73 Works

Michael Winter, 1934–2020

Meir Hatina & Amalia Levanoni

Groping in the fog: Soaring migrants exhibit wider scatter in flight directions and respond differently to wind under low visibility conditions

Paolo Becciu, Michele Panuccio, Giacomo Dell'Omo & Nir Sapir
Atmospheric conditions are known to affect flight propensity, behaviour during flight, and migration route in birds. Yet, the effects of fog have only rarely been studied although they could disrupt orientation and hamper flight. Fog could limit the visibility of migrating birds such that they might not be able to detect landmarks that guide them during their journey. Soaring migrants modulate their flight speed and direction in relation to the wind vector to optimise the...

Seasonal niche tracking of climate emerges at the population level in a migratory bird

Guillermo Fandos, Shay Rotics, Nir Sapir, Wolfgang Fiedler, Michael Kaatz, Martin Wikelski, Ran Nathan & Damaris Zurell
Seasonal animal migration is a widespread phenomenon. At the species level, it has been shown that many migratory animal species track similar climatic conditions throughout the year. However, it remains unclear whether such niche tracking pattern is a direct consequence of individual behaviour or emerges at the population or species level through behavioural variability. Here, we estimated seasonal niche overlap and seasonal niche tracking at the individual and population level of Central European White Storks...

Data from: Invasiveness, chimerism and genetic diversity

Rachel Ben-Shlomo
Adaptation for invasiveness should comprise the capability to exploit and prosper in a wide range of ecological conditions, and is therefore expected to be associated with a certain level of genetic diversity. Paradoxically, however, invasive populations are established by only a few founders, resulting in low genetic diversity. As a conceivable way of attaining high genetic diversity and high variance of gene expression even when a small number of founders is involved in invasiveness, I...

Data from: Genetic restoration in the eastern collared lizard under prescribed woodland burning

Jennifer L. Neuwald & Alan R. Templeton
Eastern collared lizards of the Ozarks live in glades—open, rocky habitats embedded in a woodland matrix. Past fire suppression had made the woodlands a barrier to dispersal, leading to habitat destruction, fragmentation and local extinction. Reintroduced populations of lizards were subjected to 10 years of habitat fragmentation under continued fire suppression followed by twelve years of landscape restoration with prescribed burns. Prior to prescribed burning, genetic diversity decreased within glades and differentiation increased among glades....

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: Triplet MaxCut: a new toolkit for rooted supertree

Gur Sevillya, Zeev Frenkel & Sagi Snir
The rapid increase of molecular, as well as other types, of available classification data has created the need to combine this data into a unified hypothesis. Supertree methods are essential when amalgamating phylogenetic information from various, possibly conflicting, sources into a single tree. The goal of a supertree algorithm is to satisfy maximally each such source of information in the output tree. Triplets, rooted trees over three leaves, are the minimal piece of such information...

Data from: miR-9a modulates maintenance and ageing of Drosophila germline stem cells by limiting N-cadherin expression

Yehonatan Epstein, Noam Perry, Marina Volin, Maayan Zohar-Fux, Rachel Braun, Lilach Porat-Kuperstein & Hila Toledano
Ageing is characterized by a decline in stem cell functionality leading to dampened tissue regeneration. While the expression of microRNAs across multiple species is markedly altered with age, the mechanism by which they govern stem cell-sustained tissue regeneration is unknown. We report that in the Drosophila testis, the conserved miR-9a is expressed in germline stem cells and its levels are significantly elevated during ageing. Transcriptome and functional analyses show that miR-9a directly regulates the expression...

Data from: Spatiotemporal dynamics and genome-wide association analysis of desiccation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Subhash Rajpurohit, Eran Gefen, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri A. Petrov, Allen G. Gibbs & Paul S. Schmidt
Water availability is a major environmental challenge to a variety of terrestrial organisms. In insects, desiccation tolerance varies predictably over spatial and temporal scales and is an important physiological determinant of fitness in natural populations. Here, we examine the dynamics of desiccation tolerance in North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster using: 1) natural populations sampled across latitudes and seasons; 2) experimental evolution in field mesocosms over seasonal time; 3) genome-wide associations to identify SNPs/genes associated...

