368 Works

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: Genetic architecture of survival and fitness-related traits in two populations of Atlantic salmon

Aimee Lee S. Houde, Chris C. Wilson & Bryan D. Neff
The additive genetic effects of traits can be used to predict evolutionary trajectories, such as responses to selection. Non-additive genetic and maternal environmental effects can also change evolutionary trajectories and influence phenotypes, but these later effects have received less attention by researchers. We partitioned the phenotypic variance of survival and fitness-related traits into additive genetic, non- additive genetic, and maternal environmental effects using a full-factorial breeding design within two allopatric populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo...

Data from: The relative influence of habitat amount and configuration on genetic structure across multiple spatial scales

Katie L. Millette & Nusha Keyghobadi
Despite strong interest in understanding how habitat spatial structure shapes the genetics of populations, the relative importance of habitat amount and configuration for patterns of genetic differentiation remains largely unexplored in empirical systems. In this study, we evaluate the relative influence of, and interactions among, the amount of habitat and aspects of its spatial configuration on genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi. Larvae of this species are found exclusively within the water-filled...

Data from: Face patch resting state networks link face processing to social cognition

Caspar M. Schwiedrzik, Wilbert Zarco, Stefan Everling & Winrich A. Freiwald
Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system...

Data from: Acoustic identification of Mexican bats based on taxonomic and ecological constraints on call design

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Celia Lopez-Gonzalez, M. Cristina MacSwiney Gonzalez, Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Vassilios Stathopoulos & Kate E. Jones
Monitoring global biodiversity is critical for understanding responses to anthropogenic change, but biodiversity monitoring is often biased away from tropical, megadiverse areas that are experiencing more rapid environmental change. Acoustic surveys are increasingly used to monitor biodiversity change, especially for bats as they are important indicator species and most use sound to detect, localise and classify objects. However, using bat acoustic surveys for monitoring poses several challenges, particularly in megadiverse regions. Many species lack reference...

Data from: Too important to tamper with: predation risk affects body mass and escape behaviour but not escape ability

Benjamin T. Walters, Tin Nok Natalie Cheng, Justin Doyle, Christopher G. Guglielmo, Michael Clinchy, Liana Y. Zanette & Chistopher G. Guglielmo
1. Escaping from a predator is a matter of life or death, and prey are expected to adaptively alter their physiology under chronic predation risk in ways that may affect escape. Theoretical models assume that escape performance is mass-dependent whereby scared prey strategically maintain an optimal body mass to enhance escape. Experiments testing the mass-dependent predation risk (MDPR) hypothesis have demonstrated that prior experience of predation risk can affect body mass, and the behavioural decisions...

Data from: Song sparrows Melospiza melodia have a home-field advantage in defending against sympatric malarial parasites

Yanina Sarquis-Adamson & Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton
Hosts and parasites interact on both evolutionary and ecological timescales. The outcome of these interactions, specifically whether hosts are more resistant to their local parasites (sympatric) than to parasites from another location (allopatric), is likely to affect the spread of infectious disease and the fitness consequences of host dispersal. We conducted a cross-infection experiment to determine whether song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) have an advantage in dealing with sympatric parasites. We captured birds from two breeding...

Data from: CRISPR-induced null alleles show that Frost protects Drosophila melanogaster reproduction after cold exposure

Claire E. Newman, Jantina Toxopeus, Hiroko Udaka, Soohyun Ahn, David M. Martynowicz, Steffen P. Graether, Brent J. Sinclair & Anthony Percival-Smith
The ability to survive and reproduce after cold exposure is important in all kingdoms of life. However, even in a sophisticated genetic model system like Drosophila melanogaster, few genes have been identified as functioning in cold tolerance. The accumulation of the Frost (Fst) gene transcript increases after cold exposure, making it a good candidate for a gene that has a role in cold tolerance. However, despite extensive RNAi knockdown analysis, no role in cold tolerance...

Data from: The influence of environmental variance on the evolution of signalling behavior

Cody Koykka & Geoff Wild
A recent meta-analysis has indicated that environmental quality and variability can influence whether offspring begging and parental responses to these signals are motivated by offspring need or offspring quality. We create a model to verify and apply evolutionary logic to this hypothesis. We determine the ecological and social conditions under which species signal and respond to need in favorable environments, and to quality in poor environments. The environmental conditions that favor this shift are widest...

