10 Works

Impact of COVID-19 on international medical education

Houman Goudarzi, Masahiro Onozawa & Makoto Takahashi
Purpose: To assess the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the current study methods and future plans of medical students compared to those in the pre-pandemic period. Materials and methods: Second-grade medical students reported their academic experiences, study methods, and future career plans before (between 2016 and 2019) and during the pandemic (2020) using a questionnaire-based survey at Hokkaido University, Japan (n = 534). Results: From 2016 to 2019, we found an...

Identification of the diagenetic sedimentary environment and hydrothermal fluid fluxes in Southern Ocean sediments (IODP Exp 382) using B, Si and Sr isotopes in interstitial waters

Valentin Mollé , Sonja Geilert , Bridget Kenlee , Klaus Wallmann , Osamu Seki , Ji-Hwan Hwan , Michael E Weber , Maureen Raymo , Victoria L. Peck , Trevor Williams , Florian Scholz & Expedition 382 Scientists
During IODP Expedition 382, two sites were drilled at 53.2°S at the northern edge of the Scotia Sea and three sites at 57.4°–59.4°S in the southern Scotia Sea within the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Sediments at both locations alternate between dominant terrigenous components during glacials and dominant biogenic components, carbonate at the northerly sites and opal in the southern Scotia Sea, during interglacials. Here we constrain the geochemical environment in interstitial waters using...

Quantifying the impacts of 166 years of land cover change on lowland bird communities

Munehiro Kitazawa, Yuichi Yamaura, Masayuki Senzaki, Masashi Hanioka, Haruka Ohashi, Michio Oguro, Tetsuya Matsui & Futoshi Nakamura
Land cover change for agriculture is thought to be a major threat to global biodiversity. However, its ecological impact has rarely been quantified in the Northern Hemisphere, as broad-scale conversion to farmland mainly occurred until the 1400s-1700s in the region, limiting the availability of sufficient data. The Ishikari Lowland in Hokkaido, Japan offers an excellent opportunity to address this issue, as hunter–gatherer lifestyles dominated in this region until the mid-19th century and land cover maps...

Data from: Early snowmelt by an extreme warm event affects understory more than overstory trees in Japanese temperate forests

Kobayashi Makoto
We conducted a warming experiment (four 20 m by 20 m plots) in temperate forests of Japan to determine the effects of earlier snowmelt on both understory dwarf bamboo plants and overstory birch trees. Our experimental treatment advanced snowmelt by about 10 days and increased soil temperatures that were associated with increased rates of soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification. Furthermore, these changes led to lower C:N ratios of leaves together with the greater growth...

The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation drive variation in community trait distribution in a guild of epifaunal crustaceans

Collin Gross, Collin Gross, J Duffy, Kevin Hovel, Melissa Kardish, Pamela Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Katharyn Boyer, Mathiew Cusson, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin Engelen, Klemens Eriksson, Joel Fodrie, John Griffin, Clara Hereu, Masakazu Hori, A Randall Hughes, Mikhail Ivanov, Pablo Jorgensen, Claudia Kruschel, Kun-Seop Lee, Jonathan Lefcheck, Karen McGlathery, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka … & Jay Stachowicz
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30º of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed...

Decoupled dust deposition and ocean productivity in the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean over the past 1.5 million years

Michael E. Weber , Ian Bailey , Sidney R. Hemming , Yasmina M. Martos , Brendan T. Reilly , Thomas A. Ronge , Stefanie Brachfeld , Trevor Williams , Maureen Raymo , Simon T. Belt , Hendrik Vogel , Victoria Peck , Linda Armbrecht , Alix Cage , Fabricio G. Cardillo , Zhiheng Du , Gerson Fauth , Christopher J. Fogwill , Marga Garcia , Marlo Garnsworthy , Anna Glüder , Michelle Guitard , Marcus Gutjahr , Iván Hernández-Almeida , Frida S. Hoem … & Xufeng Zheng
Southern Ocean paleoceanography provides key insights into how iron fertilization and oceanic productivity developed through Pleistocene ice-ages and their role in influencing the carbon cycle. We report the first high-resolution record of dust deposition and ocean productivity for the Antarctic Zone, close to the main dust source, Patagonia. Our deep-ocean records cover the last 1.5 Ma, thus doubling that from Antarctic ice-cores. We find a ≥10-fold increase in dust deposition during glacials and a ≤5-fold...

