14 Works

Data from: What triggers colour change? Effects of background colour and temperature on the development of an alpine grasshopper

J. Pablo Valverde & Holger Schielzeth
Background: Colour polymorphisms are a fascinating facet of many natural populations of plants and animals, and the selective processes that maintain such variation are as relevant as the processes which promote their development. Orthoptera, the insect group that encompasses grasshoppers and bush crickets, includes a particularly large number of species that are colour polymorphic with a marked green-brown polymorphism being particularly widespread. Colour polymorphism has been associated with the need for crypsis and background matching...

Data from: Hypodermic self-insemination as a reproductive assurance strategy

Steven A. Ramm, Aline Schlatter, Maude Poirier & Lukas Schärer
Self-fertilization occurs in a broad range of hermaphroditic plants and animals, and is often thought to evolve as a reproductive assurance strategy under ecological conditions that disfavour or prevent outcrossing. Nevertheless, selfing ability is far from ubiquitous among hermaphrodites, and may be constrained in taxa where the male and female gametes of the same individual cannot easily meet. Here, we report an extraordinary selfing mechanism in one such species, the free-living flatworm Macrostomum hystrix. To...

Data from: Ecologically dependent and intrinsic genetic signatures of postzygotic isolation between sympatric host races of the leaf beetle Lochmaea capreae

Shaghayegh Soudi, Klaus Reinhold & Leif Engqvist
The fitness of hybrids might be compromised as a result of intrinsic isolation and/or because they fall between ecological niches due to their intermediate phenotypes (“extrinsic isolation”). Here, we present data from several crosses (parental crosses, F1, F2 and backcrosses) between the two host races of Lochmaea capreae on willow and birch to test for extrinsic isolation, intrinsic isolation, and environmentally dependent genetic incompatibilities. We employed a reciprocal transplant design in which offspring were raised...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Sex-specific and individual preferences for hunting strategies in white sharks

Alison V. Towner, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Roland Langrock, Robert S. Schick, Malcolm J. Smale, Tami Kaschke, Oliver J.D. Jewell, Yannis P. Papastamatiou & Oliver J. D. Jewell
Fine-scale predator movements may be driven by many factors including sex, habitat, and distribution of resources. There may also be individual preferences for certain movement strategies within a population which can be hard to quantify. Within top predators, movements are also going to be directly related to the mode of hunting; for example sit-and-wait or actively searching for prey. Although there is mounting evidence that different hunting modes can cause opposing trophic cascades, there has...

Data from: Determinants of between-year burrow re-occupation in a colony of the European Bee-eater Merops apiaster

Vera Brust, Hans-Valentin Bastian, Anita Bastian & Tim Schmoll
Re-occupation of existing nesting burrows in the European bee-eater Merops apiaster has only rarely – and if so mostly anecdotically – been documented in the literature record, although such behavior would substantially save time and energy. In this study, we quantify burrow re-occupation in a German colony over a period of eleven years and identify ecological variables determining reuse probability. Of 179 recorded broods, 54% took place in a reused burrow and the overall probability...

Data from: A prezygotic transmission distorter acting equally in female and male zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata

Ulrich Knief, Holger Schielzeth, Hans Ellegren, Bart Kempenaers & Wolfgang Forstmeier
The two parental alleles at a specific locus are usually inherited with equal probability to the offspring. However, at least three processes can lead to an apparent departure from fair segregation: early viability selection, biased gene conversion and various kinds of segregation distortion. Here, we conduct a genome-wide scan for transmission distortion in a captive population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) using 1302 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed by confirmatory analyses on independent samples from the...

Data from: Apparent vector-mediated parent-to-offspring transmission in an avian malaria-like parasite

Nayden Chakarov, Burkhard Linke, Martina Boerner, Alexander Goesmann, Oliver Krüger & Joseph I. Hoffman
Parasite transmission strategies strongly impact host–parasite co-evolution and virulence. However, studies of vector-borne parasites such as avian malaria have neglected the potential effects of host relatedness on the exchange of parasites. To test whether extended parental care in the presence of vectors increases the probability of transmission from parents to offspring, we used high-throughput sequencing to develop microsatellites for malaria-like Leucocytozoon parasites of a wild raptor population. We show that host siblings carry genetically more...

