18 Works

Genetic structures across a biogeographical barrier reflect dispersal potential of four Southeast Asian mangrove plant species

Alison Wee, Annika Noreen, Junya Ono, Koji Takayama, Prakash Kumar, Hugh Tan, Mohd Saleh, Tadashi Kajita, Edward Webb, Alison K. S. Wee, Annika M. E. Noreen, Prakash P. Kumar, Hugh T. W. Tan, Mohd N. Saleh & Edward L. Webb
Aim Biogeographic barriers restrict the movement of individuals, resulting in population divergence, genetic differentiation, endemism and speciation. Yet, some barriers demonstrate unequal effect across species depending on species dispersal, which manifests in varying genetic structure. We test the hypotheses that the genetic structure of four coastal mangrove species would reflect differences in dispersal potential across the Malay Peninsula, a major biogeographic barrier in the Indo-West Pacific region. Location Twelve sites from the east and west...

Phylogenomic resolution of the root of Panpulmonata, a hyperdiverse radiation of gastropods: new insight into the evolution of air breathing

Patrick Krug, Serena Caplins, Krisha Algoso, Kanique Thomas, Angel Valdes, Rachael Wade, Nur Leena Wong, Douglas Eernisse & Kevin Kocot
Transitions to terrestriality have been associated with major animal radiations including land snails and slugs in Stylommatophora (>20,000 described species), the most successful lineage of ‘pulmonates’ (a non-monophyletic assemblage of air-breathing gastropods). However, phylogenomic studies have failed to robustly resolve relationships among traditional pulmonates and affiliated marine lineages that comprise clade Panpulmonata (Mollusca, Gastropoda), especially two key taxa: Sacoglossa, a group including photosynthetic sea slugs; and Siphonarioidea, intertidal limpet-like snails with a non-contractile pneumostome (narrow...

Data from: Population structure of a global agricultural invasive pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Yu-Jia Qin, Matthew N. Krosch, Mark K. Schutze, Yue Zhang, Xiao-Xue Wang, Chandra S. Prabhakar, Agus Susanto, Alvin K.W. Hee, Sunday Ekesi, Kemo Badji, Mahfuza Khan, Yu-Bing Huang, Jia-Jiao Wu, Qiao-Ling Wang, Ge Yan, Li-Huan Zhu, Zi-Hua Zhao, Li-Jun Liu, Anthony R. Clarke, Zhi-Hong Li & Alvin K. W. Hee
Bactrocera dorsalis, the Oriental fruit fly, is one of the world’s most destructive agricultural insect pests and a major impediment to international fresh commodity trade. The genetic structuring of the species across its entire geographic range has never been undertaken, because under a former taxonomy B. dorsalis was divided into four distinct taxonomic entities, each with their own, largely non-overlapping, distributions. Based on the extensive sampling of six a priori groups from 63 locations, genetic...

Data from: Cryptic speciation yields remarkable mimics: A new genus of sea slugs that masquerade as toxic algae (Caulerpa spp.)

Patrick J. Krug, Nur Leena W.S. Wong, Melanie R. Medina, Terrence M. Gosliner, Angel A. Valdes & Nur Leena W. S. Wong
“Cryptic” can refer to species that match their background through camouflage or disruptive coloration, or in taxonomy to externally similar but unrecognized congeners. In adaptive resemblance, organisms resemble parts of a larger host animal or plant on which the mimic is highly cryptic. Mimetic lineages that radiate onto superficially similar hosts may contain cryptic species in both senses: taxa that are difficult to detect, and challenging for taxonomists to distinguish. Here, we describe a new...

Data from: Production of bioadsorbent from phosphoric acid pretreated palm kernel shell and coconut shell by two-stage continuous physical activation via N2 and air

Chuan Li Lee, Paik San H'ng, , Kit Ling Chin, Umer Rashid, Mariusz Maminski, Wen Ze Go, Raja Ahmad Raja Nazrin, Siti Nurul Ashikin Rosli, Pui San Khoo, Siti Nurul Asyikin Rosli & Raja Ahamd Raja Nazrin
In the present study, agricultural biomass; palm kernel shell (PKS) and coconut shell (CS) were used to produce high porosity bioadsorbent using two-stage continuous physical activation method with different gas carrier (air and N2) in each stage. The activation temperature was set constant at 600°C, 700°C, 800°C or 900°C for both activation stages with the heating rate of 3°C min-1. Two parameters including the gas carrier and activation temperature were determined as the significant factors...