Data from: Factors related to building loss due to wildfires in the conterminous United States

Patricia M. Alexandre, Susan I. Stewart, Nicholas S. Keuler, Murray K. Clayton, Miranda H. Mockrin, Avi Bar-Massada, Alexandra D. Syphard & Volker C. Radeloff
Wildfire is globally an important ecological disturbance affecting biochemical cycles, and vegetation composition, but also puts people and their homes at risk. Suppressing wildfires has detrimental ecological effects and can promote larger and more intense wildfires when fuels accumulate, which increases the threat to buildings in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI). Yet, when wildfires occur, typically only a small proportion of the buildings within the fire perimeter are lost, and the question is what determines...

Data from: Towards automated annotation of benthic survey images: variability of human experts and operational modes of automation

Oscar Beijbom, Peter J. Edmunds, Chris Roelfsema, Jennifer Smith, David I. Kline, Benjamin Neal, Matthew J. Dunlap, Vincent Moriarty, Tung-Yung Fan, Chih-Jui Tan, Stephen Chan, Tali Treibitz, Anthony Gamst, B. Greg Mitchell, David Kriegman & Benjamin P. Neal
Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Sustained high levels of neuregulin-1 in the longest-lived rodents; a key determinant of rodent longevity

Yael H. Edrey, Diana Casper, Dorothee Huchon, James Mele, Jonathan A. Gelfond, Deborah M. Kristan, Eviatar Nevo & Rochelle Buffenstein
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), the longest-lived rodents, live 7-10 times longer than similarly–sized mice and exhibit normal activities for ∼75% of their lives. Little is known about the mechanisms that allow them to delay the aging process and live so long. Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) signaling is critical for normal brain function during both development and adulthood. We hypothesized that long-lived species will maintain higher levels of NRG-1 and that this contributes to their sustained brain function...

Data from: RNA-Seq analysis identifies genes associated with differential reproductive success under drought-stress in accessions of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum

Sariel Hübner, Abraham B. Korol & Karl J. Schmid
Background: The evolutionary basis of reproductive success in different environments is of major interest in the study of plant adaptation. Since the reproductive stage is particularly sensitive to drought, genes affecting reproductive success during this stage are key players in the evolution of adaptive mechanisms. We used an ecological genomics approach to investigate the reproductive response of drought-tolerant and sensitive wild barley accessions originating from different habitats in the Levant. Results: We sequenced mRNA extracted...

Data from: Phenotypic landscapes: phenological patterns in wild and cultivated barley

Sariel Hübner, Eyal Bdolach, Shachaf Ein-Gedy, Karl J. Schmid, Abraham Korol & Eyal Fridman
Phenotypic variation in natural populations is the outcome of the joint effects of environmentally induced adaptations and neutral processes on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits. In this study we examined the role of adaptation in shaping wild barley phenotypic variation along different environmental gradients. Detailed phenotyping of 164 wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) accessions from Israel (of the Barley1K collection), and 18 cultivated barley (H. vulgare) varieties, was conducted in common garden field trials. Cluster...

Data from: Desiccation resistance and mating behavior in laboratory populations of Drosophila simulans originating from the opposing slopes of Lower Nahal Oren (Israel)

Eran Gefen & Orit Brendzel
Lower Nahal Oren in Northern Israel, often referred to as "Evolution Canyon", has been proposed as a microscale model site for ecological evolution. However, conflicting mating assay and stress-resistance contribute to controversy over the Nahal Oren model. In this study we further tested the Nahal Oren model, while extending its focus from Drosophila melanogaster to its sister species, D. simulans. Using fly populations derived from the opposing canyon slopes and acclimated to laboratory conditions for...

Data from: Fine-scale substrate heterogeneity in green roof plant communities: the constraint of size

Amiel Vasl, Bracha Schindler, Gyongyver Kadas & Leon Blaustein
Heterogeneity-diversity relationship (HDR) is commonly shown to be positive in accordance with classic niche processes. However, recent soil-based studies have often found neutral and even negative HDRs. Some of the suggested reasons for this discrepancy include the lack of resemblance between manipulated substrate and natural settings, the treated areas not being large enough to contain species' root span and finally limited-sized plots may not sustain focal species’ populations over time. V egetated green roofs are...

