31 Works

Data from: A population genomic scan in Chorthippus grasshoppers unveils previously unknown phenotypic divergence

Emma L. Berdan, Camilla J. Mazzoni, Isabelle Waurick, Johannes T. Roehr & Frieder Mayer
Understanding the genetics of speciation and the processes that drive it is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Grasshoppers of the Chorthippus species group differ strongly in calling song (and corresponding female preferences) but are exceedingly similar in other characteristics such as morphology. Here, we performed a population genomic scan on three Chorthippus species (Chorthippus biguttulus, C. mollis and C. brunneus) to gain insight into the genes and processes involved in divergence and speciation in...

Data from: Below-ground resource partitioning alone cannot explain the biodiversity–ecosystem function relationship: a field test using multiple tracers

Annette Jesch, Kathryn E. Barry, Janneke M. Ravenek, Dörte Bachmann, Tanja Strecker, Alexandra Weigelt, Nina Buchmann, Hans De Kroon, Arthur Gessler, Liesje Mommer, Christiane Roscher & Michael Scherer-Lorenzen
1. Belowground resource partitioning is among the most prominent hypotheses for driving the positive biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship. However, experimental tests of this hypothesis in biodiversity experiments are scarce, and the available evidence is not consistent. 2. We tested the hypothesis that resource partitioning in space, in time, or in both space and time combined drives the positive effect of diversity on both plant productivity and community resource uptake. At the community level, we predicted that...

Data from: Plant population success across urban ecosystems – a framework to inform biodiversity conservation in cities

Ingo Kowarik & Moritz Von Der Lippe
1. In a rapidly urbanising world, the ability of plant species to survive and build self-sustaining populations in urban environments is increasingly important for biodiversity conservation. Yet the contribution of cities to biodiversity conservation remains unclear because ecologists have studied biodiversity patterns, largely without considering the population establishment of plants and the ways in which different kinds of urban ecosystems harbour native and endangered plant species. These limitations can mislead conservation policies for cities. 2....

Globally, plant-soil feedbacks are weak predictors of plant abundance

Kurt Reinhart, Jonathan Bauer, Sarah McCarthy-Neumann, Andrew MacDougall, José Hierro, Mariana Chiuffo, Scott Mangan, Johannes Heinze, Joana Bergmann, Jasmin Joshi, Richard Duncan, Jeff Diaz, Paul Kardol, Gemma Rutten, Markus Fischer, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Bezemer & John Klironomos
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here, we synthesize PSF experiments from tropical forests to semiarid grasslands, and test for a positive relationship between plant abundance in the field and PSFs...

Data from: Community- weighted mean plant traits predict small scale distribution of insect root herbivore abundance

Ilja Sonnemann, Hans Pfestorf, Florian Jeltsch & Susanne Wurst
Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits...

Data from: Forest management intensity affects aquatic communities in artificial tree holes

Jana S. Petermann, Anja Rohland, Nora Sichardt, Peggy Lade, Brenda Guidetti, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Martin M. Gossner
Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers...

Data from: Assessing patterns in introduction pathways of alien species by linking major invasion databases

Wolf-Christian Saul, Helen E. Roy, Olaf Booy, Lucilla Carnevali, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Piero Genovesi, Colin A. Harrower, Philip E. Hulme, Shyama Pagad, Jan Pergl & Jonathan M. Jeschke
1. Preventing the arrival of invasive alien species (IAS) is a major priority in managing biological invasions. However, information on introduction pathways is currently scattered across many databases that often use different categorisations to describe similar pathways. This hampers the identification and prioritisation of pathways in order to meet the main targets of recent environmental policies. 2. Therefore, we integrate pathway information from two major IAS databases, IUCN's Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) and the...

Data from: A genes eye view of ontogeny: De novo assembly and profiling of the Gryllus rubens transcriptome

Emma L. Berdan, Thomas Blankers, Isabelle Waurick, Camila J. Mazzoni & Frieder Mayer
Crickets (Orthoptera:Gryllidae) are widely used model organisms for developmental, evolutionary, neurobiological, and behavioral research. Here we developed a de novo transcriptome from pooled RNA-seq Illumina data spanning 7 stages in the life cycle of Gryllus rubens. Approximately 705 Mbp of data was assembled and filtered to form 27,312 transcripts. We were able to annotate 52% of our transcripts using BLAST and assign at least one gene ontology term to 41%. Pooled samples from three different...

