106 Works

Data from: White matter alterations in Parkinson's disease with normal cognition precede grey matter atrophy

Ivan Rektor, Alena Svátková, Lubomir Vojtísek, Iva Zikmundova, Jirí Vanicek, András Király & Nikoletta Szabó
Introduction: While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment. Methods: Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC) were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeography of a widespread savanna-woodland adapted rodent reveals the influence of Pleistocene geomorphology and climate change in Africa’s Zambezi region

Molly M. McDonough, Radim Šumbera, Vladimír Mazoch, Adam W. Ferguson, Caleb D. Phillips & Josef Bryja
Understanding historical influences of climate and physiographic barriers in shaping patterns of biodiversity remains limited for many regions of the world. For mammals of continental Africa, phylogeographic studies, particularly for West African lineages, implicate both geographic barriers and climate oscillations in shaping small mammal diversity. In contrast, studies for southern African species have revealed conflicting phylogenetic patterns for how mammalian lineages respond to both climate change and geologic events such as river formation, especially during...

Data from: Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

Daniel Hering, Jukka Aroviita, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Karel Brabec, Tom Buijse, Frauke Ecke, Nikolai Friberg, Marek Gielczewski, Kathrin Januschke, Jan Köhler, Benjamin Kupilas, Armin W. Lorenz, Susanne Muhar, Amael Paillex, Michaela Poppe, Torsten Schmidt, Stefan Schmutz, Jan Vermaat, Piet F. M. Verdonschot, Ralf C. M. Verdonschot, Jochem Kail & Christian Wolter
1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of restored river sections of which one was a large project involving a long, intensively restored river section and one represented a smaller restoration effort. The restoration effect was quantified by...

Data from: Venom gland size and venom complexity – essential trophic adaptations of venomous predators: a case study using spiders

Stano Pekár, Ondrej Bocanek, Ondrej Michalek, Lenka Petráková, Charles R. Haddad, Ondrej Sedo & Zbynek Zdrahal
Specialised predators possess variety of adaptations. In the venomous predators this may include size of the venom gland and venom composition. It is expected that due to different foraging strategies predators with a wide trophic niche (generalists) should possess larger venom glands that contain more diversified components than species with a narrow niche (specialists). We focused on spiders, as the most diversified group of venomous predators, in which a wide variety of trophic strategies has...

Data from: Distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic

Radek Gebauer, Jan Divíšek, Miloš Buřič, Martin Večeřa, Antonín Kouba & Bořek Drozd
Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever‐increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human‐related...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

Data from: Environmental correlates of the Late Quaternary regional extinctions of large and small Palaearctic mammals

Věra Pavelková Řičánková, Michal Horsák, Martin Hais, Jan Robovský & Milan Chytrý
Most studies of mammal extinctions during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition explore the relative effects of climate change vs. human impacts on these extinctions, but the relative importance of the different environmental factors involved remains poorly understood. Moreover, these studies are strongly biased towards megafauna, which may have been more influenced by human hunting than species of small body size. We examined the potential environmental causes of Pleistocene–Holocene mammal extinctions by linking regional environmental characteristics with the...

Data from: Fuel for the pace of life: baseline blood glucose concentration coevolves with life history traits in songbirds

Oldrich Tomasek, Lukas Bobek, Tereza Kralova, Marie Adamkova & Tomas Albrecht
1. It has been proposed that life histories have coevolved with a suite of physiological and behavioural adaptations, termed pace-of-life syndromes (POLS). Here, we hypothesise that basal concentration of blood glucose (G0), a major source of energy circulating in vertebrate blood, may constitute a key component of POLS. 2. To test this hypothesis, we measured G0 in 30 passerine species and tested its covariation with body mass and other life history traits. Importantly, body mass...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

De novo developed microsatellite markers in gill parasites of the genus Dactylogyrus (Monogenea)

Michal Benovics, Lenka Gettová & Andrea Šimková
Approaches using microsatellite markers are considered the gold standard for modern population-genetic studies. However, though they have found application in research into various platyhelminth taxa, they remained substantially underutilized in the study of monogeneans. In the present study, a newly-developed set of 24 microsatellite markers was used to investigate the genetic diversity of the generalist monogenean species Dactylogyrus vistulae. The analyzed parasite specimens were collected from 13 cyprinoid species from 11 sites in the Apennine...

Water-mediated inclusion of benzoates and tosylates inside the bambusuril macrocycle

Angel E. Kaifer, Vaclav Havel, Vladimir Sindelar & Marek Necas
A supramolecular complex between benzoates and a bambusuril crystallizes out immediately after mixing in chloroform but only in the presence of residual water molecules. In this complex each of the two portals of the macrocycle is occupied by one benzoate. Carboxylate groups are connected through hydrogen bo

Anion-Free Bambus[6]uril and Its Supramolecular Properties

Angel E. Kaifer, Vladimir Sindelar, Petr Klán, Jan Svec, Wei Li, Michal Dusek, Karla Fejfarova, Peter Stacko & Edita Hudeckova
Abstract Methods for the preparation of anion-free bambus[6]uril (BU6) are presented. They are based on the oxidation of iodide anion, which is bound inside the macrocycle, utilizing dark oxidation...

