106 Works

Data from: Distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic

Radek Gebauer, Jan Divíšek, Miloš Buřič, Martin Večeřa, Antonín Kouba & Bořek Drozd
Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever‐increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human‐related...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

Data from: Environmental correlates of the Late Quaternary regional extinctions of large and small Palaearctic mammals

Věra Pavelková Řičánková, Michal Horsák, Martin Hais, Jan Robovský & Milan Chytrý
Most studies of mammal extinctions during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition explore the relative effects of climate change vs. human impacts on these extinctions, but the relative importance of the different environmental factors involved remains poorly understood. Moreover, these studies are strongly biased towards megafauna, which may have been more influenced by human hunting than species of small body size. We examined the potential environmental causes of Pleistocene–Holocene mammal extinctions by linking regional environmental characteristics with the...

Data from: Fuel for the pace of life: baseline blood glucose concentration coevolves with life history traits in songbirds

Oldrich Tomasek, Lukas Bobek, Tereza Kralova, Marie Adamkova & Tomas Albrecht
1. It has been proposed that life histories have coevolved with a suite of physiological and behavioural adaptations, termed pace-of-life syndromes (POLS). Here, we hypothesise that basal concentration of blood glucose (G0), a major source of energy circulating in vertebrate blood, may constitute a key component of POLS. 2. To test this hypothesis, we measured G0 in 30 passerine species and tested its covariation with body mass and other life history traits. Importantly, body mass...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

De novo developed microsatellite markers in gill parasites of the genus Dactylogyrus (Monogenea)

Michal Benovics, Lenka Gettová & Andrea Šimková
Approaches using microsatellite markers are considered the gold standard for modern population-genetic studies. However, though they have found application in research into various platyhelminth taxa, they remained substantially underutilized in the study of monogeneans. In the present study, a newly-developed set of 24 microsatellite markers was used to investigate the genetic diversity of the generalist monogenean species Dactylogyrus vistulae. The analyzed parasite specimens were collected from 13 cyprinoid species from 11 sites in the Apennine...

Water-mediated inclusion of benzoates and tosylates inside the bambusuril macrocycle

Angel E. Kaifer, Vaclav Havel, Vladimir Sindelar & Marek Necas
A supramolecular complex between benzoates and a bambusuril crystallizes out immediately after mixing in chloroform but only in the presence of residual water molecules. In this complex each of the two portals of the macrocycle is occupied by one benzoate. Carboxylate groups are connected through hydrogen bo

Supramolecular Assembly of 2,7-Dimethyldiazapyrenium and Cucurbit[8]uril: A New Fluorescent Host for Detection of Catechol and Dopamine

Vladimir Sindelar, Mabel A. Cejas, Françisco M. Raymo, Weizhong Chen, Samantha E. Parker & Angel E. Kaifer
Abstract The formation of a highly stable inclusion complex between 2,7-dimethyldiazapyrenium (Me2DAP2+) and the cucurbit[8]uril host (CB8) was demonstrated by X-ray crystallography; MALDI-TOF mass...

Remarkable Salt Effect on Stability of Supramolecular Complex between Modified Cucurbit[6]uril and Methylviologen in Aqueous Media

Muhammad S. A. Khan, Dominik Heger, Marek Necas & Vladimir Sindelar
The supramolecular complex formed by partial inclusion of methylviologen in MeCB6 was described both in solution and in the solid state. The association constant of the complex was determined using 1H NMR and UV−vis spectrophotometric titration. An extraordinary 2000-fold drop in the association constant of the complex was observed when pure water was replaced by 50 mM NaCl solution.

Pronounced pH effects on the kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-based pseudorotaxane formation and dissociation

Angel E. Kaifer, Wei Li, Serena Silvi & Vladimir Sindelar
Deprotonation of the two terminal COOH groups on a 4,4′-bipyridinium linear derivative leads to a pronounced slow down on the kinetics of threading and unthreading by the cucurbit[7]uril host.

Inclusion of Carboxyl Function Inside of Cucurbiturils and its Use in Molecular Switches

Viktor Kolman, Petr Kulhanek & Vladimir Sindelar
Organic flip-flop: Cucurbit[n]uril hosts (where n=7,8) and dipyridinium guests form stable inclusion complexes in which the central carboxyl function can be included inside the host cavity. The pseud...