Data from: Temporal migration pattern and mating tactics influence size-assortative mating in Rana temporaria

Carolin Dittrich, Ariel Rodríguez, Ori Segev, Sanja Drakulić, Heike Feldhaar, Miguel Vences & Mark-Oliver Rödel
Assortative mating is a common pattern in sexually reproducing species, but the mechanisms leading to assortment remain poorly understood. By using the European common frog (Rana temporaria) as a model, we aim to understand the mechanisms leading to size-assortative mating in amphibians. With data from natural populations collected over several years, we first show a consistent pattern of size-assortative mating across our two study populations. We subsequently ask if assortative mating may be explained by...

Data from: Compensatory mechanisms to climate change in the widely distributed species Silene vulgaris

Sandra M. Kahl, Michael Lenhard & Jasmin Joshi
1. The adaptation of plants to future climatic conditions is crucial for their survival. Not surprisingly, phenotypic responses to climate change have already been observed in many plant populations. These responses may be due to evolutionary adaptive changes or phenotypic plasticity. Especially plant species with a wide geographic range are either expected to show genetic differentiation in response to differing climate conditions or to have a high phenotypic plasticity. 2. We investigated phenotypic responses and...

Data from: Relaxed predation results in reduced phenotypic integration in a suite of dragonflies

Dirk Johannes Mikolajewski, Linda Rüsen, Rüdiger Mauersberger, Frank Johansson & Jens Rolff
While changes in magnitude of single traits responding to selective agents have been studied intensively, little is known about selection shaping networks of traits and their patterns of co-variation. However, this is central for our understanding of phenotypic evolution since traits are embedded in a multivariate environment with selection affecting a multitude of traits simultaneously rather than individually. Here, we investigate inter- and intraspecific patterns of trait integration (trait correlations) in the larval abdomen of...

Data from: Vegetation as self-adaptive coastal protection: reduction of current velocity and morphologic plasticity of a brackish marsh pioneer

Jana Carus, Maike Paul & Boris Schröder
By reducing current velocity, tidal marsh vegetation can diminish storm surges and storm waves. Conversely, currents often exert high mechanical stresses onto the plants and hence affect vegetation structure and plant characteristics. In our study, we aim at analysing this interaction from both angles. On the one hand, we quantify the reduction of current velocity by Bolboschoenus maritimus, and on the other hand, we identify functional traits of B. maritimus’ ramets along environmental gradients. Our...

Data from: Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stabilize litter-derived carbon in soil?

Erik Verbruggen, Jan Jansa, Edith C. Hammer & Matthias C. Rillig
1. Fine roots and mycorrhiza often represent the largest input of carbon (C) into soils, and are therefore of primary relevance to the soil C balance. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have previously been found to increase litter decomposition which may lead to reduced soil C stocks, but these studies have focused on immediate decomposition of relatively high amounts of high-quality litter and may therefore not hold in many ecological settings over longer terms. 2. Here...

Data from: Plant species richness negatively affects root decomposition in grasslands

Hongmei Chen, Liesje Mommer, Jasper Van Ruijven, Hans De Kroon, Christine Fischer, Arthur Gessler, Anke Hildebrandt, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Christian Wirth & Alexandra Weigelt
Plant diversity enhances many ecosystem functions, including root biomass production, which drives soil carbon input. Although root decomposition accounts for a large proportion of carbon input for soil, little is known about plant diversity effect on this process. Plant diversity may affect root decomposition in two non-exclusive ways: by providing roots of different substrate quality (e.g. root chemistry) and/or by altering the soil environment (e.g. microclimate). To disentangle these two pathways, we conducted three decomposition...

Data from: Rapid transgenerational effects in Knautia arvensis in response to plant-community diversity

Tanja Rottstock, Volker Kummer, Markus Fischer & Jasmin Joshi
1. Plant-species persistence in natural communities requires coping with biotic and abiotic challenges. These challenges also depend on plant-community composition and diversity. Over time, biodiversity effects have been shown to be strengthened via increasing species complementarity in mixtures. Little is known, however, whether differences in community diversity and composition induce rapid transgenerational phenotypic adaptive differentiation during community assembly. We expect, altered plant-plant and other biotic interactions (mutualists or antagonists) in high vs. low diverse communities...

Data from: Intraspecific trait variation increases species diversity in a trait-based grassland model

Michael Crawford, Florian Jeltsch, Felix May, Volker Grimm & Ulrike E. Schlägel
Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) is thought to play a significant role in community assembly, but the magnitude and direction of its influence are not well understood. Although it may be critical to better explain population persistence, species interactions, and therefore biodiversity patterns, manipulating ITV in experiments is challenging. We therefore incorporated ITV into a trait- and individual-based model of grassland community assembly by adding variation to the plants’ functional traits, which then drive life-history trade-offs....