VTC proteins of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Katsuharu Saito, Nguyen Cuc & Tatsuhiro Ezawa
Polyphosphate polymerizing and depolymerizing reactions of VTC4 protein in an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with land plants and supply soil minerals including phosphorus to their hosts. AM fungi accumulate polyphosphate (polyP), a linear phosphate polymer, in their mycelia, which functions in phosphorus storage and translocation. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has been demonstrated that the vacuolar transporter chaperone 4 (VTC4) protein, a subunit of the VTC complex,...

Distribution records: Reconciling biodiversity conservation and flood risk reduction: the new strategy for freshwater protected areas

Takumi Akasaka, Terutaka Mori, Nobuo Ishiyama, Yuya Takekawa, Tomonori Kawamoto, Mikio Inoue, Hiromune Mitsuhashi, Hidetaka Ichiyanagi, Norio Onikura, Yo Miyake, Izumi Katano, Munemitsu Akasaka & Futoshi Nakamura
Aim: Natural disaster risk reduction (DRR) is becoming a more important function of protected area (PAs) for current and future global warming. However, biodiversity conservation and DRR have been handled separately and their interrelationship has not been explicitly addressed. This is mainly because, due of prevailing strategies and criteria for PA placement, a large proportion of PAs are currently located far from human-occupied areas, and habitats in human-occupied areas have been largely ignored as potential...

Litter decomposition rates across tropical montane and lowland forests are controlled foremost by climate

Rebecca Ostertag, Carla Restrepo, Iveren Abeim, Roxana Aragón, Michelle Ataroff, Hazel Chapman, Belen Fadrique, Grizelle González, Achim Häger, Jürgen Homeier, Luis Daniel Llambí, Rikke Reese Næsborg, Laura Nohemy Poma López, Jorge Andrés Ramirez Correa, Klara Scharnagl, Conrado Tobón, James W. Dalling, Patrick H. Martin, Iveren Abiem, Shin‐Ichiro Aiba, Esteban Alvarez‐Dávila, Augusta Y. Cueva‐Agila, Romina D. Fernández, Sybil G. Gotsch, Carlos Iñiguez‐Armijos … & Cameron B. Williams
The “hierarchy of factors” hypothesis states that decomposition rates are controlled primarily by climatic, followed by biological and soil variables. Tropical montane forests (TMF) are globally important ecosystems, yet there have been limited efforts to provide a biome-scale characterization of litter decomposition. We designed a common litter decomposition experiment replicated in 23 tropical montane sites across the Americas, Asia, and Africa and combined these results with a previous study of 23 sites in tropical lowland...

Black-tailed Gull GPS foraging trip data and acceleration raw data

Rui Ma, Kentaro Kazama, Yogi Yasutake, Mami Kazama, Shota Tsukamoto & Yutaka Watanuki
Areas at which seabirds forage intensively can be discriminated by tracking the individuals’ at-sea movements. However, such tracking data may not accurately reflect the birds’ exact foraging locations. In addition to tracking data, gathering information on the dynamic body acceleration of individual birds may refine inferences on their foraging activity. Our aim was to classify the foraging behaviors of surface-feeding seabirds using data on their body acceleration and use this signal to discriminate areas where...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    10

Resource Types

  • Dataset
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  • Text
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Affiliations

  • Hokkaido University
    10
  • Texas A&M University
    3
  • Columbia University
    2
  • British Antarctic Survey
    2
  • GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
    2
  • University of California, Riverside
    2
  • Keele University
    1
  • College of Charleston
    1
  • University of Adelaide
    1
  • University of Plymouth
    1