Anion-Free Bambus[6]uril and Its Supramolecular Properties

Jan Svec, Michal Dusek, Karla Fejfarova, Peter Stacko, Petr Klán, Angel E. Kaifer, Wei Li, Edita Hudeckova & Vladimir Sindelar
Abstract Methods for the preparation of anion-free bambus[6]uril (BU6) are presented. They are based on the oxidation of iodide anion, which is bound inside the macrocycle, utilizing dark oxidation...

Data from: Food limitation constrains host immune responses to nematode infections

Kristian M. Forbes, Tapio Mappes, Tarja Sironen, Tomas Strandin, Peter Stuart, Seppo Meri, Olli Vapalahti, Heikki Henttonen & Otso Huitu
Trade-offs in the allocation of finite-energy resources among immunological defences and other physiological processes are believed to influence infection risk and disease severity in food-limited wildlife populations. However, this prediction has received little experimental investigation. Here we test the hypothesis that food limitation impairs the ability of wild field voles (Microtus agrestis) to mount an immune response against parasite infections. We conducted a replicated experiment on vole populations maintained in large outdoor enclosures during boreal...

Data from: The golden mimicry complex uses a wide spectrum of defence to deter a community of predators

Stano Pekár, Lenka Petráková, Matthew W. Bulbert, Martin J. Whiting & Marie E. Herberstein
Mimicry complexes typically consist of multiple species that deter predators using similar anti-predatory signals. Mimics in these complexes are assumed to vary in their level of defence from highly defended through to moderately defended, or not defended at all. Here, we report a new multi-order mimicry complex that includes at least 140 different putative mimics from four arthropod orders including ants, wasps, bugs, tree hoppers and spiders. All members of this mimicry complex are characterised...

Data from: Environmental margin and island evolution in Middle Eastern populations of the Egyptian fruit bat

P. Hulva, Tereza Maresova, Cheliana Dundarova, Rasit Bilgin, Petr Benda, Tomas Bartonicka & Ivan Horacek
Here, we present a study of the population genetic architecture and microevolution of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) at the environmental margins in the Middle East using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites. In contrast to the rather homogenous population structure typical of cave-dwelling bats in climax tropical ecosystems, a relatively pronounced isolation by distance and population diversification was observed. The evolution of this pattern could be ascribed to the complicated demographic history at higher...

Data from: Water-borne pharmaceuticals reduce phenotypic diversity and response capacity of natural phytoplankton communities

Francesco Pomati, Jukka Jokela, Sara Castiglioni, Mirdul K. Thomas & Luca Nizzetto
Chemical micropollutants occur worldwide in the environment at low concentrations and in complex mixtures, and how they affect the ecology of natural systems is still uncertain. Dynamics of natural communities are driven by the interaction between individual organisms and their growth environment, which is mediated by the organisms' expressed phenotypic traits. We tested whether exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) influences phenotypic trait diversity in lake phytoplankton communities and...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeography of the European ground squirrel: cryptic interglacial refugia of continental climate in Europe

Štěpánka Říčanová, Yordan Koshev, Oldřich Říčan, Nada Ćosić, Duško Ćirović, František Sedláček & Josef Bryja
The theory of classical and cryptic Pleistocene refugia is based mainly on historical changes in temperature, and the refugia are usually defined within a latitudinal gradient. However, the gradient of oceanic–continental climate (i.e. longitudinal) was also significantly variable during glacial cycles with important biotic consequences. Range-wide phylogeography of the European ground squirrel (EGS) was used to interpret the evolutionary and palaeogeographical history of the species in Europe and to shed light on its glacial–interglacial dynamic....

Data from: Forest snail faunas from Crimea (Ukraine), an isolated and incomplete Pleistocene refugium

Robert A. D. Cameron, Beata M. Pokryszko & Michal Horsák
The land snail faunas of 26 forest sites and two open rocky sites in the Crimean Mountains were sampled in 2011. Of the 40 species found within the forests (about half the known fauna of Crimea as a whole), 28 were species with wide western Palaearctic distributions, and only eight were endemic to Crimea. While there were significant differences in the faunas of different sampling areas, these seemed to be a consequence of ecological differences...

Data from: Venom of prey-specialised spiders is more toxic to their preferred prey: a result of prey-specific toxins

Stano Pekar, Eva Liznarova, Ondrej Bocanek & Zbynek Zdrahal
1. In specialised predators a variety of adaptations have evolved to such a level of specificity that they allow very effective exploitation of focal prey. Venom is an essential adaptive trait of predatory venomous species, such as spiders, yet our knowledge of spider venom is incomplete. 2. In agreement with the prey preference hypothesis, we expected that the venom of spider specialists should be more toxic to focal than to alternative prey, because it is...

