19 Works

Archive data for: Loss of predation risk from apex predators can exacerbate marine tropicalization caused by extreme climatic events

Robert Nowicki, Jordan Thomson, James Fourqurean, Aaron Wirsing & Michael Heithaus
1. Extreme climatic events (ECEs) and predator removal represent some of the most widespread stressors to ecosystems. Though species interactions can alter ecological effects of climate change (and vice versa), it is less understood whether, when, and how predator removal can interact with ECEs to exacerbate their effects. Understanding the circumstances under which such interactions might occur is critical because predator loss is widespread and ECEs can generate rapid phase shifts in ecosystems which can...

Independent evolutionary changes in fine-root traits among main clades during the diversification of seed plants

Oscar Valverde-Barrantes, Hafiz Maherali, Christopher Baraloto & Christopher Blackwood
Rationale: Changes in fine-root morphology are typically associated with transitions from the ancestral arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to the alternative ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or non-mycorrhizal (NM) associations. However, the modifications in root morphology may also coincide with new modifications in leaf hydraulics and growth habit during angiosperm diversification. These hypotheses have not been evaluated concurrently, which limits our understanding of the causes of fine-root evolution. Methods: To explore the evolution of fine-root systems, we assembled a 600+...

Data from: Surf and Turf Vision: Patterns and predictors of visual acuity in compound eye evolution

Kathryn Feller, Lorian Schweikert, Camilla Sharkey, Alyssa McDuffee-Altekruse, Heather Bracken-Grissom, Nathan Lord & Megan Porter
Eyes have the flexibility to evolve to meet the ecological demands of their users. Relative to camera-type eyes, the fundamental limits of optical diffraction in arthropod compound eyes restricts the ability to resolve fine detail (visual acuity) to much lower degrees. We tested the capacity of several ecological factors to predict arthropod visual acuity, while simultaneously controlling for shared phylogenetic history. In this study, we have generated the most comprehensive review of compound eye visual...

A closer look at invasiveness and relatedness: life histories, temperature and establishment success of four congeners

Jennifer Rehage, Eric Maurer, Laura Lopez & Andy Sih
Successful invasive species are often closely related to other invasive species suggesting that shared traits contribute to their invasion success. Alternatively, related species can differ in invasiveness, where some are highly invasive yet congeners seem unable to invade. Here, we compared the traits and establishment abilities of two highly successful invasive species, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki to those of two close relatives, G. geiseri and G. hispaniolae. Using laboratory experiments, we compared low temperature...

Regional effect of visual clutter

Jamie Theobald & Carlos Ruiz
Stabilizing responses to disturbances are a critical part of the flight control system in flies. While strongly mediated by mechanoreception, much of the final steering response results from the wide field motion detection system associated with vision. The accuracy of the optomotor responses is affected when the characteristics of the visual input exceed the dynamic range of the motion detecting system. This has been demonstrated for stimulus parameters such as contrast, brightness, velocity, and spatial...

Free‐living and symbiotic lifestyles of a thermotolerant coral endosymbiont display profoundly distinct transcriptomes under both stable and heat stress conditions

Anthony J. Bellantuono, Katherine E. Dougan, Camila Granados‐Cifuentes & Mauricio Rodriguez‐Lanetty
Reef-building corals depend upon a nutritional endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the family Symbiodiniaceae for the majority of their energetic needs. While this mutualistic relationship is impacted by numerous stressors, warming oceans are a predominant threat to coral reefs, placing the future of the world’s reefs in peril. Some Symbiodiniaceae species exhibit tolerance to thermal stress, but the in hospite symbiont response to thermal stress is underexplored. To describe the underpinnings of symbiosis and heat...

