34 Works

Data from: Is predictability salient? A study of attentional capture by auditory patterns

Rosy Southwell, Anna Baumann, Cécile Gal, Nicolas Barascud, Karl Friston, Maria Chait & Rosy Southwell
In this series of behavioural and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments, we investigate the extent to which repeating patterns of sounds capture attention. Work in the visual domain has revealed attentional capture by statistically predictable stimuli, consistent with predictive coding accounts which suggest that attention is drawn to sensory regularities. Here, stimuli comprised rapid sequences of tone pips, arranged in regular (REG) or random (RAND) patterns. EEG data demonstrate that the brain rapidly recognizes predictable patterns manifested...

Data from: Divergence in brain composition during the early stages of ecological specialization in Heliconius butterflies

Stephen H. Montgomery, Richard M. Merrill, S. H. Montgomery & R. M. Merrill
During speciation across ecological gradients diverging populations are exposed to contrasting sensory and spatial information that present new behavioural and perceptive challenges. These challenges may be met by heritable or environmentally-induced changes in brain function which mediate behaviour. However, few studies have investigated patterns of neural divergence at the early stages of speciation, inhibiting our understanding of the relative importance of these processes. Here, we provide a novel case study. The incipient species pair, Heliconius...

Data from: Enhanced flight performance by genetic manipulation of wing shape in Drosophila

Robert P. Ray, Toshiyuki Nakata, Per Henningsson & Richard J. Bomphrey
Insect wing shapes are remarkably diverse and the combination of shape and kinematics determines both aerial capabilities and power requirements. However, the contribution of any specific morphological feature to performance is not known. Using targeted RNA interference to modify wing shape far beyond the natural variation found within the population of a single species, we show a direct effect on flight performance that can be explained by physical modelling of the novel wing geometry. Our...

Data from: Pupil dilation as an index of preferred mutual gaze duration

Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Antoine Coutrot, Alan Johnston & Isabelle Mareschal
Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period...

Data from: Measuring microbial fitness in a field reciprocal transplant experiment

Primrose J. Boynton, Rike Stelkens, Vienna Kowallik & Duncan Greig
Microbial fitness is easy to measure in the laboratory, but difficult to measure in the field. Laboratory fitness assays make use of controlled conditions and genetically modified organisms, neither of which are available in the field. Among other applications, fitness assays can help researchers detect adaptation to different habitats or locations. We designed a competitive fitness assay to detect adaptation of Saccharomyces paradoxus isolates to the habitat they were isolated from (oak or larch leaf...

Data from:Spatio-temporal networks: reachability, centrality and robustness

Matthew J. Williams & Mirco Musolesi
Recent advances in spatial and temporal networks have enabled researchers to more-accurately describe many real-world systems such as urban transport networks. In this paper, we study the response of real-world spatio-temporal networks to random error and systematic attack, taking a unified view of their spatial and temporal performance. We propose a model of spatio-temporal paths in time-varying spatially embedded networks which captures the property that, as in many real-world systems, interaction between nodes is non-instantaneous...

Data from: EMMLi: a maximum likelihood approach to the analysis of modularity

Anjali Goswami, John Albert Finarelli & John A. Finarelli
Identification of phenotypic modules, semiautonomous sets of highly correlated traits, can be accomplished through exploratory (e.g., cluster analysis) or confirmatory approaches (e.g., RV coefficient analysis). Although statistically more robust, confirmatory approaches are generally unable to compare across different model structures. For example, RV coefficient analysis finds support for both two- and six-module models for the therian mammalian skull. Here, we present a maximum likelihood approach that takes into account model parameterization. We compare model log-likelihoods...

Data from: Patterns of mammalian population decline inform conservation action

Martina M. I. Di Fonzo, Ben Collen, Alienor L. M. Chauvenet & Georgina M. Mace
1. Evaluations of wildlife population dynamics have the potential to convey valuable information on the type of pressure affecting a population and could help predict future changes in the population's trajectory. Greater understanding of different patterns of population declines could provide a useful mechanism for assessing decline severity in the wild and identifying those populations that are more likely to exhibit severe declines. 2. We identified 93 incidences of decline within 75 populations of mammalian...