Data from: Comparative landscape genetics of two river frog species occurring at different elevations on Mount Kilimanjaro

Giulia Zancolli, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Andrew Storfer
Estimating population connectivity and species’ abilities to disperse across the landscape is crucial for understanding the long-term persistence of species in changing environments. Surprisingly, few landscape genetics studies focused on tropical regions despite the alarming extinction rates within these ecosystems. Here, we compared the influence of landscape features on the distribution of genetic variation of an Afromontane frog, Amietia wittei, with that of its more broadly distributed lowland congener, A. angolensis, on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania....

Data from: Effects of management on aquatic tree-hole communities in temperate forests are mediated by detritus amount and water chemistry

Martin M. Gossner, Peggy Lade, Anja Rohland, Nora Sichardt, Tiemo Kahl, Jürgen Bauhus, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Jana S. Petermann
1. Arthropod communities in water-filled tree-holes may be sensitive to impacts of forest management, for example via changes in environmental conditions such as resource input. 2. We hypothesized that increasing forest management intensity negatively affects arthropod abundance and richness and shifts community composition and trophic structure of tree-hole communities. We predicted that this shift is caused by reduced habitat and resource availability at the forest stand scale as well as reduced tree-hole size, detritus amount...

Data from: Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host

Adam J. Dobson, Joanne Purves & Jens Rolff
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of ‘arming the enemy’: bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a...

Data from: Transcriptome profiling of ontogeny in the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus

Emma L. Berdan, Jonas Finck, Paul R. Johnston, Isabelle Waurick, Camila J. Mazzoni & Frieder Mayer
Acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera:Acrididae) are widely used model organisms for developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological research. Although there has been recent influx of orthopteran transcriptomic resources, many use pooled ontogenetic stages obscuring information about changes in gene expression during development. Here we developed a de novo transcriptome spanning 7 stages in the life cycle of the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Samples from different stages encompassing embryonic development through adults were used for transcriptomic profiling, revealing patterns of...

Data from: Demography and selection shape transcriptomic divergence in field crickets

Thomas Blankers, Sibelle Torres Vilaça, Isabelle Waurick, David A. Gray, R. Matthias Hennig, Camilla J. Mazzoni, Frieder Mayer & Emma L. Berdan
Gene flow, demography, and selection can result in similar patterns of genomic variation and disentangling their effects is key to understanding speciation. Here, we assess transcriptomic variation to unravel the evolutionary history of Gryllus rubens and G. texensis, cryptic field cricket species with highly divergent mating behavior. We infer their demographic history and screen their transcriptomes for footprints of selection in the context of the inferred demography. We find strong support for a long history...

Data from: How traffic facilitates population expansion of invasive species along roads: the case of common ragweed in Germany

Andreas Lemke, Ingo Kowarik & Moritz Von Der Lippe
1. Because common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., henceforth Ambrosia) has negative effects on human health, it is a common focus for management, which would benefit from a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which the species spreads. Road systems are known to be invasion corridors, but the conduit function of vehicles for the rapid spread of Ambrosia along roads and for population extension along roadside verges has not yet been demonstrated convincingly. 2. To...

Data from: Spatial and topical imbalances in biodiversity research

Laura Tydecks, Jonathan Jeschke, Max Wolf, Gabriel Singer, Klement Tockner & Jonathan M. Jeschke
The rapid erosion of biodiversity is among the biggest challenges human society is facing. Concurrently, major efforts are in place to quantify changes in biodiversity, to understand the consequences for ecosystem functioning and human wellbeing, and to develop sustainable management strategies. Based on comprehensive bibliometric analyses covering 134,321 publications, we report systematic spatial biases in biodiversity-related research. Research is dominated by wealthy countries, while major research deficits occur in regions with disproportionately high biodiversity as...

Data from: Resources alter the structure and increase stochasticity in bromeliad microfauna communities

Jana S. Petermann, Pavel Kratina, Nicolas A. C. Marino, A. Andrew M. MacDonald, Diane S. Srivastava & Nicholas A. C. Marino
Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources), top-down...

Data from: Species richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studies

Patrick Venail, Kevin Gross, Todd H. Oakley, Anita Narwani, Eric Allan, Pedro Flombaum, Forest Isbell, Jasmin Joshi, Peter B. Reich, David Tilman, Jasper Van Ruijven & Bradley J. Cardinale
1.Hundreds of experiments have now manipulated species richness of various groups of organisms and examined how this aspect of biological diversity influences ecosystem functioning. Ecologists have recently expanded this field to look at whether phylogenetic diversity among species, often quantified as the sum of branch lengths on a molecular phylogeny leading to all species in a community, also predicts ecological function. Some have hypothesized that phylogenetic divergence should be a superior predictor of ecological function...

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