55 Works

A RAPID EVIDENCE ASSESSMENT TO ASSESS THE OUTCOMES OF COMMUNITY AND CUSTODY DELIVERED VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES ON REOFFENDING

Chris Fox, Andrew Smith, Grace Hothersall & Jordan Harrison

Data from: The evolution of post-pairing male mate choice

Nan Lyu, Maria R. Servedio, Huw Lloyd & Yue-Hua Sun
An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of post-pairing male choice, specifically that which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such post-pairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more...

Data from: Predicting global population connectivity and targeting conservation action for snow leopard across its range

Philip Riordan, Samuel A. Cushman, David Mallon, Kun Shi & Joelene Hughes
Movements of individuals within and among populations help to maintain genetic variability and population viability. Therefore, understanding landscape connectivity is vital for effective species conservation. The snow leopard is endemic to mountainous areas of Central Asia and occurs within 12 countries. We assess potential connectivity across the species’ range to highlight corridors for dispersal and genetic flow between populations, prioritizing research and conservation action for this wide-ranging, endangered top-predator. We used resistant kernel modeling to...

Ultrasound-derived changes in thickness of human ankle plantar flexor muscles during walking and running are not homogeneous along the muscle mid-belly region

Emma Hodson-Tole & Adrian Lai
Skeletal muscle thickness is a valuable indicator of several aspects of a muscle’s functional capabilities. We used computational analysis of ultrasound images, recorded from 10 humans walking and running at a range of speeds (0.7 – 5.0 m s-1), to quantify interactions in thickness change between three ankle plantar flexor muscles (soleus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius) and quantify thickness changes at multiple muscle sites within each image. Statistical analysis of thickness change as a function...

Data from: Controlling trapping, overgrazing and invasive vegetation is key to saving Java's last population of the Black-winged Myna

Thomas M Squires, Nigel J Collar, Christian Devenish, Andrew Owen, Arif Pratiwi, Nurul L Winarni & Stuart J Marsden
The Black-winged Myna (Acridotheres melanopterus) is an Endangered passerine endemic to the islands of Java and Bali, Indonesia. Illegal trapping to supply the cage-bird trade has led to its near-total extinction, with the global population estimated to number fewer than 100 individuals. The only known population of Black-winged Mynas on Java occurs at Baluran National Park (BNP). These data were generated to meet the two primary aims of the linked paper: the first was to...

Potential benefits of incorporating arable wildflowers into living mulches for sustainable agriculture

Jennifer Rowntree, Clare Dean, Freddie Morrison, Rob Brooker & Elizabeth Price
Background: As agriculture has intensified, many once-common wildflowers have declined in arable landscapes, which has widespread implications for associated ecosystem services. The incorporation of sustainable practices, for example, growing living mulches (in-field, non-crop plant ground cover, maintained during the target crop growing season), can boost arable biodiversity, but few wildflower species have been utilised in this context. Aims: Our aim was to determine the suitability of arable wildflower species, once considered weeds, for use as...

A large-scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human-modified Amazonian forests

Joseph Hawes, Ima Vieira, Luiz Magnago, Erika Berenguer, Joice Ferreira, Luiz Aragão, Amanda Cardoso, Alexander Lees, Gareth Lennox, Joseph Tobias, Anthony Waldron & Jos Barlow
1. Quantifying the impact of habitat disturbance on ecosystem function is critical for understanding and predicting the future of tropical forests. Many studies have examined post-disturbance changes in animal traits related to mutualistic interactions with plants, but the effect of disturbance on plant traits in diverse forests has received much less attention. 2. Focusing on two study regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, we used a trait-based approach to examine how seed dispersal functionality within...

Faecal metabarcoding reveals pervasive long-distance impacts of garden bird feeding

Jack Shutt, Urmi Trivedi & James Nicholls
Supplementary feeding of wildlife is widespread, being undertaken by more than half of households in many countries. However, the impact that these supplemental resources have is unclear, with impacts assumed to be restricted to urban ecosystems. We reveal the pervasiveness of supplementary foodstuffs in the diet of a wild bird using metabarcoding of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) faeces collected in early spring from a 220km transect in Scotland with a large urbanisation gradient. Supplementary foodstuffs...

Territory-level temperature influences breeding phenology and reproductive output in three forest passerine birds

Jack D. Shutt, Sophie C. Bell, Fraser Bell, Joan Castello, Myriam El Harouchi & Malcolm D. Burgess
Temperature plays an important role in determining the breeding phenology of birds in temperate climates, with higher spring temperatures associated with earlier breeding. However, the effect of localised territory-scale temperature variations is poorly understood, with relationships between temperature and breeding phenology mostly studied using coarse-grained climatic indices. Here, we interpolate spring temperatures recorded at 150 m2 grid intersections encompassing 417 ha of forest to examine the influence of territory-scale temperature, and its interaction with mean...