Data from: Contrasting genetic diversity and population structure among three sympatric Madagascan shorebirds: parallels with rarity, endemism, and dispersal

Luke Eberhart-Phillips, Joseph I. Hoffman, Edward G. Brede, Sama Zefania, Martina J. Kamrad, Tamas Szekely, Michael W. Bruford & Luke J. Eberhart-Phillips
Understanding the relative contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to population structure and genetic diversity is a central goal of conservation and evolutionary genetics. One way to achieve this is through comparative population genetic analysis of sympatric sister taxa, which allows evaluation of intrinsic factors such as population demography and life history while controlling for phylogenetic relatedness and geography. We used ten conserved microsatellites to explore the population structure and genetic diversity of three sympatric...

Data from: A draft fur seal genome provides insights into factors affecting SNP validation and how to mitigate them

E. Humble, A. Martinez-Barrio, J. Forcada, P.N. Trathan, M.A.S. Thorne, M. Hoffmann, J. B. W. Wolf, J.I. Hoffman, J. I. Hoffman, P. N. Trathan & M. A. S. Thorne
Custom genotyping arrays provide a flexible and accurate means of genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large number of individuals of essentially any organism. However, validation rates, defined as the proportion of putative SNPs that are verified to be polymorphic in a population, are often very low. A number of potential causes of assay failure have been identified, but none have been explored systematically. In particular, as SNPs are often developed from transcriptomes, parameters...

Data from: Joint torques in a freely walking insect reveal distinct functions of leg joints in propulsion and posture control

Chris Dallmann, Volker Dürr, Josef Schmitz & Chris J. Dallmann
Determining the mechanical output of limb joints is critical for understanding the control of complex motor behaviours such as walking. In the case of insect walking, the neural infrastructure for single-joint control is well described. However, a detailed description of the motor output in form of time-varying joint torques is lacking. Here, we determine joint torques in the stick insect to identify leg joint function in the control of body height and propulsion. Torques were...

Data from: Within-population Y-linked genetic variation for lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

Robert M. Griffin, Damien Le Gall, Holger Schielzeth & Urban Friberg
The view that the Y chromosome is of little importance for phenotypic evolution stems from early studies of Drosophila melanogaster. This species’ Y chromosome contains only 13 protein coding genes, is almost entirely heterochromatic, and is not necessary for male viability. Population genetic theory further suggests that non-neutral variation can only be maintained at the Y chromosome under special circumstances. Yet, recent studies suggest that the D. melanogaster Y chromosome trans-regulates hundreds to thousands of...

Data from: Within-family parent-offspring co-adaptation in a wild bird: on static traits, behavioural reaction norms and sex differences

Carsten Lucass, Peter Korsten, Marcel Eens & Wendt Müller
Parental care, a central component of reproduction in a wide range of animal species, often involves elaborate behavioural interactions between parents and their offspring. Due to the reciprocal nature of these interactions, it has been hypothesized that parental and offspring behaviours (e.g. parental food provisioning and offspring begging) are not only target but also agent of selection. These traits are therefore expected to co-evolve, ultimately leading to co-adaptation of parent and offspring behaviours within families....

Data from: Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana

Amy MacLeod, Ariel Rodríguez, Miguel Vences, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Carolina García, Fritz Trillmich, Gabriele Gentile, Adalgisa Caccone, Galo Quezada & Sebastian Steinfartz
The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation—two major contrasting evolutionary processes—are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within-island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • Bielefeld University
    14
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • Cardiff University
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    1
  • University of Bath
    1
  • University of Antwerp
    1
  • University of Eastern Finland
    1
  • University of Pretoria
    1
  • Dyer Island Conservation Trust
    1
  • Technische Universität Braunschweig
    1