Data from: Quorum-sensing signaling by chironomid egg masses’ microbiota affects haemagglutinin/protease (HAP) production by Vibrio cholerae

Rotem Sela, Brian Hammer & Malka Halpern
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is commonly isolated, along with other bacterial species, from chironomid insects (Diptera: Chironomide). Nevertheless, its prevalence in the chironomid egg masses’ microbiota is less than 0.5%. V. cholerae secretes haemagglutinin/protease (HAP) that degrades the gelatinous matrix of chironomid egg masses and prevents hatching. Quorum sensing (QS) activates HAP production in response to accumulation of bacterial autoinducers (AIs). Our aim was to define the impact of chironomid microbiota on...

Establishing a “Community Forest”: Insights from the Collaborative Process in Migdal HaEmek, Israel

Dalit Gasul & Deborah Shmueli

Data from: Temporal migration pattern and mating tactics influence size-assortative mating in Rana temporaria

Carolin Dittrich, Ariel Rodríguez, Ori Segev, Sanja Drakulić, Heike Feldhaar, Miguel Vences & Mark-Oliver Rödel
Assortative mating is a common pattern in sexually reproducing species, but the mechanisms leading to assortment remain poorly understood. By using the European common frog (Rana temporaria) as a model, we aim to understand the mechanisms leading to size-assortative mating in amphibians. With data from natural populations collected over several years, we first show a consistent pattern of size-assortative mating across our two study populations. We subsequently ask if assortative mating may be explained by...

Towards a framework for comparing functionalities of multimorbidity clinical decision support: A literature-based feature set and benchmark cases.

Dympna O'Sullivan, William Van Woensel, Szymon Wilk, Samson Tu, Wojtek Michalowski, Samina Abidi, Marc Carrier, Ruth Edry, Irit Hochberg, Stephen Kingwell, Alexandra Kogan, Martin Michalowski, Hugh O'Sullivan & Mor Peleg

Data from: A glimpse of an ancient agricultural ecosystem based on remains of micromammals in the Byzantine Negev Desert

Tal Fried, Lior Weissbrod, Yotam Tepper & Guy Bar-Oz
It is widely believed that Byzantine agriculture in the Negev Desert (4th–7th cent. CE), with widespread construction of terraces and dams, altered local landscapes. However, no direct evidence in archaeological sites yet exists to test this assumption. We uncovered large amounts of small mammalian remains (rodents and insectivores) within agricultural installations built near fields, providing a new line of evidence for reconstructing anthropogenic impact on local habitats. Abandonment layers furnished high abundances of remains, whereas...

COVID-19 first lockdown as a window into language acquisition: associations between caregiver-child activities and vocabulary gains

Natalia Kartushina, Nivedita Mani, Aslı Aktan-Erciyes, Khadeejah Alaslani, Naomi Aldrich, Alaa Almohammadi, Haifa Alroqi, Lucy Anderson, Elena Andonova, Suzanne Aussems, Mireille Babineau, Mihaela Barokova, Christina Bergmann, Cara Cashon, Stephanie Custode, Alex de Carvalho, Nevena Dimitrova, Agnieszka Dynak, Rola Farah, Christopher Fennell, Anne-Caroline Fiévet, Michael Frank, Margarita Gavrilova, Hila Gendler-Shalev & Shannon Gibson
The COVID-19 pandemic, and the resulting closure of daycare centers worldwide, led to unprecedented changes in children’s learning environments. This period of increased time at home with caregivers, with limited access to external sources (e.g., daycares) provides a unique opportunity to examine the associations between the caregiver-child activities and children’s language development. The vocabularies of 1742 children aged 8-36 months across 13 countries and 12 languages were evaluated at the beginning and end of the...

Atmospheric and soil drought risks combined shape community assembly of trees in a Tropical Dry Forest

Moises Méndez-Toribio, Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez, Horacio Paz & Edwin Lebrija-Trejos
1. Predicting plant community assembly is challenging in part because the influence of environmental conditions via plant functional strategies and the relevance of mechanisms of community assembly change across habitats and these changes remain poorly studied. 2. To assess how environmental conditions drive species sorting in a tropical dry forest, we used the combined RLQ and Fourth-Corner methods to analyze changes in tree species assemblages among sites with distinct atmospheric and soil drought risks. We...

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