250 Works

Data from: Matching genetics with oceanography: directional gene flow in a Mediterranean fish species

Celia Schunter, Josep Carreras-Carbonell, Enrique Macpherson, Joaquin Tintoré, Enrique Vidal-Vijande, Ananda Pascual, Paolo Guidetti & Marta Pascual
Genetic connectivity and geographic fragmentation are two opposing mechanisms determining the population structure of species. While the first homogenizes the genetic background across populations the second one allows their differentiation. Therefore, knowledge of processes affecting dispersal of marine organisms is crucial to understand their genetic distribution patterns and for the effective management of their populations. In this study, we use genetic analyses of eleven microsatellites in combination with oceanographic satellite and dispersal simulation data to...

Data from: Marine communities on oil platforms in Gabon, West Africa: high biodiversity oases in a low biodiversity environment

Alan M. Friedlander, Enrique Ballesteros, John Michael Fay, Enric Sala & Michael Fay
The marine biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of marine communities associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic communities were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and...

Data from: Coevolution and the architecture of mutualistic networks

Scott Landis Nuismer, Pedro Jordano & Jordi Bascompte
Although coevolution is widely recognized as an important evolutionary process for pairs of reciprocally specialized species, its importance within species-rich communities of generalized species has been questioned. Here we develop and analyze mathematical models of mutualistic communities, such as those between plants and pollinators or plants and seed-dispersers to evaluate the importance of coevolutionary selection within complex communities. Our analyses reveal that coevolutionary selection can drive significant changes in trait distributions with important consequences for...

Data from: Cryptic choice of conspecific sperm controlled by the impact of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behaviour

Sarah Elizabeth Yeates, Sian Elizabeth Diamond, Sigurd Einum, Brent C. Emerson, William V. Holt & Matthew J. G. Gage
Despite evidence that variation in male-female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic micro-environment, we find complete inter-fertility between both species. However, if either species’ ova were presented with equivalent numbers of...

Data from: Genetic, morphological and acoustic evidence reveals lack of diversification in the colonization process in an island bird

Juan Carlos Illera, Ana M. Palmero, Paola Laiolo, Felipe Rodríguez, Ángel C. Moreno & Miguel Navascués
Songbirds with recently (i.e. early Holocene) founded populations are suitable models for studying incipient differentiation in oceanic islands. On such systems each colonization event represents a different evolutionary episode that can be studied by addressing sets of diverging phenotypic and genetic traits. We investigate the process of early differentiation in the spectacled warbler (Sylvia conspicillata) in 14 populations separated by sea barriers from three Atlantic archipelagos and from continental regions spanning from tropical to temperate...

Data from: Telomere dynamics in parasitic great spotted cuckoos and their magpie hosts

Juan J. Soler, Cristina Ruiz Castellano, Josué Martínez De La Puente, Gustavo Tomás, Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez & Jordi Figuerola
Although little is known on the impact of environment on telomere length dynamics, it has been suggested to be affected by stress, lifestyle and/or life-history strategies of animals. We here compared telomere dynamics in erythrocytes of hatchlings and fledglings of the brood parasite great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) and of magpies (Pica pica), their main host in Europe. In magpie chicks, telomere length decreased from hatching to fledging while no significant change in telomere length...

Data from: Selective logging in tropical forests decreases the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks to the loss of host tree species

Ainhoa Magrach, Rebecca A. Senior, Andrew Rogers, Deddy Nurdin, Suzan Benedick, William F. Laurance, Luis Santamaría & David P. Edwards
Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the ‘health’ and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interactions between lianas and their tree hosts within primary and selectively logged forests in the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo. We found that lianas were more...

Data from: Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems

Cristina Linares, Montserrat Vidal, Miquel Canals, Diego Kersting, David Amblas, Eneko Aspillaga, Emma Cebrian, Antonio Delgado-Huertas, David Diaz, Joaquim Garrabou, Bernat Hereu, Laura Navarro, Nuria Teixido & Enric Ballesteros
Ocean acidification is one of the main stressors affecting marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats that have been investigated so far are mainly very shallow water (≤5 m depth) and, therefore, to habitats that are poorly representative of the broad range of habitats that occur on the continental shelf. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to...

Data from: Marine biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: global endemism hotspots

Alan M. Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Jennifer E. Caselle, Carlos F. Gaymer, Alvaro T. Palma, Ignacio Petit, Eduardo Varas, Alex Muñoz Wilson & Enric Sala
The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~ 700 people, with the major...

