty, Tomos Prys-Jones, Soren Faurby, Crystal Hepp, Viacheslav Fofanov, Andrew Abraham, Victor Leshyk, Nathan Nieto, Jens-Christian Svenning & Mauro Galetti
The Late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna (defined as animal species > 44.5 kg) reduced the dispersal of seeds and nutrients, and likely also microbes and parasites. Here we use body-mass based scaling and range maps for extinct and extant mammal species to show that these extinctions led to an almost seven-fold reduction in the movement of gut-transported microbes, such as Escherichia coli (3.3–0.5 km 2 d − 1 ). Similarly, the extinctions led to a...

Loss of an apex predator in the wild induces physiological changes in prey

Neil Hammerschlag, Chris Fallows, Michael Meyer, Simon Seakamela, Samantha Orndorff, Stephen Kirkman, Deon Kotze & Scott Creel
Predators can impact prey via predation or risk effects, which can initiate trophic cascades. Given widespread population declines of apex predators, understanding and predicting the associated ecological consequences is a priority. When predation risk is relatively unpredictable or uncontrollable by prey, the loss of predators is hypothesized to release prey from stress; however, there are few tests of this hypothesis in the wild. A well-studied predator-prey system between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur...

The mechanism underlying transient weakness in myotonia congenita

Jessica Myers, Mark Rich, Kirsten Denman, Chris DuPont, Ahmed Hawash, Kevin Novak, Andrew Koesters, Manfred Grabner, Anamika Dayal & Andrew Voss
In addition to the hallmark muscle stiffness, patients with recessive myotonia congenita (Becker disease) experience debilitating bouts of transient weakness that remain poorly understood despite years of study. We made intracellular recordings from muscle of both genetic and pharmacologic mouse models of Becker disease to identify the mechanism underlying transient weakness. Our recordings reveal transient depolarizations (plateau potentials) of the membrane potential to -25 to -35 mV in the genetic and pharmacologic models of Becker...

Effectiveness and feasibility of convalescent blood transfusion to reduce COVID-19 fatality ratio

Xi Huo, Xiaodan Sun, Nicola Bragazzi & Jianhong Wu
As of December 2020, COVID-19 has spread all over the world with more than 81 million cases and more than 1.8 million deaths. The rapidly increasing number of patients mandates the consideration of potential treatments for patients under severe and critical conditions. Convalescent plasma (CP) treatment refers to the approach of infusing patients with plasma from recently recovered patients. CP appears to be a possible therapeutic option to manage patients suffering from severe or even...

Multiple mutualism effects generate synergistic selection and strengthen fitness alignment in the interaction between legumes, rhizobia, and mycorrhizal fungi

Michelle Afkhami, Maren Friesen & John Stinchcombe
Nearly all organisms participate in multiple mutualisms, and complementarity within these complex interactions can result in synergistic fitness effects. However, it remains largely untested how multiple mutualisms impact eco-evolutionary dynamics in interacting species. We tested how multiple microbial mutualists-- N-fixing bacteria and mycorrrhizal fungi-- affected selection and heritability of traits in their shared host plant (Medicago truncatula), as well as fitness alignment between partners. Our results demonstrate for the first time that multiple mutualisms synergistically...

Data from: Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on sea turtles could span the Atlantic

Nathan F. Putman, F. Alberto Abreu-Grobois, Iñaky Iturbe-Darkistade, Emily M. Putman, Paul M. Richards & Philippe Verley
We investigated the extent that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill potentially affected oceanic-stage sea turtles from populations across the Atlantic. Within an ocean-circulation model, particles were backtracked from the Gulf of Mexico spill site to determine the probability of young turtles arriving in this area from major nesting beaches. The abundance of turtles in the vicinity of the oil spill was derived by forward-tracking particles from focal beaches and integrating population size, oceanic-stage duration...

Data from: Neotropical wrens learn new duet rules as adults

Karla D. Rivera Cáceres, Esmeralda Quirós-Guerrero, Marcelo Araya-Salas & William A. Searcy
Although song development in songbirds has been much studied as an analogue of language development in humans, the development of vocal interaction rules has been relatively neglected in both groups. Duetting avian species provide an ideal model to address the acquisition of interaction rules as duet structure involves time and pattern-specific relationships among the vocalizations from different individuals. In this study, we address the development of the most striking properties of duets: the specific answering...

