79 Works

Data from: Anthropogenic hybridization between endangered migratory and commercially harvested stationary whitefish taxa (Coregonus spp.)

Jan Dierking, Luke Phelps, Kim Præbel, Gesine Ramm, Enno Prigge, Jost Borcherding, Matthias Brunke & Christophe Eizaguirre
Natural hybridization plays a key role in the process of speciation. However, anthropogenic (human induced) hybridization of historically isolated taxa raises conservation issues. Due to weak barriers to gene flow and the presence of endangered taxa, the whitefish species complex is an excellent study system to investigate the consequences of hybridization in conservation. We focused on three naturally reproductively isolated whitefish taxa in Germany: the endangered, anadromous North Sea houting (NSH) and Baltic houting (BH),...

Data from: The contribution of post-copulatory mechanisms to incipient ecological speciation in sticklebacks

Joshka Kaufmann, Christophe Eizaguirre, Manfred Milinski & Tobias L. Lenz
Ecology can play a major role in species diversification. As individuals are adapting to contrasting habitats, reproductive barriers may evolve at multiple levels. While pre-mating barriers have been extensively studied, the evolution of post-mating reproductive isolation during early stages of ecological speciation remains poorly understood. In diverging three-spined stickleback ecotypes from two lakes and two rivers, we observed differences in sperm traits between lake and river males. Interestingly, these differences did not translate into ecotype-specific...

Data from: Effects of experimental warming on biodiversity depend on ecosystem type and local species composition

Daniel S. Gruner, Matthew E. S. Bracken, Stella A. Berger, Britas Klemens Eriksson, Lars Gamfeldt, Birte Matthiessen, Stefanie Moorthi, Ulrich Sommer & Helmut Hillebrand
Climatic warming is a primary driver of change in ecosystems worldwide. Here, we synthesize responses of species richness and evenness from 187 experimental warming studies in a quantitative meta-analysis. We asked 1) whether effects of warming on diversity were detectable and consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, 2) if effects on diversity correlated with intensity, duration, and experimental unit size of temperature change manipulations, and 3) whether these experimental effects on diversity interacted with...

Retreat of Humboldt Gletscher, North Greenland, driven by undercutting from a warmer ocean

Eric Rignot, Lu An, Nolwenn Chauché, Mathieu Morlighem, Seongsu Jeong, Michael Wood, Jeremie Mouginot, Joshua Willis, Ingo Klaucke, Wilhelm Weinrebe & Andreas Muenchow
Humboldt Gletscher is a 100-km wide, slow-moving glacier in north Greenland which holds a 19-cm global sea level equivalent. Humboldt has been the fourth largest contributor to sea level rise since 1972 but the cause of its mass loss has not been elucidated. Multi-beam echo sounding data collected in 2019 indicate a seabed 200 m deeper than previously known. Conductivity temperature depth (CTD) data reveal the presence of warm water of Atlantic origin at 0°C...

Invasive Arten als Chance? Interview

Martin Wahl
ESKP-Themenspezial: Biodiversität

Die Vermessung des Meeresbodens

Anne-Cathrin Wölfl
Betrachtet man eine Weltkarte, scheint jeder Winkel der Erde lückenlos kartiert. Selbst der Meeresboden wirkt auf Karten so, als ob bekannt sei, wie seine Oberfläche in der Tiefe der Ozeane aussieht. Dabei ist nur ein Bruchteil davon bisher erforscht.

CO2-Speicherung unterhalb des Meeresbodens?

Oliver Jorzik & Klaus Wallmann
Ist es möglich, Treibhausgase in der Nordsee zu speichern? Mit welchen Chancen und Risiken auf Ökosysteme wären derartige Speicherungen verbunden? Und helfen sie im Kampf gegen den Klimawandel?

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

Cellular costs underpin micronutrient limitation in phytoplankton

J. Scott P. McCain, Alessandro Tagliabue, Edward Susko, Eric P. Achterberg, Andrew E. Allen & Erin M. Bertrand
Micronutrients control phytoplankton growth in the ocean, influencing carbon export and fisheries. It is currently unclear how micronutrient scarcity affects cellular processes, and how interdependence across micronutrients arises. We show that proximate causes of micronutrient growth limitation and interdependence are governed by cumulative cellular costs of acquiring and using micronutrients. Using a mechanistic proteomic allocation model of a polar diatom focused on iron and manganese, we demonstrate how cellular processes fundamentally underpin micronutrient limitation, and...

