75 Works

Data from: Night reveals individuality in a shoaling fish

Laura Härkönen, Nico Alioravainen, Anssi Vainikka & Pekka Hyvärinen
Many animals rely heavily on visual cues from their environment, and therefore show circadian rhythmicity in their behavioral activities. In group-living animals, individuals’ activity rhythms must be synchronized not only with diel light-dark cycle but also with other group members. Increasing evidence has recently shown that circadian behaviors of animals are consistent within individuals and different between individuals, but the sources and consistency of diel activity variation in social context are less known. Using radio...

Data from: Low but significant genetic differentiation underlies biologically meaningful phenotypic divergence in a large Atlantic salmon population

Tutku Aykanat, Susan E. Johnston, Eero Niemelä, Panu Orell, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig R. Primmer
Despite decades of research assessing the genetic structure of natural populations, the biological meaning of low yet significant genetic divergence often remains unclear due to a lack of associated phenotypic and ecological information. At the same time, structured populations with low genetic divergence and overlapping boundaries can potentially provide excellent models to study adaptation and reproductive isolation in cases where high-resolution genetic markers and relevant phenotypic and life history information are available. Here, we combined...

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population

Valerio Bartolino, Huidong Tian, Ulf Bergström, Pekka Jounela, Eero Aro, Christian Dieterich, H.E. Markus Meier, Massimiliano Cardinale, Barbara Bland, Michele Casini & H. E. Markus Meier
Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we...

Data from: Pulse of inflammatory proteins in the pregnant uterus of European polecats (Mustela putorius) leading to the time of implantation

Heli Lindeberg, Richard J.S. Burchmore, Malcolm W. Kennedy & Richard J. S. Burchmore
Uterine secretory proteins protect the uterus and conceptuses against infection, facilitate implantation, control cellular damage resulting from implantation, and supply pre-implantation embryos with nutrients. Unlike in humans, the early conceptus of the European polecat (Mustela putorius; ferret) grows and develops free in the uterus until implanting at about 12 days after mating. We found that the proteins appearing in polecat uteri changed dramatically with time leading to implantation. Several of these proteins have also been...

Negative associations between parasite avoidance, resistance and tolerance predict host health in salmonid fish populations

Ines Klemme, Pekka Hyvärinen & Anssi Karvonen
Genetic variation in defence against parasite infections is fundamental for host-parasite evolution. The overall level of defence of a host individual or population includes mechanisms that reduce parasite exposure (avoidance), establishment (resistance) or pathogenicity (tolerance). However, how these traits operate and evolve in concert is not well understood. Here, we investigated genetic variation in and associations between avoidance, resistance and tolerance in a natural host-parasite system. Replicated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

The roles of temperature, nest predators and information parasites for geographical variation in egg covering behaviour of tits (Paridae)

Olli Loukola, Peter Adamik, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Blandine Doligez, Einar Flensted-Jensen, Tapio Eeva, Sami Kivelä, Toni Laaksonen, Chiara Morosinotto, Raivo Mänd, Petri Niemelä, Vladimir Remeš, Jelmer Samplonius, Manrico Sebastiano, Juan Carlos Senar, Tore Slagsvold, Alberto Sorace, Barbara Tschirren, János Török & Jukka Forsman
Aim: Nest building is widespread among animals. Nests may provide receptacles for eggs, developing offspring and the parents, and protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Nests may also indicate the quality of the territory and its owner and can be considered as an extended phenotype of its builder(s). Nests may, thus, function as a sexual and social signal. Here, we examined ecological and abiotic factors—temperature, nest predation and interspecific information utilization—shaping geographical variation in a...

Seedling traits from root to shoot exhibit genetic diversity and distinct responses to environmental heterogeneity within a tree population

Matti J. Salmela, Sannakajsa M. Velmala & Taina Pennanen
Phenotypic diversity within plant species is crucial to shaping evolutionary responses of populations and interactions among species, yet intraspecific genetic variability notably in roots has attracted little attention. Further, evidence for the root−shoot trait synchronisation remains inconclusive, narrowing our understanding of the role that belowground traits play in local adaptation. We applied broad 'top-to-toe' phenotyping to a model system whose native environmental conditions were simulated in experimental settings. Fifteen maternal families of Norway spruce Picea...

Data from: Genetic growth potential, rather than phenotypic size, predicts migration phenotype in Atlantic salmon

Paul Vincent Debes, Nikolai Piavchenko, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
Knowledge of the relative importance of genetic versus environmental determinants of major developmental transitions is pertinent to understanding phenotypic evolution. In salmonid fishes, a major developmental transition enables a risky seaward migration that provides access to feed resources. In Atlantic salmon, initiation of the migrant phenotype, and thus age of migrants, is presumably controlled via thresholds of a quantitative liability, approximated by body size expressed long before the migration. However, how well size approximates liability,...