Bringing Back the Manchester Argus Coenonympha tullia ssp. davus (Fabricius 1777): Quantifying the habitat resource requirements to inform the successful reintroduction of a specialist peatland butterfly

Andrew Osborne, Mike Longden, Dave Bourke & Emma Coulthard
2021-30 has been designated the UN decade of ecosystem restoration. A landscape scale peatland restoration project is being undertaken on Chat Moss, Greater Manchester, UK, with conservation translocations an important component of this work. The Manchester Argus Coenonympha tullia ssp. davus, a specialist butterfly of lowland raised bogs in the northwest of England, UK is under threat due to severe habitat loss and degradation. A species reintroduction was planned for spring 2020. This study aimed...

Data from: Chemical signals from eggs facilitate cryptic female choice in humans

John Fitzpatrick, Charlotte Willis, Alessandro Devigili, Amy Young, Michael Carroll, Helen Hunter & Daniel Brison
Mate choice can continue after mating via chemical communication between the female reproductive system and sperm. While there is a growing appreciation that females can bias sperm use and paternity by exerting cryptic female choice for preferred males, we know surprisingly little about the mechanisms underlying these post-mating choices. In particular, whether chemical signals released from eggs (chemoattractants) allow females to exert cryptic female choice to favour sperm from specific males remains an open question,...

Data from: Effects of maternal genotypic identity and genetic diversity of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle on associated soil bacterial communities: a field-based experiment

Hayley Craig, John Paul Kennedy, Donna J. Devlin, Richard D. Bardgett & Jennifer K. Rowntree
Loss of plant biodiversity can result in reduced abundance and diversity of associated species with implications for ecosystem functioning. In ecosystems low in plant species diversity, such as Neotropical mangrove forests, it is thought that genetic diversity within the dominant plant species could play an important role in shaping associated communities. Here, we used a manipulative field experiment to study the effects of maternal genotypic identity and genetic diversity of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle...

Data from: The role of glycine betaine in range expansions; protecting mangroves against extreme freeze events

Matthew A. Hayes, Audrey C. Shor, Amber Jesse, Christopher Miller, John Paul Kennedy & Ilka Feller
1. Due to a warming climate, mangrove populations within the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida Atlantic coastline are expanding their range poleward. As mangroves expand their range limit, leading edge individuals are more likely to experience an increased incidence of freeze events. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the mechanisms used by mangroves to survive freezing conditions. 2. Here, we conducted common garden experiments at different locations experiencing variable winter freeze...

Data from: A technical note on variable inter-frame interval as a cause of non-physiological experimental artefacts in ultrasound

Diego Miguez, Emma F. Hodson-Tole, Ian D. Loram & Peter J. Harding
Ultrasound imaging is a well-recognised technique for the study of static tissues but its suitability for studying tissue dynamics depends upon accurate frame time information, which may not always be available to users. Here we present methods to quantify the inter-frame interval (IFI) variability, and evaluate different procedures for collecting temporal information from two ultrasound-imaging devices. The devices tested exhibited variable IFIs that could only be confirmed by direct measures of timing signals, available by...

Data from: Demographic drivers of a refugee species: large-scale experiments guide strategies for reintroductions of hirola

Abdullahi H. Ali, Matthew J. Kauffman, Rajan Amin, Amos Kibara, Juliet King, David Mallon, Charles Musyoki & Jacob R. Goheen
Effective reintroduction strategies require accurate estimates of vital rates and the factors that influence them. We estimated vital rates of hirola (Beatragus hunteri) populations exposed to varying levels of predation and rangeland quality from 2012 to 2015, and then built population matrices to estimate the finite rate of population change (λ) and demographic sensitivities. Mean survival for all age classes and population growth was highest in the low predation/high-rangeland quality setting (λ = 1.08 ±...

Data from: Culture moderates changes in linguistic self-presentation and detail provision when deceiving others

Paul J. Taylor, Samuel Larner, Stacey M. Conchie & Tarek Menacere
Change in our language when deceiving is attributable to differences in the affective and cognitive experience of lying compared to truth telling, yet these experiences are also subject to substantial individual differences. On the basis of previous evidence of cultural differences in self-construal and remembering, we predicted and found evidence for cultural differences in the extent to which truths and lies contained self (versus other) references and perceptual (versus social) details. Participants (N = 320)...

Data from: The effects of tourist and boat traffic on parrot geophagy in lowland Peru

Alan T. K. Lee, Stuart J. Marsden, Emma Tatum-Hume & Donald J. Brightsmith
Ecotourism generates important revenue in many developing economies, but poorly regulated ecotourism can threaten the long-term viability of key biological resources. We determined the effects of tourism, boat traffic, and natural disturbances on parrot geophagy (soil consumption) across seven riverine claylicks in the lowlands of Madre de Dios, Peru. Claylick use significantly decreased when visitors did not follow good practice guidelines and tourist numbers exceeded the capacity of the observation blinds. Otherwise, tourist presence and...