Data from: Approaches to integrating genetic data into ecological networks

Elizabeth L. Clare, Aron J. Fazekas, Natalia V. Ivanova, Robin M. Floyd, Paul D.N. Hebert, Amanda M. Adams, Juliet Nagel, Rebecca Girton, Steven G. Newmaster, M. Brock Fenton & Paul D. N. Hebert
As molecular tools for assessing trophic interactions become common, research is increasingly focused on the construction of interaction networks. Here we demonstrate three key methods for incorporating DNA data into network ecology and discuss analytical considerations using a model consisting of plants, insects, bats and their parasites from the Costa Rican dry forest. The simplest method involves the use of Sanger sequencing to acquire long sequences to validate or refine field identifications, for example of...

Data from: Thrifty phenotype vs cold adaptation: trade-offs in upper limb proportions of Himalayan populations of Nepal

Stephanie Payne, Rajendra B.C. Kumar, Emma Pomeroy, Alison Macintosh, Jay Stock & Rajendra Kumar BC
The multi-stress environment of high altitude has been associated with growth deficits in humans, particularly in zeugopod elements (forearm, lower leg). This is consistent with the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, which has been observed in Andeans, but has yet to be tested in other high altitude populations. In Himalayan populations, other factors, such as cold stress, may shape limb proportions. The current study investigated whether relative upper limb proportions of Himalayan adults (n=254) differ between highland...

Data from: Brachiopod shell thickness links environment and evolution

Uwe Balthasar, Jisuo Jin, Linda Hints & Maggie Cusack
While it is well established that the shapes and sizes of shells are strongly phylogenetically controlled, little is known about the phylogenetic constraints on shell thickness. Yet, shell thickness is likely to be sensitive to environmental fluctuations and has the potential to illuminate environmental perturbations through deep time. Here we systematically quantify the thickness of the anterior brachiopod shell which protects the filtration chamber and is thus considered functionally homologous across higher taxa of brachiopods....

Exploring the inclusion of dental providers on interprofessional healthcare teams treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a rapid review

Navia Novosel, Greta Fratarcangeli, Jasdip Randhawa, Olivia Novosel & Shannon Sibbald
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the world. Emerging concepts like One Health, integrated models for COPD, and associations between oral and respiratory health are innovative ways to approach COPD treatment. This study explored contemporary evidence on the inclusion of dental providers on interprofessional healthcare teams treating patients with COPD. The first objective was to explore the current state of interprofessional care for COPD treatment, and the second...

Extraordinarily rapid proliferation of cultured muscle satellite cells from migratory birds

Kevin Young, Timothy Regnault & Christopher Guglielmo
Migratory birds experience bouts of muscle growth and depletion as they prepare for, and undertake prolonged flight. Our studies of migratory bird muscle physiology in vitro led to the discovery that sanderling (Calidris alba) muscle satellite cells proliferate more rapidly than other normal cell lines. Here we determined the proliferation rate of muscle satellite cells isolated from five migratory species (sanderling; ruff, Calidris pugnax; western sandpiper, Calidris mauri; yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata; Swainson’s thrush, Catharus...

Dormancy in laboratory-reared Asian longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis

Alex Torson, Meng Lei Zhang, Adam Smith, Lamees Mohammad, Kevin Ong, Daniel Doucet, Amanda Roe & Brent Sinclair
An insect’s capacity to survive winter is critical for range expansion in temperate regions. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is a polyphagous wood-boring insect native to China and the Korean peninsula and poses a high risk of invasion in North America and Europe. It is unclear whether A. glabripennis enters diapause, which means that diapause cannot be included in assessments of the risk of this species invading forests in temperate regions. Using a laboratory...

Data from: Multi-decadal changes in phytoplankton biomass in northern temperate lakes as seen through the prism of landscape properties

Aleksey Paltsev
Ecologists collectively predict that climate change will enhance phytoplankton biomass in northern lakes. Yet there are unique variations in the structures and regulating functions of lakes to make this prediction challengeable and, perhaps, inaccurate. We used archived Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite products to estimate epilimnetic chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass in 281 northern temperate lakes over 28 years. We explored the influence of climate (air temperature, precipitation) and landscape proxies for nutrient...

Plasticity in floral longevity and sex-phase duration of Lobelia siphilitica in response to simulated pollinator declines

Christina Caruso & Kiana Lee
Premise: Pollinator declines can reduce the quantity and quality of pollination services, resulting in less pollen deposited on flowers and lower seed production by plants. In response to these reductions, plants can increase the opportunity for pollination by plastically adjusting their floral traits, including floral longevity and sex-phase duration. However, studies of plant responses to pollinator declines have primarily focused on floral evolution across generations rather than plasticity in floral traits within a generation. Methods:...

