272 Works

Data from: Blinded by the load: attention, awareness and the role of perceptual load

Nilli Lavie, Diane M. Beck & Nikos Konstantinou
What is the relationship between attention and conscious awareness? Awareness sometimes appears to be restricted to the contents of focused attention, yet at other times irrelevant distractors will dominate awareness. This contradictory relationship has also been reflected in an abundance of discrepant research findings leading to an enduring controversy in cognitive psychology. Lavie's load theory of attention suggests that the puzzle can be solved by considering the role of perceptual load. Although distractors will intrude...

Fire Safety Engineering: Education Report 2 of 8

Jose Torero, David Lange, Mahmut Horasan, Andres Osorio, Cristian Maluk, Juan Hidalgo & Peter Johnson
The Education Report discusses the current status of education and training of fire safety engineers; as well as the competencies which are expected of a fire safety engineering professional

Fire Safety Engineering: The Methods Report 3 of 8

David Lange, Jose Torero, Andres Osorio, Nate Lobel, Cristian Maluk & Juan P Hidalgo
The Methods Report takes a closer look at international guidelines and methods currently used for Fire Safety Engineering and considers where fundamental change is needed for Australia

Trust and Transparency in times of Crisis: Results from an Online Survey During the First Wave (April 2020) of the COVID-19 Epidemic in the UK

Luisa Enria, Naomi Waterlow, Nina Rogers, Hannah Brindle, Sham Lal, Rosalind M. Egoo, Shelley Lees & Chrissy Roberts

Rail Network Crime and Passenger Travel in the Pandemic

Anthony Dixon, Lara Adamson & Nick Tilley

An Introduction to Systematic Literature Reviews In Engineering Education

Inês Direito, Shannon Chance & Manish Malikc

Understandings of \"Global Responsibility’ Expressed By Civil Engineers Working in London

Shannon Chance, Inez Direito & J. Mitchell

Exploring the Impact of Brexit on UK’S Engineering Education Sector from the Perspective of European Students and Staff

Inez Direito, William Williams & Shannon Chance

Data accompanying ‘Microstructural controls on thermal crack damage and the presence of a temperature-memory effect during cyclic thermal stressing of rocks’ submitted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters

John Browning, Ali Daoud, Philip Meredith & Thomas Mitchell
Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic wave velocity data recorded during a series of high temperature thermal cracking experiments by Daoud et al., in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory of the University College London. The data gives the time and magnitude of AE output which were recorded contemporaneously whilst cyclically heating three rock types (A Slaufrudalur Granophyre, A Santorini Andesite and a Seljadalur Basalt). The ultrasonic wave velocity data was recorded pre- and post- heating....

Plant biodiversity data and environmental and spatial data from Jebel Ichkeul, a limestone mountain in northern Tunisia (1983)

D.A. Kirk, K. Hébert & F. B. Goldsmith
Records for herbaceous and woody plants at 78 nested quadrats on a limestone mountain (Jebel Ichkeul) in Le Parc National de L’Ichkeul are presented. Data for plants represent percent cover (Braun-Blanquet scale), to identify environmental gradients and investigate phytosociology of plant communities. Environmental variables are also presented: altitude, slope, aspect, rock out cropping, index of grazing intensity (78 sites) and olive tree densities by size class (69 sites). Soil pH was collected for 50 sites....

Nitrogen and Carbon isotope data from 210Pb dated lake sediment cores in the United Kingdom

S.D. Turner & N.L. Rose
A dataset of historical sediment Carbon and Nitrogen isotope measurements from lake cores (n=95) spanning the range of lake types and catchments found across the UK. These data have been obtained from the Environmental Change Research Centre (ECRC) lake sediment core archive with well-resolved time intervals (1850, 1900, 1980 and present) determined by radiometric dating (210Pb; 137Cs). This data has been collated to investigate historical sources and accumulation of C and N in lakes. This...

Data from: Near-infrared dual bioluminescence imaging in mouse models of cancer using infraluciferin

James Anderson & Martin Pule
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is ubiquitous in scientific research for the sensitive tracking of biological processes in small animal models. However, due to the attenuation of visible light by tissue, and the limited set of near-infrared bioluminescent enzymes, BLI is largely restricted to monitoring single processes in vivo. Here we show, that by combining stabilised colour mutants of firefly luciferase (FLuc) with the luciferin (LH2) analogue infraluciferin (iLH2), near-infrared dual BLI can be achievedin vivo. The...

Data from: Current ecology, not ancestral dispersal patterns, influences menopause symptom severity

Yuping Yang, Megan Arnot & Ruth Mace
All human females who reach midlife experience menopause, however, it is currently unclear why women experience this period of infertility, and why it is accompanied by many unpleasant symptoms. Using primary data from four ethnic groups in China, we test an existing theory that age of menopause and its symptoms are the result of intragenomic conflict between maternally and paternally inherited genes, with the outcome of such conflict predicted to be contingent on the ancestral...

Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola)

Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu, Paschalia Kapli, Carola Greve, James E. Jepson, Xingyue Liu, Xin Zhou, Horst Aspöck & Ulrike Aspöck
Background The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera, and the timeline of diversification of thelineages of Neuropterida. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to...