Information collected during the post-breeding season guides future breeding decisions in a migratory bird

Jere Tolvanen, Chiara Morosinotto, Jukka Forsman & Robert Thomson
Breeding habitat choice and investment decisions are key contributors to fitness in animals. Density of individuals is a well-known cue of habitat quality used for future breeding decisions, but accuracy of density cues decreases as individuals disperse from breeding sites. Used nests remain an available information source also after breeding season, but whether such information is used for breeding decisions is less well known. We experimentally investigated whether migratory, cavity-nesting pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) prospect...

Data from \"Removal of grazers alters the response of tundra soil carbon to warming and enhanced nitrogen availability\", Ecological Monograps in October 2019

Henni Ylänne, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Maria Väisänen, Minna K Männistö, Saija H. K. Ahonen, Johan Olofsson & Sari Stark
Here we present the data used in the manuscript "Removal of grazers alters the response of tundra soil carbon to warming and enhanced nitrogen availability", Ecological Monograps, Early view in October 2019 by H. Ylänne, E. Kaarlejärvi, M. Väisänen, M. K. Männistö, S. H. K. Ahonen, J. Olofsson & S. Stark. In this paper we studied, how five years of experimental warming and increased soil nitrogen availability interact with both long- and short-term differences in...

Data from: Taxon abundance, diversity, co-occurrence and network analysis of the ruminal microbiota in response to dietary changes in dairy cows

Ilma Tapio, Daniel Fischer, Lucia Blasco, Miika Tapio, R. John Wallace, Ali R. Bayat, Laura Ventto, Minna Kahala, Enyew Negussie, Kevin J. Shingfield & Johanna Vilkki
The effects of sunflower oil (SO) (0 or 50 g/kg diet dry matter), supplemented to diets contrasting in the proportion of forage and concentrate (FC) (65:35 vs 35:65), were evaluated for their influence on rumen microbiome. Four multiparous Nordic Red dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and four 35-d periods. Ruminal digesta samples were collected on d...

Data from: Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore

Astrid Vik Stronen, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Cino Pertoldi, Ditte Demontis, Ettore Randi, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Tomasz Borowik, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Josip Kusak, Ilpo Kojola, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis, Janis Ozolins, Vitalii Dumenko & Sylwia D. Czarnomska
Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north–south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n =...

Data from: Food limitation constrains host immune responses to nematode infections

Kristian M. Forbes, Tapio Mappes, Tarja Sironen, Tomas Strandin, Peter Stuart, Seppo Meri, Olli Vapalahti, Heikki Henttonen & Otso Huitu
Trade-offs in the allocation of finite-energy resources among immunological defences and other physiological processes are believed to influence infection risk and disease severity in food-limited wildlife populations. However, this prediction has received little experimental investigation. Here we test the hypothesis that food limitation impairs the ability of wild field voles (Microtus agrestis) to mount an immune response against parasite infections. We conducted a replicated experiment on vole populations maintained in large outdoor enclosures during boreal...

Data from: Co-inheritance of sea age at maturity and iteroparity in the Atlantic salmon vgll3 genomic region

Tutku Aykanat, Mikhail Ozerov, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Panu Orell, Eero Niemelä, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig R Primmer
Co-inheritance in life history traits may result in unpredictable evolutionary trajectories if not accounted for in life-history models. Iteroparity (the reproductive strategy of reproducing more than once) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a fitness trait with substantial variation within and among populations. In the Teno River in northern Europe, iteroparous individuals constitute an important component of many populations and have experienced a sharp increase in abundance in the last 20 years, partly overlapping with...

Data from: Genetic evidence of female kin clusters in a continuous population of a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx

Katja Holmala, Annika Herrero, Alexander Kopatz, Julia Schregel, Hans G. Eiken & Snorre B. Hagen
Large terrestrial carnivores can sometimes display strong family bonds affecting the spatial distribution of related individuals. We studied the spatial genetic relatedness and family structure of female Eurasian lynx, continuously distributed in southern Finland. We hypothesized that closely related females form matrilineal assemblages, clustering together with relatives living in the neighboring areas. We evaluated this hypothesis using tissue samples of 133 legally harvested female lynx (from year 2007 to 2015), genotyped with 23 microsatellite markers,...

Data from: Gene flow from domesticated escapes alters the life history of wild Atlantic salmon

Geir H. Bolstad, Kjetil Hindar, Grethe Robertsen, Bror Jonsson, Harald Sægrov, Ola H. Diserud, Peder Fiske, Arne J. Jensen, Kurt Urdal, Tor F. Næsje, Bjørn T. Barlaup, Bjørn Florø-Larsen, Håvard Lo, Eero Niemelä & Sten Karlsson
Interbreeding between domesticated and wild animals occurs in several species. This gene flow has long been anticipated to induce genetic changes in life-history traits of wild populations, thereby influencing population dynamics and viability. Here, we show that individuals with high levels of introgression (domesticated ancestry) have altered age and size at maturation in 62 wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar populations, including seven ancestral populations to breeding lines of the domesticated salmon. This study documents widespread...