Towards common file formats and data standards for seafloor geodesy

Pierre Sakic, Valerie Ballu, Heidrun Kopp, Dietrich Lange & Jean-Yves Royer

Schweres Gerät auffahren. Nautilus Minerals und Japan auf dem Weg zum Tiefseebergbau. Interview

Sven Petersen
In Papua-Neuguinea versucht ein kanadisches Unternehmen, dem Meer wirtschaftlich Gold und Kupfer Meer abzuringen. Wie realistisch ist das Vorhaben? Was sind möglicherweise limitierende Faktoren? Wie weit ist die Technik bei anderen Akteuren wie Japan? Dazu GEOMAR-Experte Dr. Sven Petersen im Interview.

Mengen metallischer Rohstoffe. Was schlummert im Meer? Interview

Sven Petersen
Von welchen bekannten Mengen an Rohstoffen im Meer ist momentan die Rede? Wie fällt der Vergleich zum Land aus? Vermuten Experten im Meer überhaupt ein Rohstoffpotential, welches tatsächlich langfristig Alternativen bietet. Ein Überblick zum Stand des Wissens von Rohstoffvorkommen im Meer gibt Dr. Sven Petersen vom GEOMAR im Interview.

Nachhaltige Auswirkungen des Tiefseebergbaus

Matthias Haeckel
Die Technologie für ein umfassendes Umweltmonitoring in der Tiefsee ist vorhanden. Es gilt nun, die Arbeit der Internationalen Meeresbodenbehörde am 'Mining Code' zu unterstützen. Benötigt werden verlässliche Indikatoren für einen guten Umweltzustand und Grenzwerte zur Verhinderung von Umweltschäden.

Influence of past climate change on phylogeography and demographic history of narwhals, Monodon monoceros

Marie Louis, Mikkel Skovrind, Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Cristina Garilao, Kristin Kaschner, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, James Haile, Christian Lydersen, Kit Kovacs, Eva Garde, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Lianne Postma, Steve Ferguson, Eske Willerslev & Eline Lorenzen
The Arctic is warming at an unprecedented rate, with unknown consequences for endemic fauna. However, Earth has experienced severe climatic oscillations in the past, and understanding how species responded to them might provide insight into their resilience to near-future climatic predictions. Little is known about the responses of Arctic marine mammals to past climatic shifts, but narwhals (Monodon monoceros) are considered one of the endemic Arctic species most vulnerable to environmental change. Here, we analyze...

Wie weiter mit den Kampfmittelaltlasten im Meer?

Torsten Frey & Jens Greinert
Kampfmittel im Meer sind eine Bedrohung für die Meeresumwelt und ein Nachhaltigkeitsrisiko für die Bewirtschaftung der Meere. Zum Ausmaß dieser Bedrohung und dem zukünftigen Umgang mit der Altlast wird seit einigen Jahren mit zunehmender Intensität geforscht. Zeit für eine Betrachtung des Status Quo.

Die ultimative Naturkatastrophe: Supereruptionen

Karen Strehlow
Mit ihren katastrophalen Auswirkungen, die den ganzen Globus betreffen, stellen Supereruptionen alle geschichtlich dokumentierten Eruptionen in den Schatten.

Colima - Leben am Fuße eines aktiven Vulkans. Interview

Irving R. Munguia Gonzalez & Karen Strehlow
Die normale Bevölkerung darf die 7-km-Sperrzone um den Vulkan nicht betreten. Irving Munguia Gonzalez ist am Colima aufgewachsen und erforscht ihn jetzt.

Data from: Latitudinal and voltinism compensation shape thermal reaction norms for growth rate

Lisa N S Shama, Melina Campero-Paz, K. Mathias Wegner, Marjan De Block & Robby Stoks
Latitudinal variation in thermal reaction norms of key fitness traits may inform about the response of populations to climate warming, yet their adaptive nature and evolutionary potential is poorly known. We assessed the contribution of quantitative genetic, neutral genetic and environmental effects to thermal reaction norms of growth rate for populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Among populations, reaction norms differed primarily in elevation suggesting that time constraints associated with shorter growth seasons in univoltine,...