Data from: Palenque de San Basilio in Colombia: genetic data supports an oral history of a paternal ancestry in Congo

Naser Ansari-Pour, Yves Moñino, Constanza Duque, Natalia Gallego, Gabriel Bedoya, Mark G. Thomas & Neil Bradman
The Palenque, a black community in rural Colombia, have an oral history of fugitive African slaves founding a free village near Cartagena in the seventeenth century. Recently, linguists have identified some 200 words in regular use that originate in a Kikongo language, with Yombe, mainly spoken in the Congo region, being the most likely source. The non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA were analysed to establish whether there was greater similarity...

Data from: Lessons from genome skimming of arthropod-preserving ethanol

Benjamin Linard, Paula Arribas, Carmelo Andújar, Alex Crampton-Platt, Alfried P. Vogler & A. Crampton-Platt
Field-collected specimens of invertebrates are regularly killed and preserved in ethanol, prior to DNA extraction from the specimens, while the ethanol fraction is usually discarded. However, DNA may be released from the specimens into the ethanol, which can potentially be exploited to study species diversity in the sample without the need for DNA extraction from tissue. We used shallow shotgun sequencing of the total DNA to characterize the preservative ethanol from two pools of insects...

Data from: Regulation of cell protrusions by small GTPases during fusion of the neural folds

Ana Rolo, Dawn Savery, Sarah Escuin, Sandra C. Castro, Hannah E. J. Armer, Peter M. G. Munro, Matteo A. Mole, Nicholas D. E. Greene & Andrew J. Copp
Epithelial fusion is a crucial process in embryonic development, and its failure underlies several clinically important birth defects. For example, failure of neural fold fusion during neurulation leads to open neural tube defects including spina bifida. Using mouse embryos, we show that cell protrusions emanating from the apposed neural fold tips, at the interface between the neuroepithelium and the surface ectoderm, are required for completion of neural tube closure. By genetically ablating the cytoskeletal regulators...

Data from: Reconstructing the emergence of a lethal infectious disease of wildlife supports a key role for spread through translocations by humans

Stephen J. Price, Trenton W.J. Garner, Andrew A. Cunningham, Tom E.S. Langton & Richard A. Nichols
There have been few reconstructions of wildlife disease emergences, despite their extensive impact on biodiversity and human health. This is in large part attributable to the lack of structured and robust spatio-temporal datasets. We overcame logistical problems of obtaining suitable information by using data from a citizen science project and formulating spatio-temporal models of the spread of a wildlife pathogen (genus Ranavirus, infecting amphibians). We evaluated three main hypotheses for the rapid increase in disease...

Data from: Cats, connectivity and conservation: incorporating datasets and integrating scales for wildlife management

Ross T. Pitman, Julien Fattebert, Samual T. Williams, Kathryn S. Williams, Russell A. Hill, Luke T. B. Hunter, Hugh Robinson, John Power, Lourens Swanepoel, Rob Slotow & Guy A. Balme
Understanding resource selection and quantifying habitat connectivity are fundamental to conservation planning for both land-use and species management plans. However, datasets available to management authorities for resource selection and connectivity analyses are often highly limited and fragmentary. As a result, measuring connectivity is challenging, and often poorly integrated within conservation planning and wildlife management. To exacerbate the challenge, scale-dependent resource use makes inference across scales problematic, resource use is often modelled in areas where the...

Eurasian pollen data from 21 kiloannum to the present

A. Binney. H., A. Lozhkin, P Anderson, A. Andreev, E. Bezrukova, T. Blyakharchuk, V. Jankovska, I. Khazhina, S. Krivonogov, K. Kremenetski, E. Novenko, N. Ryabogina, N. Solovieva & V. Zernitzkaya
This dataset contains fossil and modern pollen data collated during a workshop held in the UK in 2008 as part of the NERC (Quantifying and Understanding the Earth System) QUEST programme. The 96 sampling sites are located from 24°E (western Ukraine and Belarus) to easternmost Siberia, and lie north of latitude 40°N. The sample ages range from 21ka to present and are assigned to 1,000 year time slices. The dataset has been checked for consistent...

