848 Works

Expérimentation pour un observatoire régional de la vulnérabilité aux risques côtiers en Bretagne. Projets OSIRISC et OSIRISC+

Manuelle Philippe, Alain Hénaff, Thibaud Lami, Iwan Le Berre, Catherine MEUR-FEREC, Nicolas Le Dantec, Pauline Letortu, Elisabeth Guillou, Mathias ROUAN & Laurence DAVID

Data from: Are fission-fusion dynamics consistent among populations? A large-scale study with Cape buffalo

Elodie Wielgus, Daniel Cornélis, Michel De Garine-Wichatitsky, Bradley Cain, Hervé Fritz, Eve Miguel, Hugo Valls-Fox, Alexandre Caron & Simon Chamaillé-Jammes
Fission-fusion dynamics allow animals to manage costs and benefits of group living by adjusting group size. The degree of intraspecific variation in fission-fusion dynamics across the geographical range is poorly known. During 2008-2016, 38 adult female Cape buffalo were equipped with GPS collars in three populations located in different protected areas (Gonarezhou National Park and Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Kruger National Park, South Africa) to investigate the patterns and environmental drivers of fission-fusion dynamics among...

African elephants can detect water from natural and artificial sources via olfactory cues

Matthew Wood, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Almuth Hammerbacher & Adrian Shrader
Water is vital for mammals. Yet, as ephemeral sources can be difficult to find, it raises the question, how do mammals locate water? Elephants (Loxodonta africana) are water-dependent herbivores that possess exceptional olfactory capabilities, and it has been suggested that they may locate water via smell. However, there is no evidence to support this claim. To explore this, we performed two olfactory choice experiments with semi-tame elephants. In the first, we tested whether elephants could...

Medicago sativa cv. Mercedes genome portal

Sebastien Carrere, Jérôme Gouzy, Frédéric Debelle, Bernadette Julier & Philippe Barre

IASI-FT Sea Surface Temperature (from IASI/Metop-A)

Ana Claudia Parracho & Sarah Safieddine
The IASI Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product is a monthly (level L3), 1×1 degree global dataset of skin temperatures over the sea derived from the IASI satellite radiances data. The dataset consists of monthly mean TXT files. Each file is a grid organized by latitude (-90 to 89 °N) and longitude (-180 to 180 °E). The land and sea ice grid points are filled using NaN. Size of the grid: 180 lines and 361 columns....

Data from: Costs of CRISPR-Cas mediated resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus

Pedro F. Vale, Guillaume Lafforgue, François Gatchitch, Rozenn Gardan, Sylvain Moineau & Sylvain Gandon
CRISPR-Cas is a form of adaptive sequence-specific immunity in microbes. This system offers unique opportunities for the study of coevolution between bacteria and their viral pathogens, bacteriophages. A full understanding of the coevolutionary dynamics of CRISPR-Cas requires knowing the magnitude of the cost of resisting infection. Here, using the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus and its associated virulent phage 2972, a well-established model system harbouring at least two type II functional CRISPR-Cas systems, we obtained different...

Data from: Assessing bundles of ecosystem services from regional to landscape scale: insights from the French Alps

Emilie Crouzat, Maud Mouchet, Francis Turkelboom, Coline Byczek, Jeroen Meersmans, Frederic Berger, Pieter Johannes Verkerk & Sandra Lavorel
1. Assessments of ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity (hereafter ecological parameters) provide a comprehensive view of the links between landscapes, ecosystem functioning and human well-being. The investigation of consistent associations between ecological parameters, called bundles, and of their links to landscape composition and structure is essential to inform management and policy, yet it is still in its infancy. 2. We mapped over the French Alps an unprecedented array of 18 ecological parameters (16 ES and...

Data from: The building of a biodiversity hotspot across a land-bridge in the Mediterranean

Rafael Molina-Venegas, Abelardo Aparicio, Sébastien Lavergne & Juan Arroyo
Many of the macroevolutionary processes that have shaped present-day phylogenetic patterns were caused by geological events such as plate tectonics and temporary land-bridges. The study of spatial patterns of phylogenetic diversity can provide insights into these past events. Here we focus on a western Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot located in the southern Iberian Peninsula and northwest Africa, two regions that are separated by the Strait of Gibraltar. We explore the spatial structure of the phylogenetic relationships...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure reflects sex-specific dispersal strategies in a population of sociable weavers (Philetairus socius)

René E. Van Dijk, Rita Covas, Claire Doutrelant, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Ben J. Hatchwell
Dispersal is a critical driver of gene flow, with important consequences for population genetic structure, social interactions and other biological processes. Limited dispersal may result in kin-structured populations in which kin selection may operate, but it may also increase the risk of kin competition and inbreeding. Here, we use a combination of long-term field data and molecular genetics to examine dispersal patterns and their consequences for the population genetics of a highly social bird, the...

