828 Works

Data from: The wing venation of the Protomyrmeleontidae (Insecta: Odonatoptera) reconsidered thanks to a new specimen from Molteno (Triassic; South Africa)

Isabelle Deregnaucourt, Torsten Wappler, John M. Anderson & Olivier Béthoux
Wing venation homologies of the Protomyrmeleontidae, a widespread group of damselfly-like stem-Odonata during the Triassic, are debated. The two main interpretations essentially disagree on the identification of RP branches. Indeed, Protomyrmeleontidae display a very complex wing venation necessarily involving, in a way or another, fusions of the concave RP branches with the convex intercalary veins. As a consequence, vein elevations in the radial area are challenging to interpret. Here, we present a new Triassic specimen...

Data from: Local predation risk and matrix permeability interact to shape movement strategy

Laurane Winandy, Julien Cote, Lucie Di Gesu, Felix Pellerin, Audrey Trochet & Delphine Legrand
In fragmented landscapes, the reduced connectivity among patches drives the evolution of movement strategies through an increase of transience costs. Reduced movements may further alter heterogeneity in biotic and abiotic conditions experienced by individuals. The joint action of local conditions and matrix permeability may shape emigration decisions. Here, we tested the interactive effects of predation risk and matrix permeability on movement propensity, movement costs and movers’ phenotype in the common toad Bufo bufo. In a...

Data from: Context-dependent signaling of coincident auditory and visual events in primary visual cortex

Thomas Deneux, Evan R. Harrell, Alexandre Kempf, Sebastian Ceballo, Anton Filipchuk & Brice Bathellier
Detecting rapid, coincident changes across sensory modalities is essential for recognition of sudden threats or events. Using two-photon calcium imaging in identified cell types in awake, head-fixed mice, we show that, among the basic features of a sound envelope, loud sound onsets are a dominant feature coded by the auditory cortex neurons projecting to primary visual cortex (V1). In V1, a small number of layer 1 interneurons gates this cross-modal information flow in a context-dependent...

Individual variation in age-dependent reproduction: fast explorers live fast but senesce young?

Niels Dingemanse, Maria Moiron, Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet & Robin N. Abbey-Lee
1. Adaptive integration of life history and behaviour is expected to result in variation in the pace-of-life. Previous work focused on whether “risky” phenotypes live-fast-but-die-young, but reported conflicting support. We posit that individuals exhibiting risky phenotypes may alternatively invest heavily in early-life reproduction but consequently suffer greater reproductive senescence. 2. We used a 7-year longitudinal dataset with >1200 breeding records of >800 female great tits assayed annually for exploratory behaviour to test whether within-individual age-dependency...

Positive and negative interactions jointly determine the structure of Müllerian mimetic communities

Thomas G. Aubier & Marianne Elias
Negative and positive ecological interactions have opposite effects on the structure of ecological communities, in particular in terms of ecological similarity among interacting species. In nature, species belonging to the same guild often interact in both negative and positive ways, yet the interplay between interactions of different kinds in intraguild community dynamics remains poorly understood. Müllerian mimetic communities are particularly suited for investigating this interplay because positive (mutualistic mimicry) and negative (competition for trophic resource...

Don’t judge a lizard by its colour: no evidence for differential socio-sexual behaviour and space use in the colour morphs of the European common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis)

Javier Abalos, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, Alicia Bartolomé, Océane Liehrmann, Hanna Laakkonen, Fabien Aubret, Tobias Uller, Pau Carazo & Enrique Font
Explaining the evolutionary origin and maintenance of colour polymorphisms is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Such polymorphisms are commonly thought to reflect the existence of alternative behavioural or life-history strategies under negative frequency-dependent selection. The European common wall lizard Podarcis muralis exhibits a striking ventral colour polymorphism that has been intensely studied and is often assumed to reflect alternative reproductive strategies, similar to the iconic “rock-paper-scissors” system described in the North American lizard Uta...

