95 Works

Data from: Venom gland size and venom complexity – essential trophic adaptations of venomous predators: a case study using spiders

Stano Pekár, Ondrej Bocanek, Ondrej Michalek, Lenka Petráková, Charles R. Haddad, Ondrej Sedo & Zbynek Zdrahal
Specialised predators possess variety of adaptations. In the venomous predators this may include size of the venom gland and venom composition. It is expected that due to different foraging strategies predators with a wide trophic niche (generalists) should possess larger venom glands that contain more diversified components than species with a narrow niche (specialists). We focused on spiders, as the most diversified group of venomous predators, in which a wide variety of trophic strategies has...

Data from: Environmental correlates of the Late Quaternary regional extinctions of large and small Palaearctic mammals

Věra Pavelková Řičánková, Michal Horsák, Martin Hais, Jan Robovský & Milan Chytrý
Most studies of mammal extinctions during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition explore the relative effects of climate change vs. human impacts on these extinctions, but the relative importance of the different environmental factors involved remains poorly understood. Moreover, these studies are strongly biased towards megafauna, which may have been more influenced by human hunting than species of small body size. We examined the potential environmental causes of Pleistocene–Holocene mammal extinctions by linking regional environmental characteristics with the...

Data from: Fuel for the pace of life: baseline blood glucose concentration coevolves with life history traits in songbirds

Oldrich Tomasek, Lukas Bobek, Tereza Kralova, Marie Adamkova & Tomas Albrecht
1. It has been proposed that life histories have coevolved with a suite of physiological and behavioural adaptations, termed pace-of-life syndromes (POLS). Here, we hypothesise that basal concentration of blood glucose (G0), a major source of energy circulating in vertebrate blood, may constitute a key component of POLS. 2. To test this hypothesis, we measured G0 in 30 passerine species and tested its covariation with body mass and other life history traits. Importantly, body mass...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeography of a widespread savanna-woodland adapted rodent reveals the influence of Pleistocene geomorphology and climate change in Africa’s Zambezi region

Molly M. McDonough, Radim Šumbera, Vladimír Mazoch, Adam W. Ferguson, Caleb D. Phillips & Josef Bryja
Understanding historical influences of climate and physiographic barriers in shaping patterns of biodiversity remains limited for many regions of the world. For mammals of continental Africa, phylogeographic studies, particularly for West African lineages, implicate both geographic barriers and climate oscillations in shaping small mammal diversity. In contrast, studies for southern African species have revealed conflicting phylogenetic patterns for how mammalian lineages respond to both climate change and geologic events such as river formation, especially during...

Data from: Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

Daniel Hering, Jukka Aroviita, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Karel Brabec, Tom Buijse, Frauke Ecke, Nikolai Friberg, Marek Gielczewski, Kathrin Januschke, Jan Köhler, Benjamin Kupilas, Armin W. Lorenz, Susanne Muhar, Amael Paillex, Michaela Poppe, Torsten Schmidt, Stefan Schmutz, Jan Vermaat, Piet F. M. Verdonschot, Ralf C. M. Verdonschot, Jochem Kail & Christian Wolter
1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of restored river sections of which one was a large project involving a long, intensively restored river section and one represented a smaller restoration effort. The restoration effect was quantified by...

Data from: A cost-efficient and simple protocol to enrich prey DNA from extractions of predatory arthropods for large-scale gut content analysis by Illumina sequencing

Henrik Krehenwinkel, Susan Kennedy, Stano Pekár & Rosemary G. Gillespie
Molecular analysis of predator gut content is a popular tool to uncover food web structure and has greatly profited from the emergence of next-generation sequencing technology. However, the molecular recovery of prey spectra comes with many challenges, particularly the overabundance of predator DNA in extractions. When predator and prey are distantly related, predator-specific blocking primers can be used to preferentially amplify prey DNA. But this is difficult in the case of arthropods, where prey and...