Data from: Idenitfying hybrids & the genomics of hybridization: mallards & American black ducks of Eastern North America

Philip Lavretsky, Thijs Janzen & Kevin G. McCracken
Resolving evolutionary relationships and establishing population structure depends on molecular diagnosability that is often limited for closely related taxa. Here, we use 3,200 ddRAD-seq loci across 290 mallards, American black ducks, and putative hybrids to establish population structure and estimate hybridization rates. We test between traditional assignment probability and accumulated recombination events based analyses to assign hybrids to generational classes. For hybrid identification, we report the distribution of recombination events complements ADMIXTURE simulation by extending...

Data from: Mito-nuclear discord in six congeneric lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas)

Jeffrey L. Peters, Kevin Winker, Kendra C. Millam, Philip Lavretsky, Irina Kulikova, Robert E. Wilson, Yuri N. Zhuravlev & Kevin G. McCracken
Many species have Holarctic distributions that extend across Europe, Asia, and North America. Most genetics research on these species has examined only mitochondrial (mt) DNA, which has revealed wide variance in divergence between Old World (OW) and New World (NW) populations, ranging from shallow, unstructured genealogies to deeply divergent lineages. In this study, we sequenced 20 nuclear introns to test for concordant patterns of OW-NW differentiation between mtDNA and nuclear (nu) DNA for six lineages...

Data from: Mutations in different pigmentation genes are associated with parallel melanism in island flycatchers

J. Albert C. Uy, Elizabeth A. Cooper, Stephen Cutie, Moira R. Concannon, Jelmer W. Poelstra, Robert G. Moyle & Christopher E. Filardi
The independent evolution of similar traits across multiple taxa provides some of the most compelling evidence of natural selection. Little is known, however, about the genetic basis of these convergent or parallel traits: are they mediated by identical or different mutations in the same genes, or unique mutations in different genes? Using a combination of candidate gene and reduced representation genomic sequencing approaches, we explore the genetic basis of and the evolutionary processes that mediate...

Data from: Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses reveal Pleistocene isolation followed by high gene flow in a wide- ranging, but endangered, freshwater mussel

Kentaro Inoue, Emy M. Monroe, Curt L. Elderkin & David J. Berg
Freshwater organisms of North America have had their contemporary genetic structure shaped by vicariant events, especially Pleistocene glaciations. Life history traits promoting dispersal and gene flow continue to shape population genetic structure. Cumberlandia monodonta, a widespread but imperiled (IUCN listed as endangered) freshwater mussel, was examined to determine genetic diversity and population genetic structure range-wide. MtDNA sequences and microsatellite loci were used to measure genetic diversity and simulate demographic events during the Pleistocene using approximate...

Data from: Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex)

Carla Hurt, Katie Silliman, Arthur Anker & Nancy Knowlton
Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host...

Data from: Geographic differences in vertical connectivity in the Caribbean coral Montastraea cavernosa despite high levels of horizontal connectivity at shallow depths

Xaymara Serrano, Iliana B. Baums, Katherine O'Reilly, Tyler B. Smith, Ross J. Jones, Tonya L. Shearer, Flavia L. D. Nunes & Andrew C. Baker
The Deep Reef Refugia Hypothesis proposes that deep reefs can act as local recruitment sources for shallow reefs following disturbance. To test this hypothesis, nine polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and used to assess vertical connectivity in 583 coral colonies of the Caribbean depth-generalist coral Montastraea cavernosa. Samples were collected from three depth zones (≤10 m, 15-20 m and ≥25 m) at sites in Florida Upper Keys, Lower Keys and Dry Tortugas), Bermuda, and...

Data from: A test of the eavesdropping avoidance hypothesis as an explanation for the structure of low amplitude aggressive signals in the song sparrow

Joseph M. Niederhauser, Adrienne L. DuBois, William A. Searcy, Stephen Nowicki & Rindy C. Anderson
Low amplitude signals function in private exchanges of information between signalers and nearby receivers. The eavesdropping avoidance hypothesis proposes that selection favors quiet threat signals in order to avoid the costs of eavesdroppers. If true, then selection should favor other acoustic traits in addition to low amplitude that lead to quiet signals transmitting less effectively through the environment compared to broadcast signals. The “warbled” soft songs of male song sparrows differ from “crystallized” soft songs...

