411 Works

Data from: Landscape structure and the genetic effects of a population collapse

Serena A. Caplins, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Claudia Ciotir, Jens Roland, Stephen F. Matter & Nusha Keyghobadi
Both landscape structure and population size fluctuations influence population genetics. While independent effects of these factors on genetic patterns and processes are well studied, a key challenge is to understand their interaction, as populations are simultaneously exposed to habitat fragmentation and climatic changes that increase variability in population size. In a population network of an alpine butterfly, abundance declined 60–100% in 2003 because of low over-winter survival. Across the network, mean microsatellite genetic diversity did...

Data from: The diet of Myotis lucifugus across Canada: assessing foraging quality and diet variability

Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson, Hugh Broders, François Fabianek, Erin E. Frazer, Alistair MacKenzie, Andrew Boughen, Rachel Hamilton, Craig K. R. Willis, Felix Martinez-Nuñez, Allyson K. Menzies, Kaleigh J. O. Norquay, Mark Brigham, Joseph Poissant, Jody Rintoul, Robert M. R. Barclay, Jesika P. Reimer & Erin E. Fraser
Variation in prey resources influences the diet and behaviour of predators. When prey become limiting, predators may travel farther to find preferred food or adjust to existing local resources. When predators are habitat limited, local resource abundance impacts foraging success. We analysed the diet of Myotis lucifugus (little brown bats) from Nova Scotia (eastern Canada) to the Northwest Territories (north-western Canada). This distribution includes extremes of season length and temperature and encompasses colonies on rural...

Data from: Resource partitioning by insectivorous bats in Jamaica

Matthew A. Emrich, Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson, Susan E. Koenig & Melville Brock Fenton
In this investigation, we use variation in wing morphology, echolocation behaviour, patterns of habitat use and molecular diet analysis to demonstrate that six species of sympatric insectivorous bats in Jamaica show significant differences that could explain resource partitioning among the species. High-intensity echolocating species that used shorter, broadband signals and had shorter, broader wings (Pteronotus macleayii, Pteronotus quadridens, Mormoops blainvillii) foraged most in edge habitats, but differed in timing of peak activity. P. macleayii and...

Data from: Time scale matters: genetic analysis does not support adaptation-by-time as the mechanism for adaptive seasonal declines in kokanee reproductive lifespan

Yolanda E. Morbey, Evelyn L. Jensen & Michael A. Russello
Seasonal declines of fitness-related traits are often attributed to environmental effects or individual-level decisions about reproductive timing and effort, but genetic variation may also play a role. In populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal declines in reproductive life span have been attributed to adaptation-by-time, in which divergent selection for different traits occurs among reproductively isolated temporal components of a population. We evaluated this hypothesis in kokanee (freshwater obligate Oncorhynchus nerka) by testing for temporal...

Data from: Fearlessness towards extirpated large carnivores may exacerbate the impacts of naïve mesocarnivores

Justin P. Suraci, Devin J. Roberts, Michael Clinchy & Liana Y. Zanette
By suppressing mesocarnivore foraging, the fear large carnivores inspire can be critical to mitigating mesocarnivore impacts. Where large carnivores have declined, mesocarnivores may quantitatively increase foraging, commensurate with reductions in fear. The extirpation of large carnivores may further exacerbate mesocarnivore impacts by causing qualitative changes in mesocarnivore behavior. Error management theory suggests that, where predators are present, prey should be biased towards over-responsiveness to predator cues, abandoning foraging in response to both predator cues and...

Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: Birdsong signals individual diversity at the major histocompatibility complex

Joel W.G. Slade, Matthew J. Watson, Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton & J. W. G. Slade
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate immunity, and pathogen-mediated selection often favours certain allelic combinations. Assessing potential mates' MHC profiles may provide receivers with genetic benefits (identifying MHC-compatible mates and producing optimally diverse offspring) and/or material benefits (identifying optimally diverse mates capable of high parental investment). Oscine songbirds learn songs during early life, such that song repertoire content can reflect population of origin while song complexity can reflect early life...

Data from: Buzz factor or innovation potential: what explains cryptocurrencies' returns?

Sha Wang & Jean-Philippe Vergne
Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies’ market values. In the past, researchers argued that the “buzz” surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that...

Data from: Livestock abundance predicts vampire bat demography, immune profiles, and bacterial infection risk

Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife–pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen pathogen transmission likely depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a four-year study of 369 common vampire bats across ten sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and...

Data from: Evaluation of sex differences in the stopover behavior and postdeparture movements of wood-warblers

Yolanda E. Morbey, Christopher G. Guglielmo, Philip D. Taylor, Ivan Maggini, Jessica Deakin, Stuart A. Mackenzie, J. Morgan Brown & Lin Zhao
Sex differences in the behaviors underlying avian protandry, where males arrive at breeding areas earlier than females, are still poorly understood for most species. We tested for sex differences in stopover behavior, refueling rates, and post-departure movements during spring migration in two consecutive years in wood-warblers (Parulidae) at a coastal site on Lake Erie, Ontario, using automated radio telemetry (black-throated blue warblers Setophaga caerulescens and magnolia warblers S. magnolia) and analysis of plasma metabolites as...

Data from: Limited genetic evidence for host plant-related differentiation in the Western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Gilbert Saint Jean, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Hannes Schuler, Meredith M. Doellman, Mary M. Glover, James J. Smith, Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Howard M.A. Thistlewood, Sheri A. Maxwell, Nusha Keyghobadi, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
The shift of the fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in the mid-1800s from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis (Torrey & Asa Gray) Scheele, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), in the eastern USA is a model for ecological divergence with gene flow. A similar system may exist in the northwestern USA and British Columbia, Canada, where Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacks the native bitter cherry Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae). Populations of...