Data from: Quantification of correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior and energy metabolism in lizards

Paulina Artacho, Julia Saravia, Beatriz Decencière Ferrandière, Samuel Perret & Jean-François Le Galliard
Phenotypic selection is widely accepted as the primary cause of adaptive evolution in natural populations, but selection on complex functional properties linking physiology, behavior, and morphology has been rarely quantified. In ectotherms, correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism is of special interest because of their potential coadaptation. We quantified phenotypic selection on thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance (sprint speed), thermal preferences, and resting metabolic rate in captive populations of an ectothermic...

Data from: Within-individual plasticity explains age-related decrease in stress response in a short-lived bird

Ádám Z. Lendvai, Mathieu Giraudeau, Veronika Bókony, Frédéric Angelier & Olivier Chastel
A crucial problem for every organism is how to allocate energy between competing life-history components. The optimal allocation decision is often state-dependent and mediated by hormones. Here, we investigated how age, a major state variable affects individuals' hormonal response to a standardized stressor: a trait that may reflect allocation between self-maintenance and reproduction. We caught free-living house sparrows and measured their hormonal (corticosterone) response to capture stress in consecutive years. Using a long-term ringing dataset,...

Data from: Quantitative genetics of migration syndromes: a study of two barn swallow populations

Celine Teplitsky, Nissrine G Mouawad, Javier Balbontín, Florentino De Lope & Anders P Møller
Migration is a complex trait although little is known about genetic correlations between traits involved in such migration syndromes. To assess migratory responses to climate change, we need information on genetic constraints on evolutionary potential of arrival dates in migratory birds. Using two long term data sets on barn swallows Hirundo rustica (from Spain and Denmark), we show for the first time in wild populations that spring arrival dates are phenotypically and genetically correlated with...

Data from: Minimal ProtoHox cluster inferred from bilaterian and cnidarian Hox complements

Daniel Chourrout, Frédéric Delsuc, Pascal Chourrout, Rolph B Edvardsen, Fabian Rentzsch, Eduard Renfer, Marit F. Jensen, Baoli Zhu, Pieter De Jong, Robert E. Steele & Ulrich Technau
Bilaterian animals have a Hox gene cluster essential for patterning the main body axis, and a ParaHox gene cluster. Comparison of Hox and ParaHox genes has led workers to postulate that both clusters originated from the duplication of an ancient cluster named ProtoHox, which contained up to four genes with at least the precursors of anterior and posterior Hox/ParaHox genes. However, the way in which genes diversified within the ProtoHox, Hox and ParaHox clusters remains...

Data from: Brain size and the expression of pheomelanin-based colour in birds

Ismael Galván & Anders P. Møller
Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the most common vertebrate pigments. They generate different colours and are synthesized under different physiological conditions. While pheomelanogenesis requires high levels of a key intracellular antioxidant (glutathione, GSH), eumelanogenesis is inhibited by GSH. This implies that species that present the molecular basis to produce large amounts of pheomelanin might be more limited to perform other costly processes that generate oxidative stress than species that produce eumelanin. Brain development requires large amounts...

Data from: The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: a new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies

Marine Pratlong, Anne Haguenauer, Olivier Chabrol, Christophe Klopp, Pierre Pontarotti & Didier Aurelle
The question of species survival and evolution in heterogeneous environments has long been a subject for study. Indeed, it is often difficult to identify the molecular basis of adaptation to contrasted environments, and nongenetic effects increase the difficulty to disentangle fixed effects, such as genetic adaptation, from variable effects, such as individual phenotypic plasticity, in adaptation. Nevertheless, this question is also of great importance for understanding the evolution of species in a context of climate...

Data from: \"De novo assembly transcriptome for the rostrum dace (Leuciscus burdigalensis, Cyprinidae: fish) naturally infected by a copepod ectoparasite\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 December 2014 to 31 January 2015

Olivier Rey, Géraldine Loot, Olivier Bouchez, Simon Blanchet, Maria Jose Ruiz-Lopez, Nelson Ting, Paul D. Etter, Eric A. Johnson, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman, James H. Jones, Patrick A. Omeja & William M. Switzer
The emergence of pathogens represents substantial threats to public health, livestock, domesticated animals, and biodiversity. How wild populations respond to emerging pathogens has generated a lot of interest in the last two decades. With the recent advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies it is now possible to develop large transcriptomic resources for non-model organisms, hence allowing new research avenues on the immune responses of hosts from a large taxonomic spectra. We here focused on a wild...

Data from: Neural modularity helps organisms evolve to learn new skills without forgetting old

Kai Olav Ellefsen, Jean-Baptiste Mouret & Jeff Clune
A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks...

Les restes organiques minéralisés : un nouveau champ d’investigation en contexte funéraire. Exemple de la nécropole de Merxheim « Obere Reben » (Haut-Rhin)

Armelle Charrié-Duhaut, Fabienne Médard, Clotilde Proust & Hélène Barrand-Emam
Rarement intelligibles, les restes organiques minéralisés représentent un potentiel informatif sous-estimé. Directement liés à l’étude de l’objet archéologique en métal qui leur sert de support et a permis leur conservation, ils constituent un champ d’investigation quasi inépuisable et d’une grande diversité. La complexité intrinsèque des matériaux, la variabilité des dégradations possibles, la prise en compte des contextes d’enfouissement impliquent, cependant, de repenser la chaîne opératoire de l’archéologie, depuis la prescription de fouille jusqu’aux lieux de...