Data from: Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores

Ambroise G. Baker, Perry Cornelissen, Shonil Bhagwat, Fransciscus W. M. Vera, Katherine J. Willis & Shonil A. Bhagwat
The relationship between large herbivore numbers and landscape cover over time is poorly understood. There are two schools of thought: one views large herbivores as relatively passive elements upon the landscape and the other as ecosystem engineers driving vegetation succession. The latter relationship has been used as an argument to support reintroductions of large herbivores onto many landscapes in order to increase vegetation heterogeneity and biodiversity through local-scale disturbance regimes. Most of the research examining...

Data from: Acoustic identification of Mexican bats based on taxonomic and ecological constraints on call design

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Celia Lopez-Gonzalez, M. Cristina MacSwiney Gonzalez, Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Vassilios Stathopoulos & Kate E. Jones
Monitoring global biodiversity is critical for understanding responses to anthropogenic change, but biodiversity monitoring is often biased away from tropical, megadiverse areas that are experiencing more rapid environmental change. Acoustic surveys are increasingly used to monitor biodiversity change, especially for bats as they are important indicator species and most use sound to detect, localise and classify objects. However, using bat acoustic surveys for monitoring poses several challenges, particularly in megadiverse regions. Many species lack reference...

Data from: Assessing current genetic status of the Hainan gibbon using historical and demographic baselines: implications for conservation management of species of extreme rarity

Jessica V. Bryant, Dada Gottelli, Xinyuan Zeng, Xiaojiang Hong, Bosco P.L. Chan, John R. Fellowes, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Luo, Christopher Durrant, Thomas Geissmann, Helen J. Chatterjee, Samuel T. Turvey, J. V. Bryant, D. Gottelli, C. Durrant, S. T. Turvey, Y. Zhang, T. Geissmann, J. Luo, J. R. Fellowes & H. J. Chatterjee
Evidence-based conservation planning is crucial for informing management decisions for species of extreme rarity, but collection of robust data on genetic status or other parameters can be extremely challenging for such species. The Hainan gibbon, possibly the world's rarest mammal, consists of a single population of ~25 individuals restricted to one protected area on Hainan Island, China, and has persisted for over 30 years at exceptionally low population size. Analysis of genotypes at 11 microsatellite...

Palaeolimnological data from 5 Arctic lakes in Greenland, Alaska and Norway [Lakes and Arctic Carbon]

E.J. Whiteford, E. Hopla, N. Solovieva, J. Swales, S. Turner, M. Van Hardenbroek, E. Wiik, M.E. Edwards, V.J. Jones, P.G. Langdon, S. McGowan & N.J. Anderson
This dataset contains palaeolimnological data from sediment cores taken from five Arctic lakes. Two lakes located in Alaska were cored in July 2013, one lake located in Greenland was cored in April 2013, and two lakes located in Norway were cored in March 2014. The data includes macrofossil, chironomids and Cladocera analysis at 2 cm resolution; and loss on ignition, diatoms, biogenic silica, nitrogen and carbon isotopes, algal photosynthetic pigments and pollen analyses at 1...

Data from: The impact of phylogenetic dating method on interpreting trait evolution: a case study of Cretaceous–Palaeogene eutherian body-size evolution

Thomas J.D. Halliday, Anjali Goswami, A. Goswami & T. J. D. Halliday
The fossil record of the earliest Cenozoic contains the first large-bodied placental mammals. Several evolutionary models have been invoked to explain the transition from small to large body sizes, but methods for determining evolutionary mode of trait change depend on input from tree topology and divergence dates. Different dating methods may therefore affect inference of evolutionary model. Here, we fit models of body mass evolution onto dated phylogenies of Cretaceous and Palaeogene mammals, comparing the...

