Data from: Evolution of age at primiparity in pinnipeds in the absence of the quality-quantity trade-off in reproductionStephanie Kalberer, Eugene DeRango, Fritz Trillmich & Oliver Krüger
Age at primiparity (AP) is a key life history trait which is crucial to the evolution of life-history strategies. This trait is particularly interesting in pinnipeds (walrus, eared seals and true seals), which are monotocous animals. Thus, the commonly observed trade-off between offspring quality and quantity does not apply to this taxon. Therefore, comparative studies on the evolution of AP might shed light on other important evolutionary correlates when litter size is fixed. Using phylogenetic...
Data from: Release from natural enemies mitigates inbreeding depression in native and invasive Silene latifolia populationsKarin Schrieber, Sabrina Wolf, Catherina Wypior, Diana Höhlig, Stephen R. Keller, Isabell Hensen & Susanne Lachmuth
Inbreeding and enemy infestation are common in plants and can synergistically reduce their performance. This inbreeding × environment (I×E) interaction may be of particular importance for the success of plant invasions if introduced populations experience a release from attack by natural enemies relative to their native conspecifics. Here, we investigate whether inbreeding affects plant infestation damage, whether inbreeding depression in growth and reproduction is mitigated by enemy release and whether this effect is more pronounced...
A fundamental part of the quantitative genetic theory deals with the partitioning of the phenotypic variance into additive genetic and environmental components. During interaction with conspecifics, the interaction partner becomes a part of the environment from the perspective of the focal individual. If the interaction effects have a genetic basis, they are called indirect genetic effects (IGEs) and can evolve along with direct genetic effects. Sexual reproduction is a classic context where potential conflict between...
Data from: Plastic expression of seminal fluid protein genes in a simultaneously hermaphroditic snailYumi Nakadera, Athina Giannakara & Steven A. Ramm
Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are components of the ejaculate that often induce drastic changes in female physiology, such as reducing remating rate or shortening longevity. There is compelling evidence that these functions make SFPs a determinant of male reproductive success, and some evidence that males can strategically invest in their differential production. However, SFP-mediated effects have received relatively little attention in simultaneous hermaphrodites, i.e. organisms that are male and female at the same time. Since...
Seminal fluid-mediated fitness effects in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignanoMichael Weber, Athina Giannakara & Steven Ramm
As a class, seminal fluid proteins are expected to exert strong effects on mating partners due to the selection pressures of sperm competition and sexual conflict. But because of the complexity of this secretion, linking specific proteins to downstream effects on own fitness – via manipulating the reproductive behavior, physiology and ultimately the sperm utilization of mating partners – is not straightforward. Here we adopted a systematic gene knockdown approach to screen for seminal fluid-mediated...
Data from: Exotic plant species are locally adapted but not to high UV‐B radiation: a reciprocal multi‐species experimentMaria Hock, Rainer W. Hofmann, Caroline Müller & Alexandra Erfmeier
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensities differ among global regions, with significantly higher levels in the southern hemisphere. UV-B may act as an environmental filter during plant invasions, which might particularly apply to plant species from Europe introduced to New Zealand. Just like for any other abiotic or biotic filter, successful invaders can cope with novel environmental conditions via plastic responses and/or through rapid adaptation by natural selection in the exotic range. We conducted a multi-species experiment...
Species following a fast life history are expected to express fitness costs mainly as increased mortality while slow-lived species should suffer fertility costs. Because observational studies have limited power to disentangle intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing senescence, we manipulated reproductive effort experimentally in the cavy (Cavia aperea) which produces extremely precocial young. We created two experimental groups: One was allowed to reproduce continuously (CR), the other intermittently (IR) by removing males at regular intervals. We...
Data from: Climate outweighs native vs. non-native range-effects for genetics and common garden performance of a cosmopolitan weedChristoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Adrian Schaar, Uzma Zehra, Marie Jasieniuk, Ragan M. Callaway, Damase P. Khasa, Mohammad M. Al-Gharaibeh, Ylva Lekberg, David U. Nagy, Robert W. Pal, Miki Okada, Karin Schrieber, Kathryn G. Turner, Susanne Lachmuth, Andrey Erst, Tomonori Tsunoda, Min Sheng, Robin Schmidt, Yanling Peng, Wenbo Luo, Yun Jäschke, Zafar A. Reshi & Manzoor A. Shah
Comparing genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and performance between native and non-native populations has advanced our knowledge of contemporary evolution and its ecological consequences. However, such between-range comparisons can be complicated by high among-population variation within native and non-native ranges. For example, native vs. non-native comparisons between small and non-representative subsets of populations for species with very large distributions have the potential to mislead because they may not sufficiently account for within-range adaptation to climatic conditions,...
Data from: Fur seal microbiota are shaped by the social and physical environment, show mother-offspring similarities and are associated with host genetic qualityStefanie Grosser, Jan Sauer, Anneke Paijmans, Barbara Caspers, Jaume Forcada, Jochen Wolf & Joseph Hoffman
Despite an increasing appreciation of the importance of host-microbe interactions in ecological and evolutionary processes, the factors shaping microbial communities in wild populations remain poorly understood. We therefore exploited a natural experiment provided by two adjacent Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) colonies of high and low social density and combined 16S rRNA metabarcoding with microsatellite profiling of mother-offspring pairs to investigate environmental and genetic influences on skin microbial communities. Seal-associated bacterial communities differed profoundly between...
Data from: Parental sublethal insecticide exposure prolongs mating response and decreases reproductive output in offspringThorben Müller, Clara Isis Römer & Caroline Müller
1.Insecticide usage is steadily increasing, implying an ongoing threat of sublethal exposure for non‐target organisms in habitats close to farmland. The exposure to low insecticide doses is often associated with a fitness decline in affected organisms. 2. We determined the effects of exposure to the sublethal pyrethroid lambda‐cyhalothrin, at a concentration 20 times lower than the LC50, on the cuticle surface profile containing mating cues, the mating and aggression behaviour and fitness consequences for a...
Data from: Genotype-by-environment interactions for seminal fluid expression and sperm competitive abilityBahar Patlar & Steven A. Ramm
Sperm competition commonly occurs whenever females mate multiply, leading to variation in male paternity success. This can be due to variation in the various traits that might affect sperm competitive ability, which itself depends on both genetic and environmental factors, as well as on genotype-by-environment interactions (GEI). Seminal fluid is a major component of the male ejaculate that is often expected to mediate sperm competition, where different genotypes can differ in their seminal fluid expression...
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg2
University of Montana1
University of Vermont1
German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research1
Natural Environment Research Council1
University of Winnipeg1
Northeast Normal University1
University of Kashmir1