Data from: Distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic

Radek Gebauer, Jan Divíšek, Miloš Buřič, Martin Večeřa, Antonín Kouba & Bořek Drozd
Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever‐increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human‐related...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Data from: White matter alterations in Parkinson's disease with normal cognition precede grey matter atrophy

Ivan Rektor, Alena Svátková, Lubomir Vojtísek, Iva Zikmundova, Jirí Vanicek, András Király & Nikoletta Szabó
Introduction: While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment. Methods: Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC) were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language...

Determination of habitat requirements of the glacial relict Nuphar pumila as basis for successful (re-)introductions

Sabrina Keller, Manuel Babbi, Stefan Widmer, Jamyra Gehler, Sonja Hausmann, Christian Berg, Flavia Landucci, Patrick Schwager, Kateřina Šumberová & Jürgen Dengler
Nuphar pumilais a glacial relict, which is nowadays rare throughout Europe and red-listed in most European regions. In Switzerland only three autochthonous populations and one population of the hybrid with N. lutea (N. ×spenneriana) have survived to date, one of them in the canton of Zurich. To protect this species regionally, the canton of Zurich has commissioned the ex situ propagation of speci-mens, which then had been introduced to 37 water bodies in protected areas,...

De novo developed microsatellite markers in gill parasites of the genus Dactylogyrus (Monogenea)

Michal Benovics, Lenka Gettová & Andrea Šimková
Approaches using microsatellite markers are considered the gold standard for modern population-genetic studies. However, though they have found application in research into various platyhelminth taxa, they remained substantially underutilized in the study of monogeneans. In the present study, a newly-developed set of 24 microsatellite markers was used to investigate the genetic diversity of the generalist monogenean species Dactylogyrus vistulae. The analyzed parasite specimens were collected from 13 cyprinoid species from 11 sites in the Apennine...

Water-mediated inclusion of benzoates and tosylates inside the bambusuril macrocycle

Vaclav Havel, Vladimir Sindelar, Marek Necas & Angel E. Kaifer
A supramolecular complex between benzoates and a bambusuril crystallizes out immediately after mixing in chloroform but only in the presence of residual water molecules. In this complex each of the two portals of the macrocycle is occupied by one benzoate. Carboxylate groups are connected through hydrogen bo

Remarkable Salt Effect on Stability of Supramolecular Complex between Modified Cucurbit[6]uril and Methylviologen in Aqueous Media

Muhammad S. A. Khan, Dominik Heger, Marek Necas & Vladimir Sindelar
The supramolecular complex formed by partial inclusion of methylviologen in MeCB6 was described both in solution and in the solid state. The association constant of the complex was determined using 1H NMR and UV−vis spectrophotometric titration. An extraordinary 2000-fold drop in the association constant of the complex was observed when pure water was replaced by 50 mM NaCl solution.

Inclusion of Carboxyl Function Inside of Cucurbiturils and its Use in Molecular Switches

Vladimir Sindelar, Viktor Kolman & Petr Kulhanek
Organic flip-flop: Cucurbit[n]uril hosts (where n=7,8) and dipyridinium guests form stable inclusion complexes in which the central carboxyl function can be included inside the host cavity. The pseud...

Children’s experiences with cyberhate

Hana MacHackova, Catherine Blaya, Marie Bedrosova, David Smahel & Elisabeth Staksrud

Praca z uczniem zdolnym w czeskiej szkole

Jan Šťáva & Gabriela Věchtová

Data from: Biological control in winter: novel evidence for the importance of generalist predators

Stano Pekar, Radek Michalko, Pamela Loverre, Eva Líznarová & Ľudmila Černecká
1. The role of generalist predators in pest control has been neglected because generalists are not able to track pest populations. Generalist predators are suggested to be important in spring before specialist predators become active. 2. Here, we show that some generalist predators are important even during winter, when the majority of arthropod pests and their enemies are dormant. We quantified the role of winter-active generalist predators on the suppression of pear psylla during winter...

Data from: Resource availability, mating opportunity, and sexual selection intensity influence the expression of male alternative reproductive tactics

Paolo Giovanni Ghislandi, Stano Pekar, Magdalena Matzke, Sarah Schulte-Döinghaus, Trine Bilde, Cristina Tuni &
The expression of alternative reproductive tactics can be plastic and occur simultaneously depending on cues that vary spatially or temporally. For example, variation in resources and sexual selection intensity is expected to influence the pay-off of each tactic and shape the decision of which tactic to employ. Males of the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis can adopt three tactics: offering a genuine prey gift, a ‘worthless’ non-nutritious gift, or no gift. We hypothesized that resources...