Guidelines for including bamboos in tropical ecosystem monitoring

Belen Fadrique, Joseph Veldman, James Dalling, Lynn Clark, Lia Montti, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Debora Rother, Francisca Ely, William Farfan-Rios, Paul Gagnon, Juan Carlos Camargo Garcia, Sonali Saha, Thomas Veblen, Ximena Londoño, Kenneth Feeley & Cara Rockwell
Bamboos are a diverse and ecologically important group of plants that have the potential to modulate the structure, composition and function of forests. With the aim of increasing the visibility and representation of bamboo in forest surveys, and to standardize techniques across ecosystems, we present a protocol for bamboo monitoring in permanent research plots. A bamboo protocol is necessary because measurements and sampling schemes that are well-suited to trees are inadequate for monitoring most bamboo...

Ventral motion parallax enhances fruit fly steering to visual sideslip

Carlos Ruiz & Jamie Theobald
Flies and other insects use incoherent motion (parallax) to the front and sides to measure distances and identify obstacles during translation. Although additional depth information could be drawn from below, there is no experimental proof that they use it. The finding that blowflies encode motion disparities in their ventral visual fields suggests this may be an important region for depth information. We used a virtual flight arena to measure fruit fly responses to optic flow....

Match and mismatch: Integrating consumptive effects of predators, prey traits, and habitat selection in colonizing aquatic insects

Matthew R. Pintar & William J. Resetarits
Predators are a particularly critical component of habitat quality, as they affect survival, morphology, behavior, population size, and community structure through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects. Non-consumptive effects can often exceed consumptive effects, but their relative importance is undetermined in many systems. Our objective was to determine the consumptive and non-consumptive effects of a predaceous aquatic insect, Notonecta irrorata, on colonizing aquatic beetles. We tested how N. irrorata affected survival and habitat selection of colonizing...

Data from: Light environment drives evolution of color vision genes in butterflies and moths

Yash Sondhi, Emily Elis, Seth Bybee, Jamie Theobald & Akito Kawahara
Opsins, combined with a chromophore, are the primary light-sensing molecules in animals and are crucial for color vision. Throughout animal evolution duplications and losses of opsin proteins are common, but it is unclear what is driving these gains and losses. Light availability is implicated, and dim environments are often associated with low opsin diversity and loss. Correlations between high opsin diversity and bright environments, however, are tenuous. To test if increased light availability is associated...

Root anatomy helps to reconcile observed root trait syndromes in tropical tree species

Oscar Valverde-Barrantes, Christopher Baraloto, Heidy Schimann & Louise Authier
Studying the organization of functional traits in plant leaves and stems has revealed notable patterns linking function and form; however, evidence of similarly robust organization in root tissues remains controversial. We posit that anatomical traits in roots can provide insight on the overall organization of the root system. We hypothesize that A) size variation in the tissue outside the stele relates in a non-linear fashion with functional traits associated with direct resource uptake, including a...

South Florida cavity nest webs: nest inspection data, photographs, and videos

Joshua Diamond & Michael Ross
Nest data, photographs, and videos from an investigation of cavity nest webs in Miami, Florida, and the surrounding region. One spreadsheet organizes each cavity-bearing tree with by number. The second spreadsheet records each individual cavity present, with records of inspection. Photographs and videos were taken with a pole-mounted camera built to inspect the inside of woodpecker cavities.

Illuminating the impact of diel vertical migration on visual gene expression in deep-sea shrimp

Danielle DeLeo & Heather Bracken-Grissom
Diel vertical migration (DVM) of marine animals represents one of the largest migrations on our planet. Migrating fauna are subjected to a variety of light fields and environmental conditions that can have notable impacts on sensory mechanisms, including an organism’s visual capabilities. Among deep-sea migrators are oplophorid shrimp, that vertically migrate hundreds of meters to feed in shallow waters at night. These species also have bioluminescent light organs that emit light during migrations to aid...