Unidirectional response to bidirectional selection on body size. I. Phenotypic, life history and endocrine response

Clémentine Renneville, Alexis Millot, Simon Agostini, David Carmignac, Gersende Maugars, Sylvie Dufour, Arnaud Le Rouzic & Eric Edeline
Anthropogenic perturbations such as harvesting often select against a large body size and are predicted to induce rapid evolution towards smaller body sizes and earlier maturation. However, body-size evolvability and, hence, adaptability to anthropogenic perturbations remain seldom evaluated in wild populations. Here, we use a laboratory experiment over 6 generations to measure the ability of wild-caught medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to evolve in response to bidirectional size-dependent selection mimicking opposite harvest regimes. Specifically, we imposed...

Population collapse in viviparid gastropods of the Lake Victoria ecoregion started before the Last Glacial Maximum

Bert Van Bocxlaer, Catharina Clewing, Anne Duputié, Camille Roux & Christian Albrecht
For the purpose of reproducibility, we here provide the datasets and R script supporting the analyses of the paper “Population collapse in viviparid gastropods of the Lake Victoria ecoregion started before the Last Glacial Maximum” by Van Bocxlaer et al. This paper has been accepted for publication in Molecular Ecology on 31 July 2020. In this study, we examine the population structure of the clade of Bellamya gastropods that occupies the Lake Victoria ecoregion with...

Dataset - A complex network of additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci underlies natural variation of Arabidopsis thaliana quantitative disease resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum under heat stress

Fabrice Roux
Plant immunity is often negatively impacted by heat stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Based on a genome-wide association mapping approach, this study aims to identify in Arabidopsis thaliana the genetic bases of robust resistance mechanisms to the devastating pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum under heat stress. A local mapping population was phenotyped against the R. solanacearum GMI1000 strain at 27 and 30 °C. To obtain a precise description of the genetic architecture underlying...

Trait strengthening in mussels

Laurent Seuront, Katy Nicastro, Christopher McQuaid & Gerardo Zardi
Plastic pollution is ubiquitous with increasing recognition of its direct effects on species’ fitness. Little is known, however, about its more subtle effects, including the influence of plastic pollution on the morphological, functional and behavioural traits of organisms that are central to their ability to withstand disturbances. Among the least obvious but most pernicious forms of plastic-associated pollution are the chemicals that leach from microplastics. Here, we investigate how such leachates influence species’ traits by...

Data from: Does recognized genetic management in supportive breeding prevent genetic changes in life-history traits?

Rémi Chargé, Gabriele Sorci, Michel Saint Jalme, Loïc Lesobre, Yves Hingrat, Frédéric Lacroix & Celine Teplitsky
Supportive breeding is one of the last resort conservation strategies to avoid species extinction. Management of captive populations is challenging because several harmful genetic processes need to be avoided. Several recommendations have been proposed to limit these deleterious effects, but empirical assessments of these strategies remain scarce. We investigated the outcome of a genetic management in a supportive breeding for the Houbara Bustard. At the phenotypic level, we found an increase over generations in the...

Data from: An integrated assessment model of seabird population dynamics: can individual heterogeneity in susceptibility to fishing explain abundance trends in Crozet wandering albatross?

Geoffrey N. Tuck, Robin B. Thomson, Christophe Barbraud, Karine Delord, Maite Louzao, Miguel Herrera & Henri Weimerskirch
1. Seabirds have been incidentally caught in distant-water longline fleets operating in the Southern Ocean since at least the 1970s, and breeding numbers for some populations have shown marked trends of decline and recovery concomitant with longline fishing effort within their distributions. However, lacking is an understanding of how forms of among-individual heterogeneity may interact with fisheries bycatch and influence population dynamics. 2. We develop a model that uses comprehensive data on the spatial and...

Data from: Varroa destructor changes cuticular hydrocarbons to mimic its new host.