Data from: Contrasting trajectories of morphological diversification on continents and islands in the Afrotropical white-eye radiation

Julia J. Day, Frederico C. Martins, Joseph A. Tobias & David J. Murrell
Aim Morphological and lineage evolution are predicted to follow different patterns in island and mainland radiations. However, the extent to which these geographical contexts influence evolutionary trajectories remains poorly understood, in part because few studies have focused on species-rich clades colonising continents and archipelagos over comparable timeframes. Focusing on a diverse songbird clade radiating on the African continent and adjacent islands, we tested whether morphological evolution is best explained by adaptive or non-adaptive processes, and...

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

Data from: Visual and non-visual navigation in blind patients with a retinal prosthesis

Sara Garcia, Karin Petrini, Gary S. Rubin, Lyndon Da Cruz & Marko Nardini
Human adults with normal vision can combine visual landmark and non-visual self-motion cues to improve their navigational precision. Here we asked whether blind individuals treated with a retinal prosthesis could also benefit from using the resultant new visual signal together with non-visual information when navigating. Four patients (blind for 15-52 years) implanted with the Argus II retinal prosthesis (Second Sight Medical Products Inc. Sylmar, CA), and five age-matched and six younger controls, participated. Participants completed...

Data from: Cross-species hybridization and the origin of North African date palms

Jonathan M. Flowers, Khaled M. Hazzouri, Muriel Gros-Balthazard, Ziyi Mo, Konstantina Koutroumpa, Andreas Perrakis, Sylvie Ferrand, Hussam S. M. Khierallah, Dorian Q. Fuller, Frederique Aberlenc, Christini Fournaraki & Michael D. Purugganan
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a major fruit crop of arid regions that were domesticated 7,000 y ago in the Near or Middle East. This species is cultivated widely in the Middle East and North Africa, and previous population genetic studies have shown genetic differentiation between these regions. We investigated the evolutionary history of P. dactylifera and its wild relatives by resequencing the genomes of date palm varieties and five of its closest relatives....

Data from: Coupling of palaeontological and neontological reef coral data improves forecasts of biodiversity responses under global climatic change

Lewis A. Jones, Philip D. Mannion, Alexander Farnsworth, Paul J. Valdes, Sarah-Jane Kelland & Peter A. Allison
Reef corals are currently undergoing climatically-driven poleward range expansions, with some evidence for equatorial range retractions. Predicting their response to future climate scenarios is critical to their conservation, but ecological models are based only on short-term observations. The fossil record provides the only empirical evidence for the long-term response of organisms under perturbed climate states. The palaeontological record from the Last Interglacial (LIG; 125,000 years ago), a time of global warming, suggests that reef corals...

Data from: Is predictability salient? A study of attentional capture by auditory patterns

Rosy Southwell, Anna Baumann, Cécile Gal, Nicolas Barascud, Karl Friston & Maria Chait
In this series of behavioural and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments, we investigate the extent to which repeating patterns of sounds capture attention. Work in the visual domain has revealed attentional capture by statistically predictable stimuli, consistent with predictive coding accounts which suggest that attention is drawn to sensory regularities. Here, stimuli comprised rapid sequences of tone pips, arranged in regular (REG) or random (RAND) patterns. EEG data demonstrate that the brain rapidly recognizes predictable patterns manifested...

Data from: Divergence in brain composition during the early stages of ecological specialization in Heliconius butterflies

Stephen H. Montgomery & Richard M. Merrill
During speciation across ecological gradients diverging populations are exposed to contrasting sensory and spatial information that present new behavioural and perceptive challenges. These challenges may be met by heritable or environmentally-induced changes in brain function which mediate behaviour. However, few studies have investigated patterns of neural divergence at the early stages of speciation, inhibiting our understanding of the relative importance of these processes. Here, we provide a novel case study. The incipient species pair, Heliconius...

Data from: A circuit mechanism for decision making biases and NMDA receptor hypofunction

Sean Cavanagh, Norman Lam, John Murray, Laurence Hunt & Steven Kennerley
Decision-making biases can be features of normal behaviour, or deficits underlying neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used behavioural psychophysics, spiking-circuit modelling and pharmacological manipulations to explore decision-making biases during evidence integration. Monkeys showed a pro-variance bias (PVB): a preference to choose options with more variable evidence. The PVB was also present in a spiking circuit model, revealing a potential neural mechanism for this behaviour. To model possible effects of NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonism on this behaviour, we...

Data from: Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds

Ferran Sayol, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Tim M. Blackburn, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Human-driven extinctions can affect our understanding of evolution, through the nonrandom loss of certain types of species. Here, we explore how knowledge of a major evolutionary transition—the evolution of flightlessness in birds—is biased by anthropogenic extinctions. Adding data on 581 known anthropogenic extinctions to the extant avifauna increases the number of species by 5%, but quadruples the number of flightless species. The evolution of flightlessness in birds is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in more than...

Tuning cell behavior with nanoparticle shape

Loris Rizzello, Alessandro Poma, Eva Liatsi-Douvitsa, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria De Matteis, Cesare De Pace, Adrian Joseph, Claudia Contini, Edoardo Scarpa, Josep Martí, Loris Rizzello & Senio De Souza
We investigated how the shape of polymeric vesicles, made by the exact same material, impacts the replication activity and metabolic state of both cancer and non-cancer cell types. First, we isolated discrete geometrical structures (spheres and tubes) from a heterogeneous sample using density-gradient centrifugation. Then, we characterized the cellular internalization and the kinetics of uptake of both types of polymersomes in different cell types (either cancer or non-cancer cells). We also investigated the cellular metabolic...

Data from: Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host

Adam J. Dobson, Joanne Purves & Jens Rolff
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of ‘arming the enemy’: bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a...

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