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with extractant removal by magnetic nanoparticles for chloramphenicol preconcentration in water samples

Noorfatimah Yahaya, , Nur Afiqah Aling, Mazidatulakmam Miskam, Mardiana Saaid, Nur Nadhirah Mohamad Zain, Sazlinda Kamaruzaman, Muggundha Raoov, Nor Suhaila Mohamad Hanapi & Wan Nazihah Wan Ibrahim
This work describes the development of a new methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with extractant removal by magnetic nanoparticles (DLLME-MNPs) for preconcentration and extraction of chloramphenicol (CAP) antibiotic residues in water. The approach is based on the use of decanoic acid as the extraction solvent followed by the application of MNPs to magnetically retrieve the extraction solvent containing the extracted CAP. The coated MNPs were then desorbed with methanol, and the clean extract was...

Habitat fragmentation and logging affects the occurrence of the lesser mouse deer in tropical forest reserves

Badrul Azhar
Due to rapid urbanization, logging, and agricultural expansion, forest fragmentation is negatively affecting native wildlife populations throughout the tropics. This study examined the effects of landscape and habitat characteristics on the lesser mouse deer, Tragulus kanchil, populations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 315 camera traps were deployed in eight forest reserves. This study provides critical ecological information for managing and conserving understudied populations of T. kanchil. We found that the detection of T. kanchil...

Data from: Physical properties and bonding quality of laminated veneer lumber produced with veneers peeled from small-diameter rubberwood log

PUI SAN KHOO, KIT LING CHIN, PAIK SAN H'NG, Edi Suhaimi Bakar, CHUAN LI LEE, WEN ZE GO & Rasdianah Dahali
The peeling of small diameter rubber logs from the current short-rotation practices, undoubtedly will produced lower-grade veneers compared to the veneers from the conventional planting rotation. Hence, this raises the question of the properties of the produced laminated veneer lumber (LVL) from veneers peeled from small diameter rubber logs using spindleless lathe technology. Different thickness of rubberwood veneers were peeled from rubber logs with diameter less than 20 cm using spindleless lathe. Three layer LVLs...

Data from: Mobile phone reminders and peer counseling improve adherence and treatment outcomes of patients on ART in Malaysia: a randomized clinical trial

Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Lekhraj Rampal, Faisal Ibrahim, Anuradha P. Radhakrishnan, Hayati Kadir Shahar & Norlijah Othman
Background: Adherence to treatment remains the cornerstone of long term viral suppression and successful treatment outcomes among patients receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). Objective(s): Evaluate the effectiveness of mobile phone reminders and peer counseling in improving adherence and treatment outcomes among HIV positive patients on ART in Malaysia. Methods: A single-blind, parallel group RCT conducted in Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia in which 242 adult Malaysian patients were randomized to intervention or control groups. Intervention consisted of...

Implementing social network analysis to understand the socio-ecology of wildlife co-occurrence and joint interactions with humans in anthropogenic environments

Krishna Balasubramaniam, Stefano Kaburu, Pascal Marty, Brianne Beisner, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Malgorzata Arlet, Nadine Ruppert, Ahmad Ismail, Sahrul Anuar Mohd Sah, Lalith Mohan, Sandeep Rattan, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah & Brenda McCowan
1. Human population expansion into wildlife habitats has increased interest in the behavioral ecology of human-wildlife interactions. To date, however, the socio-ecological factors that determine whether, when or where wild animals take risks by interacting with humans and anthropogenic factors still remains unclear. 2. We adopt a comparative approach to address this gap, using social network analysis (SNA). SNA, increasingly implemented to determine human impact on wildlife ecology, can be a powerful tool to understand...

Higher mortality rates for large and medium-sized mammals on plantation roads compared to highways in Peninsular Malaysia

Badrul Azhar
The fragmentation of forests by agricultural expansion, urbanisation and road networks is a global phenomenon. In Southeast Asia, wildlife populations are being isolated into pockets of natural habitat surrounded by road networks and monoculture plantations. Mortality by wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs) is causing a decline in many species of conservation priority in human-modified landscapes. This study is the first in Malaysia to investigate factors affecting the occurrence of WVCs. We assessed roadkill data gathered by the...

Efficient removal of pharmaceuticals from water using graphene nanoplatelets as adsorbent

Fatin Ahza Rosli, Khairulazhar Jumbri, Abdul Halim Abdullah, Haslina Ahmad, Sazlinda Kamaruzaman & Nor Ain Fathihah Abdullah
Recently, pharmaceutical pollutants in water emerge as global concern as they give threat to human health and environment. In this study, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were used to efficiently remove antibiotics sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and analgesic acetaminophen (ACM) as pharmaceutical pollutants from water by adsorption process. GNPs; C750, C300, M15, and M5 were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The effects of several parameters; viz., solution pH, adsorbent amount, initial concentration...

Laser-induced photoacoustic characterization on thermal diffusivity of chitosan and sago starch biocomposite blend films

C.K. Sheng, W.M.M. Yunus, W.Md.Z.W. Yunus & M.Z.Ab. Rahman
The photoacoustic(PA) technique has been testified to be versatile and also reliable for measuring the thermal properties of most materials. For example, it has been utilized to verify the thermal diffusivity of semiconductors, polymers, superconductor, metal and glass. In this study, the thermal diffusivity of the sago starch and chitosan polymer blend films was characterized using the laser-induced photoacoustic technique. It is based upon the theoretical analysis on the measured photoacoustic signal as a function...

Data from: Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO) Using a Self-Organizing Scheme for Energy-efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

Zeyad Ghaleb Al-Mekhlafi, Zurina Mohd Hanapi, Mohamed Othman & Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain
Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, the...

Septicemia of Subterranean Termites Coptotermes curvignathus Caused by Disturbance of Bacteria Isolated from Termite Gut and Its Foraging Pathways

KIT LING CHIN, PAIK SAN H'NG, WAN ZHEN WONG, CHUAN LI LEE, PUI SAN KHOO, CHUAH LUQMAN LUQMAN, ZAIDON ASHAARI & SECA GANDASECA
Microbial pathogens continue to attract a great deal of attention to manage termite population. Every bacterium has its own mode of action and in fact, the mechanisms used by bacteria to attack termites remains elusive at the moment. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of subterranean termites Coptotermes curvignathus to opportunistic pathogens using culturable aerobic bacteria isolated from the termite gut and its foraging pathways. Bacterial suspensions were prepared in...

Application strategies by selective medium treated with entomopathogenic bacteria Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as potential biocontrol against Coptotermes curvignathus

Kit Ling Chin, Paik San H'Ng, Wan Zhen Wong, Chuan Li Lee, Wen Ze Go, Pui San Khoo, Luqman Abdullah Chuah & Zaidon Ashaari
The success of microbial termiticides in controlling termites depends on the ability of microbes to grow in different medium and the functionality of the microbes as a resistant barrier or toxic bait. This study was conducted to understand the mortality rate and behaviour changes of subterranean termite (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren) introduced with different concentrations of Serratia marcescens strain LGMS 1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain LGMS 3 using wood and soil as bacterial transfer medium. In...

Data from: MHC class II assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles)

Yung Wa Sin, Geetha Annavi, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more...

Low water availability enhances volatile-mediated direct defenses but disturbs indirect defenses against herbivores

Po-An Lin, Sulav Paudel, Nursyafiqi Bin Zainuddin, Ching-Wen Tan, Anjel Helms, Jared Ali & Gary Felton
1. Interactions between plants and natural enemies of insect herbivores influence plant productivity and survival by reducing herbivory. Plants attract natural enemies via herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), but how water availability (WA) influences HIPV-mediated defenses is unclear. 2. We use tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), tomato fruitworm (Helicoverpa zea), and two natural enemies, the parasitoid wasp (Microplitis croceipes) and the predator spined soldier bug (Podisus maculiventris), to investigate the effect of WA on HIPV emission dynamics and...

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