Data from: Paleo-islands as refugia and sources of genetic diversity within volcanic archipelagos: The case of the widespread endemic Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae)

Mario Mairal, Isabel Sanmartín, Juan José Aldasoro, Victoria Culshaw, Ioanna Manolopoulou & Marisa Alarcón
Geographical isolation by oceanic barriers and climatic stability has been postulated as some of the main factors driving diversification within volcanic archipelagos. However, few studies have focused on the effect that catastrophic volcanic events have had on patterns of within-island differentiation in geological time. This study employed data from the chloroplast (cpDNA haplotypes) and the nuclear (AFLPs) genomes to examine the patterns of genetic variation in Canarina canariensis, an iconic plant species associated with the...

Data from: Ancient vicariance and climate-driven extinction explain continental-wide disjunctions in Africa: the case of the Rand Flora genus Canarina (Campanulaceae)

Mario Mairal, Lisa Pokorny, Marisa Alarcón, Juan J. Aldasoro & Isabel Sanmartín
Transoceanic distributions have attracted the interest of scientists for centuries. Less attention has been paid to the evolutionary origins of ‘continent-wide’ disjunctions, in which related taxa are distributed across isolated regions within the same continent. A prime example is the ‘Rand Flora’ pattern, which shows sister taxa disjunctly distributed in the continental margins of Africa. Here, we explore the evolutionary origins of this pattern using the genus Canarina, with three species: C. canariensis, associated with...

Data from: Evolution of Acoustic and Visual Signals in Asian Barbets

Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Robert-J. Den Tex, Alberto Castelló, Jennifer A. Leonard & R.-J. Den Tex
The study of animal communication systems is an important step towards gaining greater understanding of the processes influencing diversification because signals often play an important role in mate choice and can lead to reproductive isolation. Signal evolution can be influenced by a diversity of factors such as biophysical constraints on the emitter, the signalling environment, or selection to avoid heterospecific matings. Furthermore, because signals can be costly to produce, trade-offs may exist between different types...

Data from: Endosymbiotic calcifying bacteria: a new cue for the origin of calcification in Metazoa?

Maria J. Uriz, Gemma Agell, Andrea Blanquer, Xavier Turon & Emilio O. Casamayor
Sponges show the highest diversity of associated bacteria among marine invertebrates. Immunological evidence traces the origin of the sponge bacterial symbioses to the Precambrian era. Hence, sponges appear to be ideally suited for studying the evolutionary origins of prokaryote-metazoan associations. Sponges produce either calcareous or siliceous skeletons, which only coexist in a relict group of demosponges, the sclerosponges. We report here, for the first time, intensive calcification in non-sclerosponge siliceous demosponges. Calcification is mediated by...

Data from: Habitat-associated phylogenetic community patterns of microbial ammonia oxidizers

Antoni Fernàndez-Guerra & Emilio O. Casamayor
Microorganisms mediating ammonia oxidation play a fundamental role in the connection between biological nitrogen fixation and anaerobic nitrogen losses. Bacteria and Archaea ammonia oxidizers (AOB and AOA, respectively) have colonized similar habitats worldwide. Ammonia oxidation is the rate-limiting step in nitrification, and the ammonia monooxygenase (Amo) is the key enzyme involved. The molecular ecology of this process has been extensively explored by surveying the gene of the subunit A of the Amo (amoA gene). In...

Data from: Latitudinal environmental niches and riverine barriers shaped the phylogeography of the central Chilean endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae)

Juan Viruel, Pilar Catalán & José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues
The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA)...

Data from: Tropical rabbitfish and the deforestation of a warming temperate sea

Adriana Vergés, Fiona Tomas, Emma Cebrian, Enric Ballesteros, Zafer Kizilkaya, Panagiotis Dendrinos, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis, David Spiegel & Enric Sala
A striking example of climate-mediated range shifts in marine systems is the intrusion of tropical species into temperate areas worldwide, but we know very little about the ecological consequences of these range expansions. In the Mediterranean Sea, the range expansion of tropical rabbitfishes that first entered the basin via the Suez Canal provides a good example of how tropical herbivorous fish can impact the structure of rocky bottoms in temperate seas. Two species of rabbitfishes...

Data from: Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions

Anders P. Møller, Laszlo Z. Garamszegi, Juan M Peralta-Sánchez & Juan J. Soler
Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighboring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by re-colonization. Given that studies have shown significant...

