169 Works

Data from: Genetic variation and population structure in the endangered Hermann’s tortoise: the roles of geography and human-mediated processes

Melanie Perez, Barbara Livoreil, Sara Mantovani, Marie-Catherine Boisselier, Barbara Crestanello, Jawad Abdelkrim, Céline Bonillo, Vassilis Goutner, Josie Lambourdière, Massimo Pierpaoli, Bogoljub Sterijovski, Ljiljana Tomovic, Sibelle Vilaca, Stefano Mazzotti & Giorgio Bertorelle
The Hermanni’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni) is an endangered land tortoise distributed in disjoint populations across Mediterranean Europe. We investigated its genetic variation by typing one mitochondrial locus and nine nuclear microsatellites in approximately 300 individuals from 22 localities. Our goal was to understand the relative impact of natural and human-mediated processes in shaping the genetic structure, and to identify the genetic priorities for the conservation of this species. We found that i) all geographic areas...

Data from: Onshore-offshore gradient in metacommunity turnover emerges only over macroevolutionary time scales

Adam Tomašových, Stefano Dominici, Martin Zuschin & Didier Merle
Invertebrate lineages tend to originate and become extinct at a higher rate in onshore than in offshore habitats over long temporal durations (more than 10 Myr), but it remains unclear whether this pattern scales down to durations of stages (less than 5 Myr) or even sequences (less than 0.5 Myr). We assess whether onshore–offshore gradients in long-term turnover between the tropical Eocene and the warm-temperate Plio-Pleistocene can be extrapolated from gradients in short-term turnover, using...

Data from: Food availability modulates the effects of maternal antibodies on growth and immunity in young feral pigeons

Ahmad Ismail, Lisa Jacquin, Claudy Haussy, Samuel Perret & Julien Gasparini
It is now widely acknowledged that mothers can transfer their own immune experience to their progeny through the allocation of specific maternal antibodies (hereafter referred as MatAb) that can shape offspring phenotype and affect their fitness. However, the importance of environmental variability in modulating the effects of MatAb on offspring traits is still elusive. Using an experimental approach, we investigated how food availability interacted with MatAb to solve the trade-off between humoral immunity and growth...

Data from: Past and present dynamics of sorghum and pearl millet diversity in Mount Kenya region

Vanesse Labeyrie, Monique Deu, Yann Dussert, Bernard Rono, Françoise Lamy, Charles Marangu, Dan Kiambi, Caroline Calatayud, Geo Coppens D’Eeckenbrugge, Thierry Robert, Christian Leclerc & Geo Coppens D'Eeckenbrugge
Crop populations in smallholder farming systems are shaped by the interaction of biological, ecological and social processes, occurring on different spatiotemporal scales. Understanding these dynamics is fundamental for the conservation of crop genetic resources. In this paper we investigated the processes involved in sorghum and pearl millet diversity dynamics on Mount Kenya. Surveys were conducted in ten sites distributed along two elevation transects and occupied by six ethnolinguistic groups. Varieties of both species grown in...

Data from: Hybridization between two cryptic filamentous brown seaweeds along the shore: analysing pre- and post-zygotic barriers in populations of individuals with varying ploidy levels

Alejandro E. Montecinos, Marie L. Guillemin, Lucia Couceiro, Akira F. Peters, Solenn Stoeckel, Myriam Valero & Marie-Laure Guillemin
We aimed to study the importance of hybridization between two cryptic species of the genus Ectocarpus, a group of filamentous algae with haploid-diploid life cycles that include the principal genetic model organism for the brown algae. In haploid-diploid species, the genetic structure of the two phases of the life cycle can be analysed separately in natural populations. Such life cycles provide a unique opportunity to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploid sporophytes and...

Data from: Do trace metals influence visual signals? Effects of trace metals on iridescent and melanic feather colouration in the feral pigeon

Marion Chatelain, Anaïs Pessato, Adrien Frantz, Julien Gasparini & Sarah Leclaire
Trace metals are chemical pollutants of prime concern nowadays given their implication in several human diseases and their noxious effects on wildlife. Previous studies demonstrated their negative (e.g. lead, cadmium) or positive (e.g. zinc) effects on body condition, immunity and reproductive success in birds. Because of their effects on bird condition, trace metals are likely to influence the production of condition-dependent plumage colours, that may be used in mate choice. In the feral pigeon Columba...

Data from: State transitions: a major mortality risk for seasonal species

Julie Landes, Martine Perret, Isabelle Hardy, Carlo Giovanni Camarda, Pierre-Yves Henry & Samuel Pavard
Ageing results from the accumulation of multifactorial damage over time. However, the temporal distribution of this damage remains unknown. In seasonal species, transitions between seasons are critical periods of massive physiological remodelling. We hypothesised that these recurrent peaks of physiological remodelling are costly in terms of survival. We tested whether captive small primates exposed to an experimentally increased frequency of seasonal transitions die sooner than individuals living under natural seasonality. The results show that experiencing...

