140 Works

Data from: A novel system for bi-ocular eye-tracking in vertebrates with laterally placed eyes

Luke P. Tyrrell, Shannon R. Butler, Jessica L. Yorzinski & Esteban Fernández-Juricic
1. Animals use vision to gather information about their environment and then use that information to make behavioural decisions that affect fitness. They will often move their heads or eyes to inspect areas of interest with their centres of acute vision, such as foveae, to gather high resolution information about potential mates, predation risks, or other aspects of the environment. Few studies to date have been able to accurately determine where laterally eyed animals direct...

Data from: Individual variation in cone photoreceptor density in house sparrows: implications for between-individual differences in visual resolution and chromatic contrast

Amanda L. Ensminger & Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Between-individual variation has been documented in a wide variety of taxa, especially for behavioral characteristics; however, intra-population variation in sensory systems has not received similar attention in wild animals. We measured a key trait of the visual system, the density of retinal cone photoreceptors, in a wild population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We tested whether individuals differed from each other in cone densities given within-individual variation across the retina and across eyes. We further...

Data from: Behavioral constraints on local adaptation and counter-gradient variation: implications for climate change

Brandon Quinby, Mark Belk & J. Curtis Creighton
Resource allocation to growth, reproduction, and body maintenance varies within species along latitudinal gradients. Two hypotheses explaining this variation are local adaptation and counter-gradient variation. The local adaptation hypothesis proposes that populations are adapted to local environmental conditions and are therefore less adapted to environmental conditions at other locations. The counter-gradient variation hypothesis proposes that one population out performs others across an environmental gradient because its source location has greater selective pressure than other locations....

Det tør!: Frozen-Ground Cartoons; Et international samarbejde mellem kunstnere og permafrostforskere

Heta Nääs, Noémie Ross, Frédéric Bouchard, Michelle Paquette, Audrey Veillette, Michael Fritz, Stefanie Weege, Julie Malenfant-Lepage, Bethany Deshpande, Alexander Nieuwendam, Ashley Rudy, Matthias Siewert, Ylva Sjöberg, Jonathan Harbor, J. Otto Habeck, Kerstin Krøier Rasmussen & Kirstey Langley
This project started in October 2015 with a crazy idea : prepare and submit a funding application for an international, multidisciplinary and non-traditional scientific outreach project… within the next 48 hours. Well, it worked out. A group of highly motivated young researchers from Canada and Europe united to combine arts and science and produce a series of outreach comic strips about permafrost (frozen ground). The aim of the project is to present and explain scientific...

Data from: Evolutionary rescue in a host-pathogen system results in coexistence not clearance

Mark Redpath Christie & Catherine Laura Searle
The evolutionary rescue of host populations may prevent extinction from novel pathogens. However, the conditions that facilitate rapid evolution of hosts, in particular the population variation in host susceptibility, and the effects of host evolution in response to pathogens on population outcomes remain largely unknown. We constructed an individual-based model to determine the relationships between genetic variation in host susceptibility and population persistence in an amphibian-fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) system. We found that host populations...

Prey exploits the auditory illusions of eavesdropping predators

Henry Legett, Claire Hemingway & Ximena Bernal
Mating signals have evolved to attract target receivers, even to the point of exploiting receivers through perceptual manipulation. Signals, however, can also expose signalers to non-target receivers, including predators and parasites, and thus have also evolved to decrease enemy attraction. Here we show that male treefrogs (Smilisca sila) reduce their attractiveness to eavesdropping enemies (bats and midges) by overlapping their calls at near-perfect synchrony with the calls of neighboring conspecifics. By producing calls that closely...

Demographic characteristics, site and phylogenetic distribution of dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma: 744 dogs (2000-2015)

Laura Selmic, Marejka Shaevitz, Joanne Tuohy, Laura Garrett & Audrey Ruple
Objective: To report demographic characteristics of a contemporary population of dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma and assess the relationship between demographic characteristics, site distribution, and phylogenetic breed clusters. Design: Retrospective case series. Methods: A search of the Veterinary Medical Database was performed for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma as a new diagnosis. Entries were reviewed for the sex, neuter status, age at diagnosis, breed, affected limb, and tumor location. The reported breed for purebred dogs was used...

Data from: Genetic data reveal mixed-stock aggregations of gray whales in the North Pacific Ocean

Anna Brüniche-Olsen, R. Jorge Urban, Vladimir V. Vertyankin, Celine A.J. Godard-Codding, John W. Bickham & J. Andrew DeWoody
Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in the Western Pacific are critically endangered whereas in the Eastern Pacific they are relatively common. Holocene environmental changes and commercial whaling reduced their numbers, but gray whales in the Eastern Pacific now outnumber their Western counterparts by more than 100-fold. Herein, we investigate the genetic diversity and population structure within the species using a panel of genic SNPs. Results indicate the gray whale gene pool is differentiated into two substocks...