Zachary Y. Huang, Yves Le Conte, Jean-Philippe Christidès, Zhi Jiang Zeng, Maurice Roux & Anne-Genevieve Bagnères
Varroa destructor (Vd) is a honeybee ectoparasite. Its original host is the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, but it has also become a severe, global threat to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Previous studies have shown that Varroa can mimic a host's cuticular hydrocarbons (HC), enabling the parasite to escape the hygienic behaviour of the host honeybees. By transferring mites between the two honeybee species, we further demonstrate that Vd is able to mimic the cuticular...

Data from: Re-visiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

Alain C. Frantz, Allan D. McDevitt, Lisa C. Pope, Joanna Kochan, John Davison, Chris F. Clements, Morten Elmeros, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez, Alessandro Balestrieri, Koen Van Den Berge, Peter Breyne, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Erik O. Ågren, Franz Suchentrunk, Laurent Schley, Rafał Kowalczyk, Berit I. Kostka, Dusko Ćirović, Nikica Šprem, Marc Colyn, Marco Ghirardi, Venislava Racheva, Christophe Braun, Rita Oliveira … & Terry Burke
Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples...

Data from: Diet quality in a wild grazer declines under the threat of an ambush predator

Florian Barnier, Marion Valeix, Patrick Duncan, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Philippe Barre, Andrew J. Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Hervé Fritz & S. Chamaille-Jammes
Predators influence prey populations not only through predation itself, but also indirectly through prompting changes in prey behaviour. The behavioural adjustments of prey to predation risk may carry nutritional costs, but this has seldom been studied in the wild in large mammals. Here, we studied the effects of an ambush predator, the African lion (Panthera leo), on the diet quality of plains zebras (Equus quagga) in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. We combined information on movements...

Data from: Genetic structure of populations of whale sharks among ocean basins and evidence for their historic rise and recent decline

Thomas M. Vignaud, Jeffrey A. Maynard, Raphael Leblois, Mark G. Meekan, Ricardo Vázquez-Juárez, Dení Ramírez-Macías, Simon J. Pierce, David Rowat, Michael L. Berumen, Champak Beeravolu, Sandra Baksay & Serge Planes
This study presents genetic evidence that whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are comprised of at least two populations that rarely mix and is the first to document a population expansion. Relatively high genetic structure is found when comparing sharks from the Gulf of Mexico with sharks from the Indo-Pacific. If mixing occurs between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, it is not sufficient to counter genetic drift. This suggests whale sharks are not all part of a...

Data from: Evidence of genetic change in the flowering phenology of sea beets along a latitudinal cline within two decades

Henk Van Dijk & Nina C. Hautekèete
Sea beets grown from seeds collected in 1989 and 2009 along the coasts of France and adjacent regions were compared for flowering date under controlled conditions. Seeds from both collection years were sown simultaneously and cultivated under the same glasshouse conditions. Date of flowering onset and year of first flowering were recorded. There was an overall northward shift in flowering time of about 0.35° latitude (i.e. 39 km) over the 20 year period. The southern...

Data from: Sex in an uncertain world: environmental stochasticity helps restore competitive balance between sexually and asexually reproducing populations

Andrew W. Park, Jochen Vandekerkhove & Yannis Michalakis
Like many organisms, individuals of the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens can have either obligate sexual or asexual reproductive modes. Both types of individual routinely co-occur, including in the same temporary freshwater pond (their natural habitat in which they undergo seasonal diapause). Given the well-known two-fold cost of sex, this begs the question of how sexually reproducing individuals are able to co-exist with their asexual counterparts in spite of such overwhelming costs. Environmental stochasticity in...

Data from: The complex phylogeography of the Indo-Malayan Alophoixus bulbuls with the description of a putative new ring species complex

Jérôme Fuchs, Per G. P. Ericson, Céline Bonillo, Arnaud Couloux & Eric Pasquet
The Indo-Malayan bioregion has provided some of the most spectacular discoveries of new vertebrate species (e.g. saola, khanyou, bare-faced bulbul) over the last 25 years. Yet, very little is known about the processes that led to the current biodiversity in this region. We reconstructed the phylogeographic history of a group of closely related passerines, the Alophoixus bulbuls. These birds are continuously distributed in Indo-Malaya around the Thailand lowlands such that their distribution resembles a ring....