Data from: Relating fitness to long-term environmental variations in natura

Pascal Milesi, Thomas Lenormand, Christophe Lagneau, Mylène Weill & Pierrick Labbé
Quantifying links between ecological processes and adaptation dynamics in natura remains a crucial challenge. Many studies have documented the strength, form and direction of selection, and its variations in space and time, but only a few managed to link these variations to their proximal causes. This step is, however, crucial, if we are to understand how the variation in selective pressure affects adaptive allele dynamics in natural settings. We used data from a long-term survey...

Data from: Distinguishing contemporary hybridization from past introgression with postgenomic ancestry-informative SNPs in strongly differentiated Ciona species

Sarah Bouchemousse, Cathy Liautard-Haag, Nicolas Bierne & Frédérique Viard
Biological introductions bring into contact species that can still hybridize. The evolutionary outcomes of such secondary contacts may be diverse (e.g. adaptive introgression from or into the introduced species) but are not yet well examined in the wild. The recent secondary contact between the non-native sea squirt Ciona robusta (formerly known as C. intestinalis type A) and its native congener C. intestinalis (formerly known as C. intestinalis type B), in the Western English Channel, provides...

Data from: Genome scan reveals selection acting on genes linked to stress response in wild pearl millet

Cécile Berthouly-Salazar, Anne-Céline Thuillet, Bénédicte Rhoné, Cédric Mariac, Issaka Salia Ousseini, Marie Couderc, Maud I. Tenaillon & Yves Vigouroux
Uncovering genomic regions involved in adaption is a major goal in evolutionary biology. High-throughput sequencing now makes it possible to tackle this challenge in nonmodel species. Yet, despite the increasing number of methods targeted to specifically detect genomic footprints of selection, the complex demography of natural populations often causes high rates of false positive in gene discoveries. The aim of this study was to identify climate adaptations in wild pearl millet populations, Cenchrus americanus ssp....

Data from: How the truffle got its mate: insights from genetic structure in spontaneous and planted Mediterranean populations of Tuber melanosporum

Elisa Taschen, François Rousset, Mathieu Sauve, Laure Benoit, Marie-Pierre Dubois, Franck Richard, Marc-André Selosse, M.-P. Dubois & M.-A. Selosse
The life cycles and dispersal of edible fungi are still poorly known, thus limiting our understanding of their evolution and domestication. The prized Tuber melanosporum produces fruitbodies (fleshy organs where meiospores mature) gathered in natural, spontaneously inoculated forests or harvested in plantations of nursery-inoculated trees. Yet, how fruitbodies are formed remains unclear, thus limiting yields, and how current domestication attempts affect population genetic structure is overlooked. Fruitbodies result from mating between two haploid individuals: the...

Data from: A molecular phylogeny and revised higher-level classification for the leaf-mining moth family Gracillariidae and its implications for larval host-use evolution

Akito Y. Kawahara, David Plotkin, Issei Ohshima, Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde, Peter R. Houlihan, Jesse W. Breinholt, Atsushi Kawakita, Lei Xiao, Jerome C. Regier, Donald R. Davis, Tosio Kumata, Jay-Cheon Sohn, Jurate De Prins, Charles Mitter & JAE-CHEON SOHN
Gracillariidae are one of the most diverse families of internally feeding insects, and many species are economically important. Study of this family has been hampered by lack of a robust and comprehensive phylogeny. In the present paper, we sequenced up to 22 genes in 96 gracillariid species, representing all previously recognized subfamilies and genus groups, plus 20 outgroups representing other families and superfamilies. Following objective identification and removal of two rogue taxa, two datasets were...

Data from: Patterns of MHC-dependent mate selection in humans and non-human primates: a meta-analysis

Jamie Winternitz, Jessica Abbate, Elise Huchard, Jan Havlíček & Laszlo Z. Garamszegi
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are integral for effective adaptive immune response and are associated with sexual selection. Evidence from a range of vertebrates supports MHC-based preference for diverse and dissimilar mating partners, but evidence from human mate choice studies has been disparate and controversial. Methodologies and sampling peculiarities specific to human studies make it difficult to know whether wide discrepancies in results among human populations are real or artefact. To...

Data from: Evolution of haploid–diploid life cycles when haploid and diploid fitnesses are not equal

Michael F. Scott & Marie Rescan
Many organisms spend a significant portion of their life cycle as haploids and as diploids (a haploid–diploid life cycle). However, the evolutionary processes that could maintain this sort of life cycle are unclear. Most previous models of ploidy evolution have assumed that the fitness effects of new mutations are equal in haploids and homozygous diploids, however, this equivalency is not supported by empirical data. With different mutational effects, the overall (intrinsic) fitness of a haploid...

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