Remarkable Salt Effect on Stability of Supramolecular Complex between Modified Cucurbit[6]uril and Methylviologen in Aqueous Media

Muhammad S. A. Khan, Dominik Heger, Marek Necas & Vladimir Sindelar
The supramolecular complex formed by partial inclusion of methylviologen in MeCB6 was described both in solution and in the solid state. The association constant of the complex was determined using 1H NMR and UV−vis spectrophotometric titration. An extraordinary 2000-fold drop in the association constant of the complex was observed when pure water was replaced by 50 mM NaCl solution.

Inclusion of Carboxyl Function Inside of Cucurbiturils and its Use in Molecular Switches

Viktor Kolman, Petr Kulhanek & Vladimir Sindelar
Organic flip-flop: Cucurbit[n]uril hosts (where n=7,8) and dipyridinium guests form stable inclusion complexes in which the central carboxyl function can be included inside the host cavity. The pseud...

Pronounced pH effects on the kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-based pseudorotaxane formation and dissociation

Angel E. Kaifer, Wei Li, Serena Silvi & Vladimir Sindelar
Deprotonation of the two terminal COOH groups on a 4,4′-bipyridinium linear derivative leads to a pronounced slow down on the kinetics of threading and unthreading by the cucurbit[7]uril host.

Supramolecular Assembly of 2,7-Dimethyldiazapyrenium and Cucurbit[8]uril: A New Fluorescent Host for Detection of Catechol and Dopamine

Angel E. Kaifer, Vladimir Sindelar, Mabel A. Cejas, Françisco M. Raymo, Weizhong Chen & Samantha E. Parker
Abstract The formation of a highly stable inclusion complex between 2,7-dimethyldiazapyrenium (Me2DAP2+) and the cucurbit[8]uril host (CB8) was demonstrated by X-ray crystallography; MALDI-TOF mass...

Children’s experiences with cyberhate

Hana MacHackova, Catherine Blaya, Marie Bedrosova, David Smahel & Elisabeth Staksrud

Praca z uczniem zdolnym w czeskiej szkole

Jan Šťáva & Gabriela Věchtová

Data from: Resource availability, mating opportunity, and sexual selection intensity influence the expression of male alternative reproductive tactics

Paolo Giovanni Ghislandi, Stano Pekar, Magdalena Matzke, Sarah Schulte-Döinghaus, Trine Bilde, Cristina Tuni &
The expression of alternative reproductive tactics can be plastic and occur simultaneously depending on cues that vary spatially or temporally. For example, variation in resources and sexual selection intensity is expected to influence the pay-off of each tactic and shape the decision of which tactic to employ. Males of the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis can adopt three tactics: offering a genuine prey gift, a ‘worthless’ non-nutritious gift, or no gift. We hypothesized that resources...

Cooperation between Museums and Galleries for Achieve a Complex Teaching about Architecture

Olga Búciová

SCOLA TELCZ – Example of Interdisciplinary Workshop

Jitka Burdová & Olga Búciová

Supplement to: Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care and intravenous thrombolysis

Raul Nogueira, Muhammed Qureshi, Mohamad Abdalkader, Sheila Martins, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Ossama Mansour, Anvitha Sathya, Anna Czlonkowska, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Diana Aguiar De Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Robert Mikulik, Peter Vanacker, James Siegler, Janika Korv, Jose Biller, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Alicia Zha, Alexandra Czap, Christine Holmstedt, Tanya Turan, George Ntaios, Konark Malhotra … & Thanh Nguyen
Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in...

Data from: Transformational mimicry in a myrmecomorphic spider

Stano Pekar, Yunyun Tsai & Michalko Radek
Species which are Batesian mimics during post-embryonic development shift between mimetic models as they grow in size. However, it has not yet been tested whether these successive mimetic phenotypes are similarly protected from predators. Early instar phenotypes could represent an inaccurate phenotype or an accurate phenotype because of selection from different predators. Here, we tested the hypotheses of transformational Batesian mimicry in the ant-mimicking jumping spider Leptochestes berolinensis . We quantified the mimetic accuracy of...

Data from: Postglacial determinants of regional species pools in alpine grasslands

Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Wolfgang Willner, Eszter Ruprecht, Kiril Vassilev, Nevena Kuzmanovic, Renata Ćušterevska, Djordjije Milanovic, Josef Sibik, Sylvain Abdulhak, Angela Stanisci, Maria Luisa Carranza, Ariel Bergamini, Corrado Marcenó & Gianpietro Giusso Del Galdo
Aim: Alpine habitats support unique biodiversity confined to high-elevation areas in the current interglacial. Plant diversity in these habitats responds to area, environment, connectivity and isolation, yet these factors have been rarely evaluated in concert. Here we investigate major determinants of regional species pools in alpine grasslands, and the responses of their constituent species groups. Location: European mountains below 50ºN. Time Period: Between 1928 and 2019. Major Taxa Studied: Vascular plants. Methods: We compiled species...

What defines insularity for plants in edaphic islands?

Francisco Emmanuel Méndez Castro, Luisa Conti, Milan Chytrý, Borja Jimenez-Alfaro, Michal Hajek, Michal Horsák, David Zeleny, Marco Malavasi & Gianluigi Ottaviani
The Theory of Island Biogeography postulates that size and isolation are key drivers of biodiversity on islands. This theory has been applied not only to true (e.g. oceanic) islands but also to terrestrial island-like systems (e.g. edaphic islands). Recently, a debate has opened as to whether terrestrial island-like systems function like true islands. However, identifying the effect of insularity in terrestrial systems is conceptually and methodologically challenging because recognizing species source(s) and measuring isolation is...

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