Data from: Influence of interspecific competitors on behavioral thermoregulation: developmental or acute plasticity?

Barbora Winterová & Lumír Gvoždík
Many ectotherms reduce their exposure to changing thermal conditions using behavioral thermoregulation. The effectiveness of behavioral thermoregulation in maintaining ectotherm body temperatures within the target range is influenced not only by environmental (operative) temperatures but also by the presence of other con- and heterospecific individuals. How species’ interactions affect behavioral thermoregulation is largely unknown. Theory predicts that species’ interactions could affect the plasticity of behavioral thermoregulation in two ways, i.e. by developmental plasticity of a...

Data from: Transformational mimicry in a myrmecomorphic spider

Stano Pekar, Yunyun Tsai & Michalko Radek
Species which are Batesian mimics during post-embryonic development shift between mimetic models as they grow in size. However, it has not yet been tested whether these successive mimetic phenotypes are similarly protected from predators. Early instar phenotypes could represent an inaccurate phenotype or an accurate phenotype because of selection from different predators. Here, we tested the hypotheses of transformational Batesian mimicry in the ant-mimicking jumping spider Leptochestes berolinensis . We quantified the mimetic accuracy of...

Data from: A time-calibrated road map of Brassicaceae species radiation and evolutionary history

Nora Hohmann, Eva M. Wolf, Martin A. Lysak & Marcus A. Koch
The Brassicaceae include several major crop plants and numerous important model species in comparative evolutionary research such as Arabidopsis, Brassica, Boechera, Thellungiella, and Arabis species. As any evolutionary hypothesis needs to be placed in a temporal context, reliably dated major splits within the evolution of Brassicaceae are essential. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated framework with important divergence time estimates based on whole-chloroplast sequence data for 29 Brassicaceae species. Diversification of the Brassicaceae crown group started...

Data from: Philip Grime's fourth corner: are there plant species adapted to high disturbance and low productivity?

Tomas Herben, Jitka Klimešová & Milan Chytrý
Grime's CSR species life-strategy theory (competition-stress-ruderality) provides a conceptual framework to classify species into competitive (high productivity, low disturbance), stress-tolerant (low productivity, low disturbance) and ruderal (high productivity, high disturbance). Importantly, this classification is based on the assumption that the niche space of disturbance and productivity is filled unevenly: while in productive habitats species can adapt to different disturbance regimes, species of low-productivity and disturbed habitats do not exist, resulting in a triangular distribution of...

Data from: A skull might lie: modelling ancestral ranges and diet from genes and shape of tree squirrels

Patrícia Pečnerová, Jiří C. Moravec & Natália Martínková
Tropical forests of Central and South America represent hotspots of biological diversity. Tree squirrels of the tribe Sciurini are an excellent model system for the study of tropical biodiversity as these squirrels disperse exceptional distances, and after colonizing the tropics of the Central and South America, they have diversified rapidly. Here, we compare signals from DNA sequences with morphological signals using pictures of skulls and computational simulations. Phylogenetic analyses reveal step-wise geographic divergence across the...

Data from: Alternative intrapopulation life history strategies and their trade-offs in an African annual fish

Matej Polačik, Radim Blažek, Radomil Řežucha, Milan Vrtílek, Eva Terzibasi-Tozzini & Martin Reichard
In ephemeral habitats, the same genotypes cope with unpredictable environmental conditions, favouring the evolution of developmental plasticity and alternative life-history strategies (ALHS). We tested the existence of intrapopulation ALHS in an annual killifish, Nothobranchius furzeri, inhabiting temporary pools. The pools are either primary (persisting throughout the whole rainy season) or secondary (refilled after desiccation of the initial pool), representing alternative niches. The unpredictable conditions led to the evolution of reproductive bet-hedging with asynchronous embryonic development....

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