Crime and Anti-social Behaviour in Greater London

Langdon Samuel

Avifauna occurrence data from a longitudinal experiment in human-modified Amazonian forests affected by the 2015-16 El Niño drought and associated fires

A. Lees, N. Moura, F.M. Franca, J.N. Ferreira, T. Gardner, E. Berenguer, L. Chesini, C. Andertti & J. Barlow
This data set includes longitudinal occurrence of bird species at 36 forest plots – half of which burned during the 2015-16 El Niño drought – distributed across a gradient of prior human disturbance in the Brazilian Amazon. Data was collected in 2010 and 2016 (around 6 years before, and one year after the 2015-16 El Niño, respectively) as part of the projects ‘Assessing ENSO-induced Fire Impacts in tropical Rainforest Ecosystems’ (AFIRE) and ‘Biodiversity and Ecosystem...

Freelancers in the Dark: The Economic, Cultural, and Social Impact of Covid-19 on UK Theatre Workers Final Report

Holly Maples, Joshua Edelman, Alison Fitzgibbon, Laura Harris, Rosemary Klich, James Rowson, Kurt Taroff & Alexandra Young

Data from: Achilles tendon moment arm in humans is not affected by inversion/eversion of the foot: a short report

Susann Wolfram, Christopher I. Morse, Keith L. Winwood, Emma Hodson-Tole & Islay M. McEwan
The triceps surae primarily acts as plantarflexor of the ankle joint. However, the group also causes inversion and eversion at the subtalar joint. Despite this, the Achilles tendon moment arm is generally measured without considering the potential influence of inversion/eversion of the foot during plantarflexion. This study investigated the effect of foot inversion and eversion on the plantarflexion Achilles tendon moment arm. Achilles tendon moment arms were determined using the centre-of-rotation method in magnetic resonance...

Data from: Testing alternative hypotheses for evolutionary diversification in an African songbird: rainforest refugia versus ecological gradients

Alexander N. G. Kirschel, Hans Slabbekoorn, Daniel T. Blumstein, Rachel E. Cohen, Selvino R. De Kort, Wolfgang Buermann & Thomas B. Smith
Geographic isolation in rainforest refugia and local adaptation to ecological gradients may both be important drivers of evolutionary diversification. However, their relative importance and the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain poorly understood because few empirical studies address both putative processes in a single system. A key question is to what extent is divergence in signals that are important in mate and species recognition driven by isolation in rainforest refugia or by divergent selection across...

Data from: Whisker touch sensing guides locomotion in small, quadrupedal mammals

Robyn A. Grant, Vicki Breakell & Tony J. Prescott
All small mammals have prominent facial whiskers that they employ as tactile sensors to guide navigation and foraging in complex habitats. Nocturnal, arboreal mammals tend to have the longest and most densely-packed whiskers, and semi-aquatic mammals have the most sensitive. Here we present evidence to indicate that many small mammals use their whiskers to tactually guide safe foot positioning. Specifically, in eleven, small, non-flying mammal species we demonstrate that forepaw placement always falls within the...

Data from: Resource selection and landscape change reveal mechanisms suppressing population recovery for the world's most endangered antelope

Abdullahi H. Ali, Adam T. Ford, Jeffrey S. Evans, David P. Mallon, Matthew M. Hayes, Juliet King, Rajan Amin & Jacob R. Goheen
Understanding how bottom-up and top-down forces affect resource selection can inform restoration efforts. With a global population size of <500 individuals, the hirola Beatragus hunteri is the world's most endangered antelope, with a declining population since the 1970s. While the underlying mechanisms are unclear, some combination of habitat loss and predation are thought to be responsible for low abundances of contemporary populations. Efforts to conserve hirola are hindered by a lack of understanding as to...

Data from: Predicting bird song from space

Thomas B. Smith, Ryan J. Harrigan, Alexander N. G. Kirschel, Wolfgang Buermann, Sassan Saatchi, Daniel T. Blumstein, Selvino R. De Kort & Hans Slabbekoorn
Environmentally imposed selection pressures are well known to shape animal signals. Changes in these signals can result in recognition mismatches between individuals living in different habitats, leading to reproductive divergence and speciation. For example, numerous studies have shown that differences in avian song may be a potent prezygotic isolating mechanism. Typically, however, detailed studies of environmental pressures on variation in animal behavior have been conducted only at small spatial scales. Here, we use remote-sensing data...

Registration Year

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Affiliations

  • Manchester Metropolitan University
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