Data from: Splicing repression allows the gradual emergence of new Alu-exons in primate evolution

Jan Attig, Igor Ruiz De Los Mozos, Nejc Haberman, Zhen Wang, Warren Emmett, Kathi Zarnack, Julian König & Jernej Ule
Alu elements are retrotransposons that frequently form new exons during primate evolution. Here, we assess the interplay of splicing repression by hnRNPC and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) in the quality control and evolution of new Alu-exons. We identify 3100 new Alu-exons and show that NMD more efficiently recognises transcripts with Alu-exons compared to other exons with premature termination codons. However, some Alu-exons escape NMD, especially when an adjacent intron is retained, highlighting the importance of...

Data from: An auditory illusion reveals the role of streaming in the temporal misallocation of perceptual objects

Anahita H. Mehta, Nori Jacoby, Ifat Yasin, Andrew J. Oxenham & Shihab A. Shamma
This study investigates the neural correlates and processes underlying the ambiguous percept produced by a stimulus similar to Deutsch's ‘octave illusion’, in which each ear is presented with a sequence of alternating pure tones of low and high frequencies. The same sequence is presented to each ear, but in opposite phase, such that the left and right ears receive a high–low–high … and a low–high–low … pattern, respectively. Listeners generally report hearing the illusion of...

Data from: Reproductive trade-offs in extant hunter-gatherers suggest adaptive mechanism for the Neolithic expansion

Abigail E. Page, Sylvain Viguier, Mark Dyble, Daniel Smith, Nikhil Chaudhary, Gul Deniz Salali, James Thompson, Lucio Vinicius, Ruth Mace & Andrea Bamberg Migliano
The Neolithic demographic transition remains a paradox, because it is associated with both higher rates of population growth and increased morbidity and mortality rates. Here we reconcile the conflicting evidence by proposing that the spread of agriculture involved a life history quality–quantity trade-off whereby mothers traded offspring survival for increased fertility, achieving greater reproductive success despite deteriorating health. We test this hypothesis by investigating fertility, mortality, health, and overall reproductive success in Agta hunter-gatherers whose...

Data from: Major improvements to the Heliconius melpomene genome assembly used to confirm 10 chromosome fusion events in 6 million years of butterfly evolution

John W. Davey, Mathieu Chouteau, Sarah L. Barker, Luana Maroja, Simon W. Baxter, Fraser Simpson, Mathieu Joron, James Mallet, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Chris D. Jiggins & Richard M. Merrill
The Heliconius butterflies are a widely studied adaptive radiation of 46 species spread across Central and South America, several of which are known to hybridize in the wild. Here, we present a substantially improved assembly of the Heliconius melpomene genome, developed using novel methods that should be applicable to improving other genome assemblies produced using short read sequencing. First, we whole-genome-sequenced a pedigree to produce a linkage map incorporating 99% of the genome. Second, we...

Data from: Rapid evolution of the inter-sexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster

Julie M. Collet, Sara Fuentes, Jack Hesketh, Mark S. Hill, Paolo Innocenti, Edward H. Morrow, Kevin Fowler & Max Reuter
Sexual antagonism (SA) arises when male and female phenotypes are under opposing selection, yet genetically correlated. Until resolved, antagonism limits evolution towards optimal sex-specific phenotypes. Despite its importance for sex-specific adaptation and existing theory, the dynamics of SA resolution are not well understood empirically. Here, we present data from Drosophila melanogaster, compatible with a resolution of SA. We compared two independent replicates of the 'LHM' population in which SA had previously been described. Both had...

Data from: Eutherians experienced elevated evolutionary rates in the immediate aftermath of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene mass extinction

Thomas J.D. Halliday, Paul Upchurch, Anjali Goswami & Thomas John Dixon Halliday
The effect of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) mass extinction on the evolution of many groups, including placental mammals, has been hotly debated. The fossil record suggests a sudden adaptive radiation of placentals immediately after the event, but several recent quantitative analyses have reconstructed no significant increase in either clade origination rates or rates of character evolution in the Palaeocene. Here we use stochastic methods to date a recent phylogenetic analysis of Cretaceous and Palaeocene mammals and...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    34

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    34

Affiliations

  • University College London
    34
  • Zoological Society of London
    5
  • University of Cambridge
    3
  • University of Sussex
    2
  • Columbia University
    2
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • University of Southampton
    2
  • Imperial College London
    2
  • Yunnan University
    1
  • University of Montana
    1