98 Works

Data from: Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection

Jesse R. Barber, Brian C. Leavell, Adam L. Keener, Jesse W. Breinholt, Brad A. Chadwell, Christopher J.W. McClure, Geena M. Hill & Akito Y. Kawahara
Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed....

Data from: Tempo and mode of antibat ultrasound production and sonar jamming in the diverse hawkmoth radiation

Akito Y. Kawahara & Jesse R. Barber
The bat–moth arms race has existed for over 60 million y, with moths evolving ultrasonically sensitive ears and ultrasound-producing organs to combat bat predation. The evolution of these defenses has never been thoroughly examined because of limitations in simultaneously conducting behavioral and phylogenetic analyses across an entire group. Hawkmoths include >1,500 species worldwide, some of which produce ultrasound using genital stridulatory structures. However, the function and evolution of this behavior remain largely unknown. We built...

Data from: Natural and anthropogenic sounds reduce song performance: insights from two emberizid species

Benjamin M. Davidson, Gabriela Antonova, Haven Dlott, Jesse R. Barber, Clinton D. Francis & Benjamin Davidson
Anthropogenic sounds influence animal vocal behaviour, species distributions, and community assemblages. Natural sounds also have the potential to affect the behaviour and ecology of animals, but it is currently unknown if the effects of natural sounds match those of anthropogenic sounds. Here, we quantified and compared the effects of natural and anthropogenic sounds on avian song performance by calculating trade-off frontiers based on trill rate and bandwidth of 2 emberizid species. Chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina)...

Sensory pollutants alter bird phenology and fitness across a continent

Clinton Francis, Masayuki Senzaki, Jesse Barber, Jenny Phillips, Neil Carter, Caren Cooper, Mark Ditmer, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher McClure, Daniel Mennitt, Luke Tyrrell, Jelena Vukomanovic & Ashley Wilson
Expansion of anthropogenic noise and night-lighting across our planet is of increasing conservation concern Despite growing knowledge of physiological and behavioural responses to these stimuli from single-species and local-scale studies, whether these pollutants affect fitness is less clear, as is how and why species vary in their sensitivity to these anthropic stressors. Here, we leverage a large citizen science dataset paired with high-resolution noise and light data from across the contiguous United States to assess...

Ecosystem services enhanced through soundscape management link people and wildlife

Mitch Levenhagen, Zachary Miller, Alissa Petrelli, Lauren Ferguson, Yau-Huo Shr, Dylan Gomes, Derrick Taff, Crow White, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher Monz, Christopher McClure, Peter Newman, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Burgeoning urbanization, development and human activities have led to reduced opportunities for nature experience in quiet acoustic environments. Increasing noise affects both humans and wildlife alike. We experimentally altered human-caused sound levels in a paired study using informational signs that encouraged quiet behaviours in week-on, week-off blocks on the trail system of Muir Woods National Monument, California, USA to test if the soundscape influences both wildlife and human experiences. Using continuous measurements from acoustic recording...

Data from: Habitat structure modifies microclimate: an approach for mapping fine-scale thermal refuge

Charlotte R. Milling, Janet L. Rachlow, Peter J. Olsoy, Mark A. Chappell, Timothy R. Johnson, Jennifer S. Forbey, Lisa A. Shipley & Daniel H. Thornton
1. Contemporary techniques predicting habitat suitability under climate change projections often underestimate availability of thermal refuges. Habitat structure contributes to thermal heterogeneity at a variety of spatial scales, but quantifying microclimates at organism‐relevant resolutions remains a challenge. Landscapes that appear homogeneous at large scales may offer patchily distributed thermal refuges at finer scales. 2. We quantified the relationship between vegetation structure and the thermal environment at a scale relevant to small, terrestrial animals using a...

Data from: Colonial history impacts urban tree species distribution in a tropical city

Nadia Hunte, Anand R. Roopsind, Abdullah A. Ansari & T. Trevor Caughlin
Urban forests associated with green infrastructure for sustainable outcomes are particularly critical in the Global South, where some of the world’s fastest-growing cities are located. However, compared to temperate cities, the drivers of urban tree species distribution in tropical cities remain understudied. In this study, we quantify the spatial distribution and abundance of urban forests in the tropical city of Georgetown, Guyana. British colonialism has shaped this city, including forced movement of peoples under slavery...

Adaptive shifts underlie the divergence in wing morphology in bombycoid moths

Brett Aiello, Milton Tan, Usama Bin Sikandar, Alexis Alvey, Burhanuddin Bhinderwala, Katalina Kimball, Jesse Barber, Chris Hamilton, Akito Kawahara & Simon Sponberg
The evolution of flapping flight is linked to the prolific success of insects. Across Insecta, wing morphology diversified, strongly impacting aerodynamic performance. In the presence of ecological opportunity, discrete adaptive shifts and early bursts are two processes hypothesized to give rise to exceptional morphological diversification. Here, we use the diverse sister-families Sphingidae and Saturniidae to answer how the evolution of aerodynamically important traits is linked to clade divergence and through what process(es) these traits evolve....