Data from: Feed or fight: testing the impact of food availability and intraspecific aggression on the functional ecology of an island lizard

Colin M. Donihue, Kinsey M. Brock, Johannes Foufopoulos & Anthony Herrel
Body size often varies among insular populations relative to continental conspecifics – the ‘island rule’ – and functional, context-dependent morphological differences tend to track this body size variation on islands. Two hypotheses are often proposed as potential drivers of insular population differences in morphology: one relating to diet and the other involving intraspecific competition and aggression. We directly tested whether differences in morphology and maximum bite capacity were explained by interisland changes in hardness of...

Data from: Disruptive viability selection on a black plumage trait associated with dominance

Paul Acker, Arnaud Grégoire, Margaux Rat, Claire N. Spottiswoode, René E. Van Dijk, Matthieu Paquet, Jennifer C. Kaden, Roger Pradel, Ben J. Hatchwell, Rita Covas & Claire Doutrelant
Traits used in communication, such as colour signals, are expected to have positive consequences for reproductive success, but their associations with survival are little understood. Previous studies have mainly investigated linear relationships between signals and survival, but both hump-shaped and U-shaped relationships can also be predicted, depending on the main costs involved in trait expression. Furthermore, few studies have taken the plasticity of signals into account in viability selection analyses. The relationship between signal expression...

Data from: Reactive responses of zebras to lion encounters shape their predator-prey space game at large scale

Nicolas Courbin, Andrew J. Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Hervé Fritz, Marion Valeix, Edwin T. Makuwe & Simon Chamaillé-Jammes
The predator–prey space game and the costs associated with risk effects are affected by prey 1) proactive adjustments (when prey modify their behaviour in response to an a priori assessment of the risk level) and 2) reactive adjustments (when prey have detected an immediate threat). Proactive adjustments are generally well-studied, whereas the frequency, strength and duration of reactive adjustments remain largely unknown. We studied the space use and habitat selection of GPS-collared zebras Equus quagga...

Data from: Contrasting microbial biogeographical patterns between anthropogenic subalpine grasslands and natural alpine grasslands

Roberto A. Geremia, Mihai Pușcaș, Lucie Zinger, Jean-Marc Bonneville, Philippe Choler & Jean-Marc Bonneville
The effect of plant species composition on soil microbial communities was studied at the multiregional level. We compared the soil microbial communities of alpine natural grasslands dominated by Carex curvula and anthropogenic subalpine pastures dominated by Nardus stricta. We conducted paired sampling across the Carpathians and the Alps and used Illumina sequencing to reveal the molecular diversity of soil microbes. We found that bacterial and fungal communities exhibited contrasting regional distributions and that the distribution...

Data from: Senescence rates and late adulthood reproductive success are strongly influenced by personality in a long lived seabird

Samantha C. Patrick & Henri Weimerskirch
Studies are increasingly demonstrating that individuals differ in their rate of ageing, and this is postulated to emerge from a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Recent theory predicts a correlation between individual personality and life-history strategy, and from this comes the prediction that personality may predict the intensity of senescence. Here we show that boldness correlates with reproductive success and foraging behaviour in wandering albatrosses, with strong sex-specific differences. Shy males show a strong...

Data from: Genetic architecture of inbreeding depression and the maintenance of gametophytic self-incompatibility

Camille Elsa Gervais, Diala Abu Awad, Denis Roze, Vincent Castric, Sylvain Billiard & Camille Gervais
Gametophytic self-incompatibility is a widespread genetic system, which enables hermaphroditic plants to avoid self-fertilization and mating with close relatives. Inbreeding depression is thought to be the major force maintaining self-incompatibility; however, inbreeding depression is a dynamical variable that depends in particular on the mating system. In this paper we use multilocus, individual based simulations to examine the co-evolution of self-incompatibility and inbreeding depression within finite populations. We focus on the conditions for the maintenance of...

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