Data from: In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader’s explosive population growth rate and restored natives

Susan Kalisz, Rachel B. Spigler & Carol C. Horvitz
A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth...

Daily and yearly average nitrate and sulfate aerosol mass concentrations measured at Ragged Point, Barbados from 1989-2011

Cassandra Gaston, Joseph Prospero, L Custals, E Blades, P Sealy & J.A. Christie
Here we present the nitrate and sulfate particle data that corresponds to the manuscript “Twenty Years of Measurements at Barbados Reveal Different Trends in Trade Wind Aerosol Nitrate and Sulfate: Why has Sulfate Increased While Nitrate Remains Constant?” Sulfate and nitrate aerosols degrade air quality and modulate radiative forcing and the hydrological cycle. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) and meteorological factors determine how widespread these impacts are. To determine these impacts...

Data for: Representation in sea turtle science: slow progress towards gender equity and globalization revealed from thirty years of symposium abstracts

Nathan Robinson, Sophie Mills, Laura St.Andrews, Allegra Sundstrom, Jadyn Thibodeau, Adam Yaney-Keller & Christopher Gatto
Sea turtles are a circumglobal taxon that receive considerable research attention, yet there is little information about the demographics of sea turtle researchers. To assess long-term trends in demographic, geographic, and institutional representation within the sea turtle community, we quantified information from 7041 abstracts presented at the International Sea Turtle Symposium (ISTS) between 1988–2018. The dataset from this study is presented here.

Anolis carolinensis character displacement SNP

Douglas Crawford
Here is the VCF and a Excel sheet with FST, p-values and outlier status for all 44,120 identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the evolution of rapid character displacement among replicate islands with (2Spp) and without competition (1Spp) between two Anolis species. On 2Spp islands, A. carolinensis occurs higher in trees and have evolved larger toe pads. Among 1Spp and 2Spp island populations, we identify 44,120 SNPs, with 215-outlier SNPs with improbably large FST...

Effects of cucurbituril size on the binding of a lutidine guest

Jan Svec, Vladimir Sindelar & Angel E. Kaifer
Six- and seven-membered cucurbiturils form inclusion complexes with a lutidine derivative. These inclusion complexes differ in the binding mode, stability, kinetics of complexation, and sensitivity toward basic media.

Evolutionary history constrains heat tolerance of native and exotic tropical Zingiberales

Georgia G. Hernández, Timothy M. Perez, Oscar M. Vargas, W. John Kress, Ramón Molina-Bravo, Roberto A. Cordero & Carlos García-Robledo
Tropical wet forest plants experience relatively stable temperatures throughout the year. However, tropical forests represent a mosaic of habitats characterized by different temperatures. Heat tolerances are expected to be adapted to temperatures specific to their habitats. Although the heat tolerance of species sharing similar environments is expected to be similar, it is also possible that heat tolerance is constrained by evolutionary history because closely related species usually display similar physiologies. When exotic species are introduced...

Terminal Carboxylate Effects on the Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Cucurbit[7]uril Binding to Guests Containing a Central Bis(Pyridinium)-Xylylene Site

Iago Neira, Marcos D. Garcia, Carlos Peinador & Angel Kaifer
A series of bis(pyridinium)-xylylene derivatives bearing carboxylate terminal groups were investigated as guests for the cucurbit[7]uril host in aqueous solution. While the presence of the terminal carboxylates has a modest effect on the thermodynamic stability of the complexes, the kinetics of complex association/dissociation is strongly affected. The relative position (meta, para) of the carboxylate group in relation to the pyridinium nitrogen also exerts a considerable effect on the binding kinetics.

Data for Hyperlocalism: Transforming the Paradigm for Climate Adaptation study

Tyler Harrison, Gina Maranto, Amy Clement, Samuel Purkis, Joanna Lombard, Angela Clark, Abraham Parrish, Marcus Reamer, Olivia Collins, Caroline Lewis, Mayra Cruz & Anaruth Solache
The data collected represents photos, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, measured effects of our community engaged process, and associated metadata and process descriptions developed during our study of the Homestead and Little River communities in Miami Dade County.

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