Data: Sex-specific effects of capital resources on reproductive timing and success in red squirrels

Jessica Haines, David Delaney, Andrea Wishart, Andrew McAdam, David Coltman, Jeffrey Lane, Ben Dantzer & Stan Boutin
Reproduction is an energetically expensive activity for both sexes. However, if males and females differ in their annual timing of reproduction, such that peak investment for one sex occurs during a more resource-limited period, there is an opportunity for sex-specific selection to act on the acquisition of energetic resources. Both male and female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) cache conifer cones, although males typically have larger caches than females. Peak energetic investment in reproduction...

Additional file 1 of Natural language processing for identification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients from cardiac magnetic resonance reports

Nakeya Dewaswala, David Chen, Huzefa Bhopalwala, Vinod C. Kaggal, Sean P. Murphy, J. Martijn Bos, Jeffrey B. Geske, Bernard J. Gersh, Steve R. Ommen, Philip A. Araoz, Michael J. Ackerman & Adelaide M. Arruda-Olson
Additional file 1. Supplemental Table 1. Sample of NLP system errors.

Additional file 1 of Bell’s palsy misdiagnosis: characteristics of occult tumors causing facial paralysis

Eun-Jae Chung, Damir Matic, Kevin Fung, S. Danielle MacNeil, Anthony C. Nichols, Ruba Kiwan, KengYeow Tay & John Yoo
Additional file 1. Table S1. Modified House-Brackmann grading sale system.

Bell’s palsy misdiagnosis: characteristics of occult tumors causing facial paralysis

Eun-Jae Chung, Damir Matic, Kevin Fung, S. Danielle MacNeil, Anthony C. Nichols, Ruba Kiwan, KengYeow Tay & John Yoo
Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to report the incidence and clinical course of a series of patients who were misdiagnosed with Bell’s palsy and were eventually proven to have occult neoplasms. Methods Two hundred forty patients with unilateral facial paralysis who were assessed at the facial nerve reanimation clinic, Victoria Hospital, London Health Science Centre, from 2008 through 2017 were reviewed. Persistent paralysis without recovery was the presenting complaint. Results Nine patients...

Online learning versus workshops: a rank minimized trial comparing the effect of two knowledge translation strategies designed to alter knowledge, readiness to change, and self-efficacy with respect to rehabilitation outcome measures

Mike Szekeres & Joy C. MacDermid
Traditional face-to-face learning is often replaced by virtual learning because it can be more feasible and cost-effective, and more recently due to the need for social distancing. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of two innovative knowledge translation (KT) interventions; in-person stakeholder-hosted, interactive, problem-based seminars (SHIPS) versus online problem-based tutorials (e-PBL) in changing knowledge, readiness to change, and self-efficacy with respect to the use of rehabilitation outcome measures. Physical and occupational therapists (n =...

Three new cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona squamosa

Chengyao Ma, Yue Li, Jiahui Lu, Maolin Wang, Xiang Li, Jianwei Chen, Yong Chen & Wenzheng Ju
Three new annonaceous acetogenins, annotemoyin L (1), annotemoyin Y (2) and annotemoyin X, (3) were isolated from the seeds of Annona squamosa Linn. Their structures were ascertained by chemical methods and spectral data. The cytotoxic activities of compounds against three multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines were evaluated, and compound 3 exerted strong cytotoxicity against SMMC 7721/ADR (IC50 0.163 μM), A549/T (IC50 0.064 μM) and MCF-7/ADR (IC50 0.057 μM).

sj-docx-1-mso-10.1177_20552173221128170 - Supplemental material for Autoimmune diseases and cancers overlapping with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD): A systematic review

Negar Molazadeh, Gauruv Bose, Itay Lotan & Michael Levy
Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-mso-10.1177_20552173221128170 for Autoimmune diseases and cancers overlapping with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD): A systematic review by Negar Molazadeh, Gauruv Bose, Itay Lotan and Michael Levy in Multiple Sclerosis Journal – Experimental, Translational and Clinical

Additional file 1 of Facing hierarchy: a qualitative study of residents’ experiences in an obstetrical simulation scenario

Adam B. Garber, Glenn Posner, Taylor Roebotham, M. Dylan Bould & Taryn Taylor
Additional file 1. Themes and sample illustrative quotations of the communication strategies and coping mechanism categories.

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