Data from: Natural selection and the genetic basis of osmoregulation in Heteromyid rodents as revealed by RNA-seq

Nicholas J. Marra, Andrea Romero & J. Andrew DeWoody
One adaptation of ecological and evolutionary interest is the extraordinary ability of desert rodents to retain water during waste production. Much is known regarding the unique kidney physiology of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and their ability to retain water during waste production, yet the genetic basis of these physiological adaptations is relatively unknown. Herein, we utilized RNA-seq data to conduct a comparative study to identify osmoregulatory genes expressed in Heteromyid rodents. We sequenced kidney tissue...

Data from: A native plant competitor mediates the impact of above- and belowground damage on an invasive tree

Juli Carrillo & Evan Siemann
Plant competition may mediate the impacts of herbivory on invasive plant species through effects on plant growth and defense. This may predictably depend on whether herbivory occurs above- or belowground and on relative plant competitive ability. We simulated the potential impact of above- or belowground damage by biocontrol agents on the growth of a woody invader (Chinese tallow tree, Triadica sebifera) through artificial herbivory, with or without competition with a native grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium...

Data from: A tapetal ablation transgene induces stable male-sterility and slows field growth in Populus

Estefania Elorriaga, Richard Meilan, Cathleen Ma, Jeffrey S. Skinner, Elizabeth Etherington, Amy Brunner & Steven H. Strauss
The field performance of genetic containment technologies–considered important for certain uses of transgenic trees in forestry–is poorly known. We tested the efficiency of a barnase gene driven by the TA29 tapetum-dominant promoter for influencing growth rate and inducing male sterility in a field trial of transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). When the growth of 18 transgenic insertion events with the sterility transgene were compared to non-transgenic controls after two growing seasons, they...

Data from: Evaluating adaptive divergence between migratory and non-migratory ecotypes of a salmonid fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss

Matthew C. Hale, Frank P. Thrower, Ewann A. Berntson, Michael R. Miller & Krista M. Nichols
Next generation sequencing and the application of population genomic and association approaches have made it possible to detect selection and unravel the genetic basis to variable phenotypic traits. Using the two approaches in parallel is an especially attractive approach in non-models organisms that lack a sequenced and annotated genome, but only works well when population structure is not confounded with the phenotype of interest. Herein, we use population genomics in a non-model fish species, rainbow...

Data from: A priori and a posteriori approaches for finding genes of evolutionary interest in non-model species: osmoregulatory genes in the kidney transcriptome of the desert rodent Dipodomys spectabilis (banner-tailed kangaroo rat)

Nicholas J. Marra, Soo Hyung Eo, Matthew C. Hale, Peter M. Waser & J. Andrew DeWoody
One common goal in evolutionary biology is the identification of genes underlying adaptive traits of evolutionary interest. Recently next-generation sequencing techniques have greatly facilitated such evolutionary studies in species otherwise depauperate of genomic resources. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys sp.) serve as exemplars of adaptation in that they inhabit extremely arid environments, yet require no drinking water because of ultra-efficient kidney function and osmoregulation. As a basis for identifying water conservation genes in kangaroo rats, we conducted...

Data from: LobeFinder: a convex hull-based method for quantitative boundary analyses of lobed plant cells

Tzu-Ching Wu, Samuel Belteton, Jessica Pack, Daniel B. Szymanski & David Umulis
Dicot leaves are comprised of a heterogeneous mosaic of jig-saw-puzzle piece shaped pavement cells that vary greatly in size and the complexity of their shape. Given the importance of the epidermis and this particular cell type for leaf expansion, there is a strong need to understand how pavement cells morph from a simple polyhedral shape into highly lobed and interdigitated cells. At present, it is still unclear how and when the patterns of lobing are...

Data from: Using linkage maps as a tool to determine patterns of chromosome synteny in the genus Salvelinus

Matthew C. Hale, Garrett J. McKinney, Courtney L. Bell & Krista M. Nichols
Next generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized the collection of genome and transcriptome data from non-model organisms. This manuscript details the application of restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to generate a marker dense genetic map for Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The consensus map was constructed from three full-sib families totaling 176 F1 individuals. The map consisted of 42 linkage groups with a total female map size of 2502.5 cM, and a total male map size...

Data from: Using multi-response models to investigate pathogen coinfections across scales: insights from emerging diseases of amphibians

William E. Stutz, Andrew R. Blaustein, Cheryl J. Briggs, Jason T. Hoverman, Jason R. Rhor & Pieter T. J. Johnson
1.Associations among parasites affect many aspects of host-parasite dynamics, but a lack of analytical tools has limited investigations of parasite correlations in observational data that are often nested across spatial and biological scales. 2.Here we illustrate how hierarchical, multiresponse modeling can characterize parasite associations by allowing for hierarchical structuring, offering estimates of uncertainty, and incorporating correlational model structures. After introducing the general approach, we apply this framework to investigate coinfections among four amphibian parasites (the...

Data from: Schlieren photography on freely flying hawkmoth

Yun Liu, Jesse Roll, Stephen Van Kooten & Xinyan Deng
The aerodynamic force on flying insects result from the vortical flow structures that vary both spatially and temporally throughout flight. Due to these complexities and the inherent difficulties in studying flying insects in a natural setting, a complete picture of the vortical flow has been difficult to obtain experimentally. In this paper, Schlieren, a widely used technique for highspeed flow visualization, was adapted to capture the vortex structures around freely flying hawkmoth (Manduca). Flow features...