Data from: Genomic atolls of differentiation in coral reef fishes (Hypoplectrus spp, Serranidae)

Oscar Puebla, Eldredge Bermingham & W. Owen McMillan
Because the vast majority of species are well-diverged, relatively little is known about the genomic architecture of speciation during the early stages of divergence. Species within recent evolutionary radiations are often minimally diverged from a genomic perspective, and therefore provide rare opportunities to address this question. Here, we leverage the hamlet radiation (Hypoplectrus spp, brightly colored reef fishes from the tropical western Atlantic) to characterize genomic divergence during the early stages of speciation. Transect surveys...

Single cell transcriptomics of of Abedinium reveals a new early-branching dinoflagellate lineage

Elizabeth Cooney, Noriko Okamoto, Anna Cho, Elisabeth Hehenberger, Thomas Richards, Alexandra Worden, Alyson Santoro, Brian Leander & Patrick Keeling
Dinoflagellates possess many unique cellular characteristics with unresolved evolutionary histories including nuclei with greatly expanded genomes and chromatin packaged using histone-like proteins and dinoflagellate-viral nucleoproteins instead of histones, highly reduced mitochondrial genomes with extensive RNA editing, a mix of photosynthetic and cryptic secondary plastids, and tertiary plastids. Resolving the evolutionary origin of these traits requires understanding their ancestral states and early intermediates. Several deep-branching dinoflagellate lineages are good candidates for such reconstruction, however they tend...

Genomic footprints of a biological invasion: introduction from Asia and dispersal in Europe of the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva)

Miguel Baltazar-Soares, Simon Blanchet, Julien Cote, Ali Serkhan Tarkan, Eva Záhorská, Rodolphe Gozlan & Christophe Eizaguirre
Facilitated by the intensification of global trading, the introduction and dispersal of species to areas in which they are historically non-native is nowadays common. From an evolutionary standpoint, invasions are paradoxical: not only non-native environments could be different from native ones for which introduced individuals would be ill-adapted, but also small founding population size should be associated with reduced adaptive potential. As such, biological invasions are considered valuable real-time evolutionary experiments. Here, we investigated the...

Data from: Macrofouling communities and the degradation of plastic bags in the sea: an in situ experiment

Nora-Charlotte Pauli, Jana S. Petermann, Chrisitan Lott & Miriam Weber
The increasing amount of plastic littered into the sea may provide a new substratum for benthic organisms. These marine fouling communities on plastic have not received much scientific attention. We present, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive analysis of their macroscopic community composition, their primary production and the polymer degradation comparing conventional polyethylene (PE) and a biodegradable starch-based plastic blend in coastal benthic and pelagic habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. The biomass of the fouling...

Checkliste zur Unterstützung der Helmholtz-Zentren bei der Implementierung von Richtlinien für nachhaltige Forschungssoftware

Reinhard Messerschmidt, Heinz Pampel, Felix Bach, Wolfgang zu Castell, Michael Denker, Ants Finke, Bernadette Fritzsch, Martin Hammitzsch, Uwe Konrad, Yvonne Leifels, Christoph Möhl, Marco Nolden, Markus Scheinert, Tobias Schlauch, Thomas Schnicke & Dirk Steglich
Mit der voranschreitenden Digitalisierung von Forschung und Lehre steigt die Zahl an Software-Lösungen, die an wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen entstehen und zur Erkenntnisgewinnung genutzt werden. Die – unter dem Stichwort Open Science geforderte – Zugänglichkeit und Nachnutzung von wissenschaftlichen Ergebnissen kann in vielen Fachgebieten nur sichergestellt werden, wenn neben Forschungsdaten auch Programmcode offen zugänglich gemacht wird. Die vorliegende Handreichung richtet sich an Entscheider*innen in den Helmholtz-Zentren, die sich mit der Implementierung von Richtlinien für nachhaltige Forschungssoftware befassen....

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