11 Works

Data from: Genomic evidence for convergent evolution of a key trait underlying divergence in island birds

Elizabeth A. Cooper & J. Albert C. Uy
Reproductive isolation can be initiated by changes in one or a few key traits that prevent random mating among individuals in a population. During the early stages of speciation, when isolation is often incomplete, there will be a heterogeneous pattern of differentiation across regions of the genome between diverging populations, with loci controlling these key traits appearing the most distinct as a result of strong diversifying selection. In this study, we used Illumina-sequenced ddRAD tags...

Data from: Early life conditions and precipitation influence the performance of widespread understory herbs in variable light environments

Andrea C. Westerband & Carol C. Horvitz
1. The understory of tropical forests is heterogeneous across time, and plants that inhabit this layer may exhibit adaptations (e.g. trait plasticity) that enable them to exploit this variability to their advantage. We tested the hypothesis that two widespread understory herbs would perform equally well in a variable as in a constant environment, using a two-year shade-house experiment. 2. We measured demographic traits (growth and survival), a physiological trait (maximum photosynthetic capacity), and life history...

Data from: Microbial expansion-collision dynamics promote cooperation and coexistence on surfaces

Shuang Xu & J. David Van Dyken
Microbes colonizing a surface often experience colony growth dynamics characterized by an initial phase of spatial clonal expansion followed by collision between neighboring colonies to form potentially genetically heterogeneous boundaries. For species with life cycles consisting of repeated surface colonization and dispersal, these spatially-explicit “expansion-collision dynamics” generate periodic transitions between two distinct selective regimes, “expansion competition” and “boundary competition”, each one favoring a different growth strategy. We hypothesized that this dynamic could promote stable coexistence...

Data from: Does soil moisture availability explain liana seedling distribution across a tropical rainfall gradient?

Eric Manzané-Pinzön, Guillermo Goldstein & Stefan A. Schnitzer
Liana density tends to increase with decreasing rainfall and increasing seasonality. However, the pattern of liana distribution may be due to differences in soil water retention capacity, not rainfall and seasonality per se. We tested the effect of rainfall and soil substrate with respect to the distribution of liana seedlings in six sites across a rainfall gradient from the wet Atlantic to the dry Pacific in central Panama. Soils were either limestone, with low water-holding...

Data from: Hybridization increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species in sunfish

Sherry N. N. Du, Fariborz Khajali, Neal J. Dawson & Graham R. Scott
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been suggested to be possible mechanisms underlying hybrid breakdown, as a result of mito-nuclear incompatibilities in respiratory complexes of the electron transport system. However, it remains unclear whether hybridization increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. We used high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry on isolated liver mitochondria to examine mitochondrial physiology and ROS emission in naturally occurring hybrids of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and bluegill (L. macrochirus). ROS...

Data from: Carrying capacity in a heterogeneous environment with habitat connectivity

Bo Zhang, Alex Kula, Keenan M.L. Mack, Lu Zhai, Arrix L. Ryce, Wei-Ming Ni, Donald L. DeAngelis & J. David Van Dyken
A large body of theory predicts that populations diffusing in heterogeneous environments reach higher total size than if non-diffusing, and, paradoxically, higher size than in a corresponding homogeneous environment. However, this theory and its assumptions have not been rigorously tested. Here, we extended previous theory to include exploitable resources, proving qualitatively novel results, which we tested experimentally using spatially diffusing laboratory populations of yeast. Consistent with previous theory, we predicted and experimentally observed that spatial...

Data from: Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera

Michelle E. Afkhami, D. Luke Mahler, Jean H. Burns, Marjorie G. Weber, Martin F. Wojciechowski, Janet Sprent & Sharon Y. Strauss
How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central – but also data-hungry – question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially-based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria...

p16 loss rescues functional decline of Brca1-deficient mammary stem cells

Alexandria Scott, Feng Bai, Ho Lam Chan, Shiqin Liu, Joyce M. Slingerland, David J. Robbins, Anthony J. Capobianco & Xin-Hai Pei
Recent evidence indicates that the accumulation of endogenous DNA damage can induce senescence and limit the function of adult stem cells. It remains elusive whether deficiency in DNA damage repair is associated with the functional alteration of mammary stem cells. In this article, we reported that senescence was induced in mammary epithelial cells during aging along with increased expression of p16Ink4a (p16), an inhibitor of CDK4 and CKD6. Loss of p16 abrogated the age-induced senescence...

Data from: A chromosome 5q31.1 locus associates with tuberculin skin test reactivity in HIV-positive individuals from tuberculosis hyper-endemic regions in east Africa

Rafal S. Sobota, Catherine M. Stein, Nuri Kodaman, Isaac Maro, Wendy Wieland-Alter, Robert P. Igo, Albert Magohe, LaShaunda L. Malone, Keith Chervenak, Noemi B. Hall, Mecky Matee, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses Joloba, Jason H. Moore, William K. Scott, Timothy Lahey, W. Henry Boom, C. Fordham Von Reyn, Scott M. Williams & Giorgio Sirugo
One in three people has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and the risk for MTB infection in HIV-infected individuals is even higher. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic regions who do not get infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are genetically resistant. Using an "experiment of nature" design that proved successful in our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study of tuberculin skin test positivity using 469 HIV-positive patients from prospective study cohorts...

Data from: Evolved genetic and phenotypic differences due to mitochondrial-nuclear interactions

Tara Z. Baris, Dominique N. Wagner, David I. Dayan, Xiao Du, Pierre U. Blier, Nicolas Pichaud, Marjorie F. Oleksiak & Douglas L. Crawford
The oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) pathway is responsible for most aerobic ATP production and is the only pathway with both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded proteins. The importance of the interactions between these two genomes has recently received more attention because of their potential evolutionary effects and how they may affect human health and disease. In many different organisms, healthy nuclear and mitochondrial genome hybrids between species or among distant populations within a species affect fitness and...

Data from: Experimental assemblage of novel plant-herbivore interactions: ecological host shifts after 40 million years of isolation

Carlos Garcia-Robledo, Carol C. Horvitz, W. John Kress, A. Nalleli Carvajal-Acosta, Terry L. Erwin & Charles L. Staines
Geographic isolation is the first step in insect herbivore diet specialization. Such specialization is postulated to increase insect fitness, but may simultaneously reduce insect ability to colonize novel hosts. During the Paleocene-Eocene, plants from the order Zingiberales became isolated either in the Paleotropics or in the Neotropics. During the Cretaceous, rolled-leaf beetles diversified in the Neotropics concurrently with neotropical Zingiberales. Using a community of Costa Rican rolled-leaf beetles and their Zingiberales host plants as study...

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