Data from: Early maternal loss affects diurnal cortisol slopes in immature but not mature wild chimpanzees

Cedric Girard-Buttoz, Patrick Tkaczynski, Liran Samuni, Pawel Fedurek, Cristina Gomes, Therese Löhrich, Virgile Manin, Anna Preis, Prince Valé, Tobias Deschner, Roman Wittig & Catherine Crockford
Biological embedding of stress experienced early in life is a mechanism proposed to explain the fitness costs of maternal loss in mammals. This embedding is expected to lead to long-term alterations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity. This idea has, however, rarely been tested in wild long-lived animals. We assessed whether, as in humans, maternal loss had short and long-term impacts on orphan wild chimpanzee urinary cortisol levels and diurnal urinary cortisol slopes,...

Multi year social stability and social information use in reef sharks with diel fission-fusion dynamics: Raw acoustic detection

Yannis Papastamatiou
Animals across vertebrate taxa form social communities and often exist as fission-fusion societies. Central place foragers (CPF) may form social groups, from which they will predictably disperse to forage, either individually or in smaller groups, before returning to fuse with the larger group. However, the function and stability of social associations in predatory fish acting as CPFs is unknown, as individuals do not need to return to a shelter, yet show fidelity to core areas....

Light organ photosensitivity in deep-sea shrimp may suggest a novel role in counterillumination

Danielle DeLeo, Heather Bracken-Grissom, Megan L. Porter, Tom Iwanicki, Jamie Sickles & Tamara M. Frank
Extraocular photoreception, the ability to detect and respond to light outside of the eye, has not been previously described in deep-sea invertebrates. Here, we investigate photosensitivity in the bioluminescent light organs (photophores) of deep-sea shrimp, an autogenic system in which the organism possesses the substrates and enzymes to produce light. Through the integration of transcriptomics, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we find evidence for the expression of opsins and phototransduction genes known to play a...

Confronting assumptions about prey selection by lunge-feeding whales using a process-based model

Ellen Chenoweth, Kevin Boswell, Ari Friedlaender, Megan McPhee, Julia Burrows, Ron Heintz & Jan Straley
The relative energetic benefits of foraging on one type of prey rather than another are not easily measured, particularly for large free-ranging predators. Nonetheless, assumptions about preferred and alternative prey are frequently made when predicting how a predator may impact its environment, adapt to environmental change, or interact with human activities. We developed and implemented a process-based model to investigate the potential energetic benefit (PEB) of in situ foraging opportunities in rorqual whales. The model...

Bamboo phenology and life cycle drive seasonal and long-term functioning of Amazonian bamboo-dominated forests

Belen Fadrique, Daniel Gann, Bruce Nelson, Sassan Saatchi & Kenneth Feeley
1. Bamboo-dominated forests (BDF) extend over large areas in the drought-prone Southwestern Amazon, yet little is known about the dynamics of these ecosystems. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that bamboo modulates large-scale ecosystem dynamics through competition with coexisting trees for water. 2. We examined spatio-temporal patterns of remotely sensed metrics (Enhanced Vegetation Index [EVI], Normalized Difference Moisture Index [NDMI]) in >300 Landsat images as proxies for canopy leaf phenology and water content at two time...

Data From: Conservation planning in an uncertain climate: identifying projects that remain valuable and feasible across future scenarios

Sean Wineland, Rachel Fovargue Fovargue, Ken Gill, Shabnam Rezapour & Thomas Neeson
Conservation actors face the challenge of allocating limited resources despite uncertainty about future climate. A key goal is to minimize the potential for negative outcomes under future scenarios. Thus, we address a global conservation challenge: how to allocate conservation investments given high uncertainty about future climate conditions. To that end, we present a method for identifying projects that remain valuable and feasible across climate scenarios and apply our framework to freshwater biodiversity conservation in the...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Florida International University
  • University of Hawaii at Manoa
  • University of Miami
  • Texas A&M University System
  • Reed College
  • University of Washington
  • Western Institute of Technology and Higher Education
  • Miami Dade College
  • University of Minnesota
  • Technological University of Pereira