Data from: Brain size and the expression of pheomelanin-based colour in birds

Ismael Galván & Anders P. Møller
Eumelanin and pheomelanin are the most common vertebrate pigments. They generate different colours and are synthesized under different physiological conditions. While pheomelanogenesis requires high levels of a key intracellular antioxidant (glutathione, GSH), eumelanogenesis is inhibited by GSH. This implies that species that present the molecular basis to produce large amounts of pheomelanin might be more limited to perform other costly processes that generate oxidative stress than species that produce eumelanin. Brain development requires large amounts...

Data from: Is sociality required for the evolution of communicative complexity? Evidence weighed against alternative hypotheses in diverse taxonomic groups

Terry J. Ord & Joan Garcia-Porta
Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis along side alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variation in signal...

Data from: Correlated evolution between colouration and ambush site in predators with visual prey lures

Felipe Malheiros Gawryszewski, Miguel A. Calero-Torralbo, Rosemary G. Gillespie, Miguel Rodriguez-Girones & Marie E. Herberstein
The evolution of a visual signal will be affected by signaller and receiver behaviour, and by the physical properties of the environment where the signal is displayed. Crab spiders are typical sit-and-wait predators found in diverse ambush sites, such as tree bark, foliage and flowers. Some of the flower-dweller species present a UV+-white visual lure that makes them conspicuous and attractive to their prey. We hypothesised that UV+-white colouration was associated with the evolution of...

Data from: Context-dependency and anthropogenic effects on individual plant-frugivore networks

Maria Florencia Miguel, Pedro Jordano, Solana Tabeni & Claudia M. Campos
Anthropogenic activities, such as grazing by domestic animals, are considered drivers of environmental changes that may influence the structure of interaction networks. The study of individual-based networks allows testing how species-level interaction patterns emerge from the pooled interaction modes of individuals within populations. Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) examine the global structure of networks by allowing the inclusion of specific node (i.e. interacting partners) properties as explanatory covariates. Here we assessed the structure of individual...

Data from: The timing of frugivore-mediated seed dispersal effectiveness

Juan P. González-Varo, Juan M. Arroyo & Pedro Jordano
The seed dispersal effectiveness framework allows assessing mutualistic services from frugivorous animals in terms of quantity and quality. Quantity accounts for the number of seeds dispersed and quality for the probability of recruitment of dispersed seeds. Research on this topic has largely focused on the spatial patterns of seed deposition because seed fates often vary between microhabitats due to differences in biotic and abiotic factors. However, the temporal dimension has remained completely overlooked despite these...

Data from: Tracking data and retrospective analyses of diet reveal the consequences of loss of marine subsidies for an obligate scavenger, the Andean condor

Sergio A. Lambertucci, Joan Navarro, Jose Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Keith A. Hobson, Pablo A.E. Alarcón, Guillermo Wiemeyer, Guillermo Blanco, Fernando Hiraldo & Jose Antonio Donazar
Over the last century, marine mammals have been dramatically reduced in the world’s oceans. We examined evidence that this change caused dietary and foraging pattern shifts of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) in Patagonia. We hypothesized that, after the decrease in marine mammals and the increase in human use of coastlines, condor diet changed to a more terrestrial diet which, in turn, influenced their foraging patterns. We evaluated the diet by means of stable isotope...

Data from: Prioritizing sites for ecological restoration based on ecosystem services

Francisco A. Comín, Beatriz Miranda, Ricardo Sorando, María R. Felipe-Lucia, Juan J. Jiménez & Enrique Navarro
1. Restoration ecology is moving towards designing restoration actions to maximize ecosystem services (ES). Such restoration actions require planning at large spatial scales, as these are often more meaningful for ecosystem functioning and ES supply. As economic resources to undertake ecological restoration at large scales are scarce, prioritizing sites to enhance multiple ES supply is critical. 2. Our study presents an index, the Relative Aggregated Value of ES (RAVES), to prioritize sites for ecological restoration...

Data from: Intraspecific genetic structure, divergence and high rates of clonality in an amphi-Atlantic starfish

Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Crue Palacín, Carlos Renato R. Ventura, Barbara Feital, Paulo C. Paiva & Rocio Perez Portela
Intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence have a large influence on the adaption and evolutionary potential of species. The widely distributed starfish, Coscinasterias tenuispina, combines sexual reproduction with asexual reproduction via fission. Here we analyse the phylogeography of this starfish to reveal historical and contemporary processes driving its intraspecific genetic divergence. We further consider whether asexual reproduction is the most important method of propagation throughout the distribution range of this species. Our study included 326 individuals...

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