Data from: The evolutionary origins of the cat attractant nepetalactone in catnip

Benjamin R. Lichman, Grant T. Godden, John P. Hamilton, Lira Palmer, Mohamed O. Kamileen, Dongyan Zhao, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Joshua Wood, Miao Sun, Taliesin J. Kinser, Laura K. Henry, Carlos Rodriguez Lopez, Natalia Dudareva, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, C. Robin Buell & Sarah E. O’Connor
The evolutionary origins of the cat attractant nepetalactone in catnip

Exploration of marine lichenized fungi as bioindicators of coastal ocean pollution in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area

Liam Nokes, Danny Haelewaters & Donald Pfister
This preliminary exploration of marine lichenized fungi (lichens) as bioindicators of water pollution examined the distribution of intertidal lichen communities in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area with respect to recorded pollution throughout the harbor. We found significant negative associations between pollution measurements and the health of the lichen community based on cover and species richness. We also observed significant differences in species composition between areas of higher pollution and areas of lower pollution,...

Performance and refinement of nitrogen fertilization tools

Curtis Ransom, Jason Clark, Gregory Bean, Christopher Bandura, Matthew Shafer, Newell Kitchen, James Camberato, Paul Carter, Richard Ferguson, Fabián Fernández, David Franzen, Carrie Laboski, David Myers, Emerson Nafziger & John Sawyer
Improving corn (Zea mays L.) N management is pertinent to economic and environmental objectives. However, there are limited comprehensive data sources to develop and test N fertilizer decision aid tools across a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios. Therefore, a public-industry partnership was formed to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies throughout the U.S. Midwest. This research was conducted using a standardized protocol at 49 site-years across eight states over the...

Structure of phospholipase Cε reveals an integrated RA1 domain and previously unidentified regulatory elements

Angeline Lyon, Ngango Rugema, Elisabeth Garland-Kuntz, Monita Sieng, Kaushik Muralidharan, Michelle M. Van Camp, Hannah O’Neill, William Mbongo, Arielle F. Selvia, Andrea T. Marti, Amanda Everly, Emmanda McKenzie & Angeline M. Lyon
Phospholipase Cepsilon (PLCepsilon) generates lipid-derived second messengers in the cardiovascular system at the plasma and perinuclear membranes. It is activated in response to a wide variety of signals, such as those conveyed by Rap1A and Ras, through a mechanism that involves its C-terminal Ras association (RA) domains (RA1 and RA2). However, the complexity and size of PLCepsilon has hindered its structural and functional analysis. In this manuscript, we report the 2.7 Å crystal structure of...

Pathotype complexity and genetic characterization of Phytophthora sojae populations in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio

Linda Hebb, Carl A. Bradley, Santiago Xavier Mideros, Darcy E. P. Telenko, Kiersten Wise & Anne Elizabeth Dorrance
Phytophthora sojae, the causal agent of Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, has been managed with single Rps genes since the 1960’s, but has subsequently adapted to many of these resistance genes, rendering them ineffective. The objective of this study was to examine the pathotype and genetic diversity of P. sojae from soil samples across Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio by assessing which Rps gene(s) were still effective and identifying possible population clusters. There...

Response of Avian communities to edges of tropical montane forests: Implications for the future of endemic habitat specialists

Jill Jankowski, Keiller Kyle, Matthew Gasner, Anna Ciecka & Kerry Rabenold
Tropical montane landscapes harbor diverse flora and fauna, and many species there are ecological specialists with narrow elevational distributions, limited geographic ranges, and small global populations. Along elevational gradients, environmental conditions and community composition change dramatically over small spatial scales. As forests are disturbed and edges formed with modified habitat, natural communities could be affected differently across elevations by the many physical and biotic changes at edges. We asked whether forest edges produced altered patterns...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity at three different genetic markers in a marine mammal metapopulation

Joseph I Hoffman, Kanchon Dasmahapatra, William Amos, Caleb Phillips, Tom Gelatt & John Bickham
Many studies use genetic markers to explore population structure and variability within species. However, only a minority use more than one type of marker and, despite increasing evidence of a strong link between heterozygosity and individual fitness, few ask whether diversity correlates with population trajectory. To address these issues, we analysed data from the Steller's sea lion, Eumetiopias jubatus, where three stocks are distributed over a vast geographic range and where both genetic samples and...

Data from: Rates of anagenetic evolution and selection intensity in Middle and Upper Ordovician species of the bryozoan genus Peronopora

Joseph F. Pachut & Robert L. Anstey
Evolutionary rates and selection intensities in eight cladistically defined species-level evolutionary sequences of the Middle and Upper Ordovician bryozoan genus Peronopora were calculated for comparison with values published for fossil and living taxa. Calculations were restricted to statistically significant unidirectional segments of anagenetic series to minimize the mixing of different modes, directions, and rates of evolutionary change. Rates and selection intensities ranged from 10^−7 to 10^−6 darwins and from 10^−6 to 10^−5 haldanes. Across characters,...

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