Metabolic cost of freeze-thaw and source of CO2 production in the freeze-tolerant cricket Gryllus veletis

Adam Smith, Kurtis Turnbull, Julian Moulton & Brent Sinclair
Freeze-tolerant insects can survive the conversion of a substantial portion of their body water to ice. While the process of freezing induces active responses from some organisms, these responses appear absent from freeze-tolerant insects. Recovery from freezing likely requires energy expenditure to repair tissues and re-establish homeostasis, which should be evident as elevations in metabolic rate after thaw. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) production in the spring field cricket (Gryllus veletis) as a proxy for...

Host life-history traits influence the distribution of prophages and the genes they carry

Tyler Pattenden, Christine Eagles & Lindi Wahl
Bacterial strains with a short minimal doubling time – “fast-growing” hosts – are more likely to contain prophages than their slow-growing counterparts. Pathogenic bacterial species are likewise more likely to carry prophages. We develop a bioinformatics pipeline to examine the distribution of prophages in fast- and slow-growing lysogens, and pathogenic and non-pathogenic lysogens, analysing both prophage length and gene content for each class. By fitting these results to a mathematical model of the evolutionary forces...

Endogenous biomarkers reveal diet partitioning among three sympatric species of swallows

Kaelyn Bumelis, Michael Cadman & Keith Hobson
Since the early 1990s, aerial insectivorous birds have shown serious population declines in North America, but it is not clear if factors common to all species within this guild account for these declines. Among sympatric swallows, population trends differ, and this may be due to differences in ecology operating throughout the annual cycle. Although these species all feed on aerial insects, prey taxa can differ tremendously in their “aeroecology” and use by swallows. We examined...

Evidence on the social, economic, and environmental impact of interventions that facilitate bamboo industry development for sustainable livelihoods: a systematic map protocol

Lucy Binfield, Tamara L. Britton, Chunping Dai & John Innes
Abstract Background Bamboo has been identified as a potential instrument for socioeconomic development due to its fast growth, perceived environmental benefits, promising material properties, myriad applications, and relative underdevelopment as a global industrial product. Many projects and interventions have been carried out that aim to utilize bamboo’s social and environmental potential in development. However, critical evaluations that demonstrate this effect using real-world evidence and outcomes are rare, and existing case studies have not been collated...

Effectiveness of gait aid prescription for improving spatiotemporal gait parameters and associated outcomes in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review

Den-Ching A. Lee, Thusharika Dissanayaka, Elissa Burton, Claudia Meyer, Susan W. Hunter, Plaiwan Suttanon, Christina L. Ekegren, Julie C. Stout, Helen Dawes & Keith D. Hill
To integrate the evidence of gait aid prescription for improving spatiotemporal gait parameters, balance, safety, adherence to gait aid use, and reducing falls in community-dwelling older people. Seven health databases were searched to June 2021. Experimental studies investigating gait aid prescription (provision and instruction for use) for older people, reporting gait parameters, balance, falls, and safety of or adherence to gait aid use was included. Mean differences with 95% confidence intervals of gait and balance...

Additional file 1 of Systematic review: preoperative psychological factors and total hip arthroplasty outcomes

John P. O’Connor, Paige Holden & Joel J. Gagnier
Additional file 1. PRISMA Checklist

Systematic review: preoperative psychological factors and total hip arthroplasty outcomes

John P. O’Connor, Paige Holden & Joel J. Gagnier
Abstract Background Total hip arthroplasties (THA) are cost-effective interventions for patients with osteoarthritis refractory to physical therapy or medical management. Most individuals report positive surgical outcomes with reduction in pain and improved joint function. Multiple recent studies demonstrated the influence of patient mental health on surgical success. We sought to determine the relationship between patient preoperative psychological factors and postoperative THA outcomes, specifically pain and function. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Reviews databases were queried...

Additional file 1 of Bell’s palsy misdiagnosis: characteristics of occult tumors causing facial paralysis

Eun-Jae Chung, Damir Matic, Kevin Fung, S. Danielle MacNeil, Anthony C. Nichols, Ruba Kiwan, KengYeow Tay & John Yoo
Additional file 1. Table S1. Modified House-Brackmann grading sale system.

Natural language processing for identification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients from cardiac magnetic resonance reports

Nakeya Dewaswala, David Chen, Huzefa Bhopalwala, Vinod C. Kaggal, Sean P. Murphy, J. Martijn Bos, Jeffrey B. Geske, Bernard J. Gersh, Steve R. Ommen, Philip A. Araoz, Michael J. Ackerman & Adelaide M. Arruda-Olson
Abstract Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is important for diagnosis and risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients. However, collection of information from large numbers of CMR reports by manual review is time-consuming, error-prone and costly. Natural language processing (NLP) is an artificial intelligence method for automated extraction of information from narrative text including text in CMR reports in electronic health records (EHR). Our objective was to assess whether NLP can accurately extract diagnosis...

Plain language summary for the manuscript: Infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving tofacitinib versus tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results from the open-label, randomised controlled ORAL Surveillance trial

Andra R Balanescu, Gustavo Citera, Virginia Pascual-Ramos, Deepak L Bhatt, Carol A Connell, David Gold, All-Shine Chen, Gosford Sawyerr, Andrea B Shapiro, Janet Pope & Hendrik Schulze-Koops
This is a plain language summary (PLS) of an article published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. This PLS is not peer-reviewed. The publisher of the original manuscript was not involved in the preparation of this PLS and has neither reviewed nor approved its content.

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