Data from: Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Sietse Van Der Linde, Laura M. Suz, C. David L. Orme, Filipa Cox, Henning Andreae, Endla Asi, Bonnie Atkinson, Sue Benham, Christopher Carroll, Nathalie Cools, Bruno De Vos, Hans-Peter Dietrich, Johannes Eichhorn, Joachim Germann, Tine Grebenc, Hyun S. Gweon, Karin Hansen, Frank Jacob, Ferdinand Kristöfel, Pawel Lech, Miklos Manninger, Jan Martin, Henning Meesenburg, Päivi Merilä, Manuel Nicolas … & Martin I. Bidartondo
Explaining the large-scale diversity of soil organisms that drive biogeochemical processes—and their responses to environmental change—is critical. However, identifying consistent drivers of belowground diversity and abundance for some soil organisms at large spatial scales remains problematic. Here we investigate a major guild, the ectomycorrhizal fungi, across European forests at a spatial scale and resolution that is—to our knowledge—unprecedented, to explore key biotic and abiotic predictors of ectomycorrhizal diversity and to identify dominant responses and thresholds...

Data from: Egg morphology fails to identify nests parasitized by conspecifics in common pochard: a test based on protein fingerprinting and including female relatedness

Adéla Petrželková, Hannu Pöysä, Petr Klvaňa, Tomáš Albrecht & David Hořák
Conspecific brood parasites lay eggs in nests of other females of the same species. A variety of methods have been developed and used to detect conspecific brood parasitism (CBP). Traditional methods may be inaccurate in detecting CBP and in revealing its true frequency. On the other hand more accurate molecular methods are expensive and time consuming. Eadie developed a method for revealing CBP based on differences in egg morphology. That method is based on Euclidean...

Data from: Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon

Nicola J. Barson, Tuku Aykanat, Kjetil Hindar, Matthew Baranski, Geir H. Bolstad, Peder Fiske, Céleste Jacq, Arne J. Jensen, Susan E. Johnston, Sten Karlsson, Matthew Kent, Thomas Moen, Eero Niemelä, Torfinn Nome, Tor F. Næsje, Panu Orell, Atso Romakkaniemi, Harald Sægrov, Kurt Urdal, Jaakko Erkinaro, Sigbjørn Lien & Craig R. Primmer
Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic...

Data from: A meta-analysis on nitrogen retention by buffer zones

Elena Valkama, Kirsi Usva, Merja Saarinen & Jaana Uusi-Kämppä
Buffer zones, established between agricultural fields and water bodies, are widely used as a measure to reduce nitrogen (N) in surface runoff and groundwater. However, the literature indicates inconsistent results on the N removal efficiency of buffer zones between studies. We performed a weighed meta-analysis on the buffer zone effects on nitrate-N and total N in surface runoff and groundwater by summarizing 46 studies published between 1980 and 2017. The overall effects of buffer zones...

Recent changes in mountain birch forest structure and understory vegetation depend on the seasonal timing of reindeer grazing

Sari Stark, Henni Ylänne & Jouko Kumpula
1. Subarctic forest-tundra ecotones dominated by mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) is an important habitat for semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The seasonal timing of reindeer grazing may direct vegetation trajectories in these systems, because in the summer ranges, mountain birches are subjected to browsing, while in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on understorey vegetation and arboreal lichens but leave the mountain birches intact. 2. Based on earlier research, we predicted that (1) summer browsing...

Offspring phenotype is shaped by the non-sperm fraction of semen

Jukka Kekäläinen, Annalaura Jokiniemi, Matti Janhunen & Hannu Huuskonen
In a large majority of animal species, the only contribution of males to the next generation has been assumed to be their genes (sperm). However, along with sperm, seminal plasma contains a wide array of extracellular factors that have many important functions in reproduction. Yet, the potential intergenerational effects of these factors are virtually unknown. We investigated these effects in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) by experimentally manipulating the presence and identity of seminal plasma and...

High genomic diversity in the bank vole at the northern apex of a range expansion: the role of multiple colonizations and end-glacial refugia

Silvia Marková, Michaela Horníková, Hayley Lanier, Heikki Henttonen, Jeremy Searle, Lawrence Weider & Petr Kotlík
The history of repeated northern glacial cycling and southern climatic stability has long dominated explanations for how genetic diversity is distributed within temperate species in Eurasia and North America. However, growing evidence indicates the importance of cryptic refugia for northern colonization dynamics. An excellent geographic region to assess this is Fennoscandia, where recolonization at the end of the last glaciation was restricted to specific routes and temporal windows. We used genomic data to analyze genetic...

Host plant phenology, insect outbreaks and herbivore communities – The importance of timing

Adam Ekholm, Ayco J. M. Tack, Pertti Pulkkinen & Tomas Roslin
1. Climate change may alter the dynamics of outbreak species by changing the phenological synchrony between herbivores and their host plants. As host plant phenology has a genotypic component that may interact with climate, infestation levels among genotypes might change accordingly. When the outbreaking herbivore is active early in the season, its infestation levels may also leave a detectable imprint on herbivores colonizing the plant later in the season. 2. In this study, we first...

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