Data from: Phylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree

Iker Irisarri, Denis Baurain, Henner Brinkmann, Frédéric Delsuc, Jean-Yves Sire, Alexander Kupfer, Jörn Petersen, Michael Jarek, Axel Meyer, Miguel Vences & Hervé Philippe
Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on “standards” for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model to address these issues. Despite considerable efforts in resolving their evolutionary history and macroevolution, few studies have included a full phylogenetic diversity of gnathostomes and some relationships remain controversial. We tested a novel bioinformatic pipeline to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and find...

Data from: Postcrania of the most primitive euprimate and implications for primate origins

Doug M. Boyer, Séverine Toussaint & Marc Godinot
The fossil record of early primates is largely comprised of dentitions. While teeth can indicate phylogenetic relationships and dietary preferences, they say little about hypotheses pertaining to the positional behavior or substrate preference of the ancestral crown primate. Here we report the discovery of a talus bone of the dentally primitive fossil euprimate Donrussellia provincialis. Our comparisons and analyses indicate that this talus is more primitive than that of other euprimates. It lacks features exclusive...

Data from: Ranked tree shapes, nonrandom extinctions and the loss of phylogenetic diversity

Odile Maliet, Fanny Gascuel & Amaury Lambert
Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a measure of the evolutionary legacy of a group of species, which can be used to define conservation priorities. It has been shown that an important loss of species diversity can sometimes lead to a much less important loss of PD, depending on the topology of the species tree and on the distribution of its branch lengths. However, the rate of decrease of PD strongly depends on the relative depths of...

Data from: The increasing disconnection of primary biodiversity data from specimens: how does it happen and how to handle it?

Julien Troudet, Régine Vignes-Lebbe, Philippe Grandcolas & Frédéric Legendre
Abstract.—Primary biodiversity data represent the fundamental elements of any study in systematics and evolution. They are, however, no longer gathered as they used to be and the mass-production of observation-based occurrences is overthrowing the collection of specimen-based occurrences. Although this change in practice is a major upheaval with significant consequences in the study of biodiversity, it remains understudied and has not attracted yet the attention it deserves. Analyzing 536 million occurrences from the Global Biodiversity...

Data from: Delimiting species of marine gastropods (Turridae, Conoidea) using RAD-sequencing in an integrative taxonomy framework

Jawad Abdelkrim, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Barbara Buge, Alexander Fedosov, Yuri Kantor, Paul Zaharias & Nicolas Puillandre
Species delimitation in poorly-known and diverse taxa is usually performed based on monolocus, DNA barcoding-like approaches, while multilocus data are often used to test alternative species hypotheses in well-studied groups. We combined both approaches to delimit species in the Xenuroturris / Iotyrris complex, a group of venomous marine gastropods from the Indo-Pacific. First, COI sequences were analyzed using three methods of species delimitation, ABGD, PTP and GMYC to propose primary species hypotheses (PSH). Second, RAD-seq...

Caractérisation de la géochimie des interfaces nappe-rivière du bassin des Avenelles

Jean-Marie Mouchel, Stefany Rocha, Agnès Rivière & Gaëlle Talec
Les zones ripariennes sont le lieu d’une activité biogéochimique intense. Elles ont été largement étudiées dans les vallées alluviales où la perméabilité des milieux alluviaux est élevée. Dans le bassin de l’Orgeval, le ru des Avenelles n’est pas un cours d’eau alluvial, mais il traverse deux nappes (Brie et Champigny) et nous nous intéressons aux processus qui affectent la qualité de ’eau au travers de la zone riparienne lors des écoulements des sols et de...

Structural defence is coupled with the leaf economic spectrum across saplings of spiny species

Mohammed Armani, Uromi M. Goodale, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Kasey E. Barton, Xin Yao & Kyle W. Tomlinson
Given that the rate of resource capture constrains plant growth and defence, understanding the linkage between the leaf economic spectrum (LES) and defence and how it contributes to growth is central to predicting species performance. In spite of the prevalence of spiny plants in many plant communities, little is known about how the LES relates to defence and growth rate across these species. We grew 42 spiny species, from diverse environments, under common garden conditions...

Data from: Increasing dependence of lowland populations on mountain water resources

Daniel Viviroli, Matti Kummu, Michel Meybeck, Marko Kallio & Yoshihide Wada
Mountain areas provide disproportionally high runoff in many parts of the world, and here we quantify for the first time their importance for water resources and food production from the viewpoint of the lowland areas downstream. The dataset maps the degree to which lowland areas potentially depend on runoff contributions from mountain areas (39% of land mass) between the 1960s and the 2040s.