Data From: Using an Ultraviolet Light Test to Improve Sagebrush Identification and Predict Forage Quality for Wildlife

Roger Rosentreter, Brecken Robb & Jennifer Sorensen Forbey
Sagebrush identification can be improved by using a relatively easy ultraviolet (UV) light test on specimens. Sagebrush produces a variety of water-soluble polyphenols called coumarins, which fluoresce a blue color under UV light and can help differentiate species, subspecies, and hybrids. We tested 16 different sagebrush taxa (including species and subspecies) from herbarium specimens and found 3 taxa (low sagebrush, Artemisia arbuscula; Wyoming sagebrush, A. tridentata wyomingensis; and basin sagebrush, A. t. tridentata) that were...

Unoccupied aerial systems imagery from Camas, Cedar Gulch and Rocky Canyon Idaho

Peter Olsoy, Matthew Burgess, Jennifer Sorensen Forbey, Janet Rachlow, Lisa Shipley & Daniel Thornton
UAS imagery data and data products from Camas, Cedar Gulch and Rocky Canyon Idaho. Data were collected in both summer and winter seasons between 2013-2015. Data products include digital surface models (DSM), orthorectified color imagery (Ortho), and las point cloud files for each site and season; the dataset also contains 5-cm and 25-cm resolution canopy height models (CHM) for the Camas and Cedar Gulch sites during the summer sampling season. Processing reports are provided for...

Natural and anthropogenic noise increase vigilance and decrease foraging behaviors in song sparrows

Kate Sweet, Benjamin Sweet, Dylan Gomes, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Animals glean information about risk from their habitat. The acoustic environment is one such source of information, and is an important, yet understudied ecological axis. Although anthropogenic noise has become recently ubiquitous, risk mitigation behaviors have likely been shaped by natural noise over millennia. Listening animals have been shown to increase vigilance and decrease foraging in both natural and anthropogenic noise. However, direct comparisons could be informative to conservation and understanding evolutionary drivers of behavior...

Data from: High-resolution thermal imagery reveals how interactions between crown structure and genetics shape plant temperature

Peter Olsoy, Andrii Zaiats, Donna Delparte, Spencer Roop, Anna Roser & T. Trevor Caughlin
Understanding interactions between environmental stress and genetic variation is crucial to predict the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Leaf temperature is both a driver and a responsive indicator of plant physiological response to thermal stress, and methods to monitor it are needed. Foliar temperatures vary across leaf to canopy scales and are influenced by genetic factors, challenging efforts to map and model this critical variable. Thermal imagery collected using unoccupied aerial systems (UAS)...

Abandoning the Revolution? A Political Geography of South-South Migration and Socialism in South America

Christopher Courtheyn
Over five million Venezuelans have fled the country due to economic and political crisis in recent years and are on pace to become the largest emigrant population in the world. This has resulted in the largest migration crisis in the Americas. Having conducted community-based research in Latin American conflict zones for the past two decades, I am now investigating the experiences of Venezuelan immigrants in neighboring countries like Colombia. I seek to understand what Venezuelan...

User Research of Biofacilitated Materials for 3-D Infrastructure Printing

John Ziker

Aligned DNA sequences of Vanilla

Paige Ellestad
Premise Although vanilla is one of the best-known spices, there is a limited understanding of its biology and genetics within Mexico, where its cultivation originated and where phenotypic variability is high. This study aims to augment our understanding of vanilla’s genetic resources by assessing species delimitation and genetic, geographic, and climatic variability within Mexican cultivated vanilla. Methods Nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data from 58 Mexican samples collected from three regions and 133 ex-situ accessions...

Additional file 2 of Required sample size to detect mediation in 3-level implementation studies

Nathaniel J. Williams, Kristopher J. Preacher, Paul D. Allison, David S. Mandell & Steven C. Marcus
Additional file 2. Frequency of designs with adequate statistical power by method and test.

Required sample size to detect mediation in 3-level implementation studies

Nathaniel J. Williams, Kristopher J. Preacher, Paul D. Allison, David S. Mandell & Steven C. Marcus
Abstract Background Statistical tests of mediation are important for advancing implementation science; however, little research has examined the sample sizes needed to detect mediation in 3-level designs (e.g., organization, provider, patient) that are common in implementation research. Using a generalizable Monte Carlo simulation method, this paper examines the sample sizes required to detect mediation in 3-level designs under a range of conditions plausible for implementation studies. Method Statistical power was estimated for 17,496 3-level mediation...

Intraspecific variation in surface water uptake in a perennial desert shrub

Andrii Zaiats, Brynne E. Lazarus, Matthew J. Germino, Marcelo D. Serpe, Bryce A. Richardson, Sven Buerki & T. Trevor Caughlin
Despite broad recognition that water is a major limiting factor in arid ecosystems, we lack an empirical understanding of how this resource is shared and distributed among neighboring plants. Intraspecific variability can further contribute to this variation via divergent life-history traits, including root architecture. We investigated these questions in the shrub Artemisia tridentata and hypothesized that the ability to access and utilize surface water varies among subspecies and cytotypes. We used an isotope tracer to...

Impacts of 2015 settlement agreement on Idaho's farmers

Morey Burnham, Katrina Running, Meg du Bray, Jake Hawes, Vicken Hillis, Zhao Ma & Chloe Wardropper
Survey data collected on the impacts of the 2015 water settlement agreement in Idaho on Idaho's farmers. Data is focused on how having less groundwater affected their farm operations and farm management decisions.

Data from: Grazing disturbance promotes exotic annual grasses by degrading soil biocrust communities

Heather Root, Jesse Miller & Roger Rosentreter
Exotic invasive plants threaten ecosystem integrity, and their success depends on a combination of abiotic factors, disturbances, and interactions with existing communities. In dryland ecosystems, soil biocrusts (communities of lichens, bryophytes and microorganisms) can limit favorable microsites needed for invasive species establishment, but the relative importance of biocrusts for landscape-scale invasion patterns remains poorly understood. We examine effects of livestock grazing in habitats at high risk for invasion to test the hypothesis that disturbance indirectly...

Multi-year infrasound deployment at Volcán El Reventador

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Three-element infrasound arrays installed at El Reventador volcano, in Ecuador, for monitoring and scientific purposes. Since 2015, we have progressively installed 3 infrasound arrays within 4 km of the summit. Data are mainly from infraBSU sensors connected to REF TEK 130 and DATA-CUBE digitizers. However, there are intermittent data from Trillium Compact 130 and MB2005 sensors connected to Quanterra Q330 digitizers.

Data from: The function and evolution of motile DNA replication systems in ciliates

Nicholas Irwin, Alexandros Pittis, Varsha Mathur, LeAnn Howe, Patrick Keeling, Denis Lynn & William Bourland
DNA replication is a ubiquitous, complex, and conserved cellular process. However, regulation of DNA replication is only understood in a small fraction of organisms that poorly represent the diversity of genetic systems in nature. Here we used a combination of computational and experimental approaches to examine the function and evolution of one such system, the replication band (RB) in spirotrich ciliates, which is a localized, motile hub that traverses the macronucleus while replicating DNA. We...

Climate, snow, and soil moisture data set for the Tuolumne and Merced River watersheds, California, USA

James Roche, Robert Rice, Xiande Meng, Daniel Cayan, Mike Dettinger, Douglas Alden, Sarina Patel, Megan Mason, Martha Conklin & Roger Bales
UCM sites. Snow depth, soil moisture and soil temperature are measured near the Merced Grove, Gin Flat, Smoky Jack Creek, and Olmsted Quarry with a distributed array of 6-7 sensor nodes at each location. Snow depth is measured in the open, at the drip edge and under canopies, as well as 3-4 other sites representative of an area of 1-2 hectares. Soil moisture and temperature are measured at 10, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths...

Unifying community detection across scales from genomes to landscapes

Andrii Zaiats, Stephanie F. Hudon, Anna Roser, Anand Roopsind, Cristina Barber, Brecken C. Robb, Britt A. Pendleton, Meghan J. Camp, Patrick E. Clark, Merry M. Davidson, Jonas Frankel-Bricker, Marcella Fremgen-Tarantino, Jennifer Sorensen Forbey, Eric J. Hayden, Lora A. Richards, Olivia K. Rodrigues & T. Trevor Caughlin
Biodiversity science encompasses multiple disciplines and biological scales from molecules to landscapes. Nevertheless, biodiversity data are often analyzed separately with discipline-specific methodologies, constraining resulting inferences to a single scale. To overcome this, we present a topic modeling framework to analyze community composition in cross-disciplinary datasets, including those generated from metagenomics, metabolomics, field ecology, and remote sensing. Using topic models, we demonstrate how community detection in different datasets can inform the conservation of interacting plants and...

Data from: A phantom ultrasonic insect chorus repels low-flying bats, but most are undeterred

Jodi Sedlock, Dylan Gomes, Sarah Woody, Buyung Hadi & Jesse Barber
Abstract 1. The acoustic environment can serve as a niche axis, structuring animal behaviour by providing or obscuring salient information. Meadow katydid choruses occupy the ultrasonic, less studied, realm of this acoustic milieu, form dense populations in some habitats, and present a potential sensory challenge to co-occurring ultrasonic-hearing animals. Aerial-hawking insectivorous bats foraging immediately over vegetation must listen for echoes of their prey and other cues amidst the chorus din. 2. We experimentally created the...

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