Data from: At the Central European – Balkan transition: forest land snail faunas of the Banat contrasted with those of the Carpathian chain

Robert A. D. Cameron, Beata M. Pokryszko, Voichita Gheoca & Michal Horsák
Twenty-nine forest sites in six sampling areas in the Banat region of Romania, adjacent to Serbia, were sampled to obtain inventories of their snail faunas and to make comparisons between these and previously studied faunas in the mountains from the Sudetes in the north-west to the Southern Transylvanian Carpathians in the south. 65 species were recorded overall, with between 13 and 33 at individual sites. Among the six sampling areas that on Schist rock at...

Data from: Patterns of selection on Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigens after the colonisation of the New World

Erhan Yalcindag, Virginie Rougeron, Eric Elguero, Céline Arnathau, Patrick Durand, Sylvain Brisse, Laure Diancourt, Agnes Aubouy, Pierre Becquart, Umberto D'Alessandro, Didier Fontenille, Dionicia Gamboa, Amanda Maestre, Didier Ménard, Lise Musset, Oscar Noya, Vincent Veron, Albina Wide, Bernard Carme, Eric Legrand, Christine Chevillon, Francisco J. Ayala, François Renaud & Franck Prugnolle
Pathogens, which have recently colonized a new host species or new populations of the same host, are interesting models for understanding how populations may evolve in response to novel environments. During its colonization of South America from Africa Plasmodium falciparum, the main agent of malaria, has been exposed to new conditions in distinctive new human populations (Amerindian and populations of mixed origins), that likely exerted new selective pressures on the parasite's genome. Among the genes...

Data from: Multi-speed genome diploidization and diversification after an ancient allopolyploidization

Terezie Mandáková, Milan Pouch, Klára Harmanová, Shing Hei Zhan, Itay Mayrose & Martin A. Lysak
Hybridization and genome doubling (allopolyploidy) have led to evolutionary novelties as well as to the origin of new clades and species. Despite the importance of allopolyploidization, the dynamics of post-polyploid diploidization (PPD) at the genome level has been only sparsely studied. The Microlepidieae (MICR) is a crucifer tribe of 17 genera and c. 56 species endemic to Australia and New Zealand. Our phylogenetic and cytogenomic analyses revealed that MICR originated via an inter-tribal hybridization between...

Data from: Complex patterns of host switching in New World Arenaviruses

Nancy R. Irwin, Michaela Bayerlová, Olivier Missa & Natália Martínková
We empirically tested the long-standing hypothesis of codivergence of New World arenaviruses (NWA) with their hosts. We constructed phylogenies for NWA and all known hosts and used them in reconciliation analyses. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree of all Sigmodontinae and Neotominae rodents and tested whether viral–host associations were phylogenetically clustered. We determined host geographical overlap to determine to what extent opportunity to switch hosts was limited by host relatedness or physical proximity. With the...

Data from: Trait-dependent distributional shifts in fruiting of common British fungi

Alan C. Gange, Einar Heegaard, Lynne Boddy, Carrie Andrew, Paul Kirk, Rune Halvorsen, Thomas W. Kuyper, Claus Bässler, Jeffrey Diez, Jacob Heilman-Clausen, Klaus Høiland, Ulf Büntgen & Håvard Kauserud
Despite the dramatic phenological responses of fungal fruiting to recent climate warming, it is unknown whether spatial distributions of fungi have changed and to what extent such changes are influenced by fungal traits, such as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or saprotrophic lifestyles, spore characteristics, or fruit body size. Our overall aim was to understand how climate and fungal traits determine whether and how species-specific fungal fruit body abundances have shifted across latitudes over time, using the UK...

Global maps of current (1979-2013) and future (2061-2080) habitat suitability probability for 1,485 European endemic plant species

Robin Pouteau, Idoia Biurrun, Caroline Brunel, Milan Chytrý, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Trevor Fristoe, Rense Haveman, Carsten Hobohm, Florian Jansen, Holger Kreft, Jonathan Lenoir, Bernd Lenzner, Carsten Meyer, Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Jens-Christian Svenning, Wilfried Thuiller, Patrick Weigelt, Thomas Wohlgemuth, Qiang Yang & Mark Van Kleunen
Aims: The rapid increase in the number of species that have naturalized beyond their native range is among the most apparent features of the Anthropocene. How alien species will respond to other processes of future global changes is an emerging concern and remains largely misunderstood. We therefore ask whether naturalized species will respond to climate and land-use change differently than those species not yet naturalized anywhere in the world. Location: Global Methods: We investigated future...

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