Polygenic basis for adaptive morphological variation in a threatened Aotearoa | New Zealand bird, the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

Laura Duntsch, Barbara Tomotani, Pierre De Villemereuil, Patricia Brekke, Kate Lee, John Ewen & Anna Santure
To predict if a threatened species can adapt to changing selective pressures, it is crucial to understand the genetic basis of adaptive traits, especially in species historically affected by severe bottlenecks. We estimated the heritability of three hihi (Notiomystis cincta) morphological traits known to be under selection: nestling tarsus length, body mass and head-bill length, using 523 individuals and 39,699 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a 50K Affymetrix SNP chip. We then examined the genetic...

Variaciones audiovisuales en torno a la imagen ausente: Guernica

Nancy Berthier

IASI-FT spectrally resolved Outgoing Longwave Radiation (from IASI/Metop-A)

simon whitburn
The IASI spectrally resolved Outgoing Longwave Radiation product (IASI OLR) is a monthly (L3), 2 x 2 degree global dataset of spectral OLR derived from the clear-sky IASI satellite radiance measurements in the range 645-2300 cm-1 at the 0.25 cm-1 native spectral sampling of the L1C spectra. The algorithm for the conversion of the spectra to the OLR is detailed in Whitburn et al. (2020, Journal of Climate). It relies on precalculated angular distribution models...

Codes and data from: The effect of habitat choice on evolutionary rescue in subdivided populations

Peter Czuppon, François Blanquart, Hildegard Uecker & Florence Débarre
Evolutionary rescue is the process by which a population, in response to an environmental change, successfully avoids extinction through adaptation. In spatially structured environments, dispersal can affect the probability of rescue. Here, we model an environment consisting of patches that degrade one after another, and we investigate the probability of rescue by a mutant adapted to the degraded habitat. We focus on the effects of dispersal and of immigration biases. We find that the probability...

Data from: Seascape genomics of the sugar kelp Saccharina latissima along the North Eastern Atlantic latitudinal gradient

Jaromir Guzinski, Paolo Ruggeri, Marion Ballenghien, Stephane Mauger, Bertrand Jacquemin, Chloe Jollivet, Jerome Coudret, Lucie Jaugeon, Christophe Destombe & Myriam Valero
Temperature is one of the most important range-limiting factors for many seaweeds. Driven by the recent climatic changes, rapid northward shifts of species’ distribution ranges can potentially modify the phylogeographic signature of Last Glacial Maximum. We explored this question in detail in the cold-tolerant kelp species Saccharina latissima, using microsatellites and double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to analyze the genetic diversity and structure in 11 sites spanning the...

IASI-FT Skin Temperature (from IASI/Metop-C)

Sarah Safieddine
IASI Skin Temperature is a monthly (L3), 1x1 degree global dataset of skin temperatures over land derived from the IASI satellite radiances data. The dataset consists of monthly mean TXT files. Each file is a grid organized by latitude (-90 to 89 °N) and longitude (-180 to 180 °E). Night and day data are separated based on the local time of IASI's overpass at each grid point. The sea grid points are filled using NaN....

Drosophila glue protects from predation

Virginie Courtier-Orgogozo, Flora Borne, Stéphane Prigent & Mathieu Molet
Animals can be permanently attached to a substrate in aerial environments at certain stages of their development. Pupa adhesion has evolved multiple times in insects and is thought to maintain the animal in a place where it is not detectable by predators. Here, we investigate whether pupa adhesion in Drosophila can also protect the animal by preventing potential predators from detaching the pupa. We measured the adhesion of Drosophila species sampled from the same area...

Supplemental tables for: A periventricular gradient of innate immune cell activation in Multiple Sclerosis

Bruno Stankoff
Objectives: To explore in-vivo innate immune cell activation as a function of the distance from ventricular CSF in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) using [18F]-DPA714 PET, and to investigate its relationship with periventricular microstructural damage, evaluated by magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), and with trajectories of disability worsening. Methods: Thirty-seven MS patients and nineteen healthy controls underwent MRI and [18F]-DPA714 TSPO dynamic PET, from which individual maps of voxels characterized by innate immune cell activation (DPA+)...

I skyggen af COVID-19 kæmper dit immunforsvar mod infektioner som influenza og RS-virus

Julie Hagedorn Thomsen & Kristoffer Haurum Johansen

L’ autopoiesis dans l’expérience limite : le cas de dessins de la déportation

Anna Paola Bellini

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  • Sorbonne University
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University
  • Atmospheres Laboratory Environments, Observations Spatiales
  • University of Montpellier
  • Centre national de la recherche scientifique
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • National Museum of Natural History
  • Lund University
  • Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité