15 Works

Data from: Blinded by the load: attention, awareness and the role of perceptual load

Nilli Lavie, Diane M. Beck & Nikos Konstantinou
What is the relationship between attention and conscious awareness? Awareness sometimes appears to be restricted to the contents of focused attention, yet at other times irrelevant distractors will dominate awareness. This contradictory relationship has also been reflected in an abundance of discrepant research findings leading to an enduring controversy in cognitive psychology. Lavie's load theory of attention suggests that the puzzle can be solved by considering the role of perceptual load. Although distractors will intrude...

Data from: Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host

Adam J. Dobson, Joanne Purves & Jens Rolff
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of ‘arming the enemy’: bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a...

Data from: Ablation of insulin-producing cells prevents obesity but not premature mortality caused by a high-sugar diet in Drosophila

Sara Naif Al Saud, Adam C. Summerfield & Nazif Alic
Ageing can be modulated by genetic as well as nutritional interventions. In female Drosophila melanogaster, lifespan is maximized at intermediate concentrations of sucrose as the carbohydrate source, and yeast as the protein source. Dampening the signal through the insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) pathway, by genetic ablation of median neurosecretory cells (mNSCs) that produce insulin-like peptides, extends lifespan and counteracts the detrimental effects of excess yeast. However, how IIS reduction impacts health on a high-sugar diet remains...

Data from: Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage

Roger B. J. Benson, Nicolás E. Campione, Matthew T. Carrano, Philip D. Mannion, Corwin Sullivan, Paul Upchurch & David C. Evans
Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation,...

Data from: Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies

Lucio Vinicius, Ruth Mace, Andrea B. Migliano & Andrea Migliano
Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males...

Data from: Niche divergence promotes rapid diversification of East African sky island white-eyes (Aves: Zosteropidae)

Siobhan C. Cox, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Jan C. Habel, Bernard A. Amakobe & Julia J. Day
The Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot composed of highly fragmented forested highlands (sky islands) harbours exceptional diversity and endemicity, particularly within birds. To explain their elevated diversity within this region, models founded on niche conservatism have been offered, although detailed phylogeographic studies are limited to a few avian lineages. Here we focus on the recent songbird genus Zosterops, represented by montane and lowland members, to test the roles of niche conservatism versus niche divergence in the...

Data from: Diet quality determines interspecific parasite interactions in host populations

Benjamin Lange, Max Reuter, Dieter Ebert, Koenraad Muylaert & Ellen Decaestecker
The widespread occurrence of multiple infections and the often vast range of nutritional resources for their hosts allow that interspecific parasite interactions in natural host populations might be determined by host diet quality. Nevertheless, the role of diet quality with respect to multispecies parasite interactions on host population level is not clear. We here tested the effect of host population diet quality on the parasite community in an experimental study using Daphnia populations. We studied...

Data from: Divergent evolutionary rates in vertebrate and mammalian specific Conserved Non-coding Elements (CNEs) in echolocating mammals

Kalina T. J. Davies, Georgia Tsagkogeorga & Stephen J. Rossiter
Background - The majority of DNA contained within vertebrate genomes is non-coding, with a certain proportion of this thought to play regulatory roles during development. Conserved Non-coding Elements (CNEs) are an abundant group of putative regulatory sequences that are highly conserved across divergent groups and are thus assumed to be under strong selective constraint. Many CNEs may contain regulatory factor binding sites, and their frequent spatial association with key developmental genes – such as those...

Data from: Using voluntary motor commands to inhibit involuntary arm movements

Arko Ghosh, John Rothwell & Patrick Haggard
A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to stop an ongoing movement. Is voluntary motor inhibition a general neural mechanism that can be focused on any movement, including involuntary movements, or is it mere termination of a positive voluntary motor command? The involuntary arm lift, or ‘floating arm trick’, is a distinctive long-lasting reflex of the deltoid muscle. We investigated how a voluntary motor network inhibits this form of involuntary motor control. Transcranial...

Data from: Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia

Amir S. Siraj, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J. Bouma, Damtew Yadeta, Daniel Ruiz Carrascal & Mercedes Pascual
The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence...

Data from: Silenced rRNA genes are activated and substitute for partially eliminated active homoelogs in the recently formed allotetraploid, Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae)

Ales Kovařík, Eva Dobešová, Roman Matyášek, Andrew R. Leitch, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis & Hana Malinska
To study the relationship between uniparental rDNA (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal RNA) silencing (nucleolar dominance) and rRNA gene dosage, we studied a recently emerged (within the last 80 years) allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (2n=24), formed from the diploid progenitors T. dubius (2n=12, D-genome donor) and T. porrifolius (2n=12, P-genome donor). Here, we used molecular, cytogenetic and genomic approaches to analyse rRNA gene activity in two sibling T. mirus plants (33A and 33B) with widely...

Data from: Hybridization facilitates evolutionary rescue

Rike B. Stelkens, Michael A. Brockhurst, Gregory D. D. Hurst & Duncan Greig
The resilience of populations to rapid environmental degradation is a major concern for biodiversity conservation. When environments deteriorate to lethal levels, species must evolve to adapt to the new conditions to avoid extinction. Here, we test the hypothesis that evolutionary rescue may be enabled by hybridization, because hybridization increases genetic variability. Using experimental evolution, we show that interspecific hybrid populations of Saccharomyces yeast adapt to grow in more highly degraded environments than intraspecific and parental...

Data from: Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions

Thomas E. Currie & Ruth Mace
A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to...

Data from: Reassessment of the non-titanosaurian somphospondylan Wintonotitan wattsi (Dinosauria: Sauropoda: Titanosauriformes) from the mid-Cretaceous Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

Stephen F. Poropat, Philip D. Mannion, Paul Upchurch, Scott A. Hocknull, Benjamin P. Kear & David A. Elliott
Wintonotitan wattsi, a Cretaceous titanosauriform sauropod from central Queensland, Australia, is redescribed following a full revision of its osteology. The holotype specimen, a partial postcranial skeleton derived from the lower Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation, comprises axial and appendicular elements. Wintonotitan has been commonly resolved as a non-titanosaurian somphospondylan titanosauriform since its description, in contrast to its more derived contemporary Diamantinasaurus matildae. We provide a detailed redescription, taking this opportunity to correct four misinterpretations made in...

Data from: strap: an R package for plotting phylogenies against stratigraphy and assessing their stratigraphic congruence

Mark A. Bell & Graeme T. Lloyd
strap (Stratigraphic Tree Analysis for Palaeontology) is a new package for the freely available statistical programming language R designed to perform three main tasks: (1) to time-scale phylogenies of fossil taxa; (2) to plot those time-scaled trees against stratigraphy; and (3) to assess congruence between phylogenies and stratigraphy. Time-scaling is performed with the DatePhylo function, with three approaches offered. Plotting trees against a choice of five different geological time scaless is possible using the geoscalePhylo...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    15

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    15

Affiliations

  • University College London
    15
  • Uppsala University
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
    1
  • National Museum
    1
  • Institute of Biophysics
    1
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    1
  • University of Nottingham
    1
  • Smithsonian Institution
    1