38 Works

Data from: Social seeking declines in young adolescents

Indu Dubey, Danielle Ropar & Antonia F. De C. Hamilton
The desire to engage with others is an important motivational force throughout our lifespan. It is known that social behaviour and preferences change from childhood to adulthood, but whether this change is linked with any changes in social motivation is not known. We evaluated 255 typically developing participants from ages 4–20 years on a behavioural paradigm ‘Choose a Movie’ (CAM). On every trial, participants had a choice between viewing social or non-social movies presented with...

Data from: Oral microbiomes from hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers reveal shifts in commensal balance and pathogen load linked to diet

Florent Lassalle, Matteo Spagnoletti, Matteo Fumagalli, Liam Shaw, Mark Dyble, Catherine Walker, Mark G. Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano & Francois Balloux
Maladaptation to modern diets has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Given the higher prevalence of disease such as dental caries and chronic gum diseases in industrialized societies, we sought to investigate the impact of different subsistence strategies on oral health and physiology, as documented by the oral microbiome. To control for confounding variables such as environment and host genetics, we sampled saliva from three pairs of populations of hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers living in...

Data from: Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice

Alberto Corral-López, Natasha I. Bloch, Alexander Kotrschal, Wouter Van Der Bijl, Severine D. Buechel, Judith E. Mank & Niclas Kolm
Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to...

Data from: Dynamic population codes of multiplexed stimulus features in primate area MT

Erin Goddard, Samuel G. Solomon & Thomas A. Carlson
The middle-temporal area (MT) of primate visual cortex is critical in the analysis of visual motion. Single-unit studies suggest that the response dynamics of neurons within area MT depend on stimulus features, but how these dynamics emerge at the population level, and how feature representations interact, is not clear. Here, we used multivariate classification analysis to study how stimulus features are represented in the spiking activity of populations of neurons in area MT of marmoset...

Data from: Time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of pteropods

Alice K. Burridge, Christine Hörnlein, Arie W. Janssen, Martin Hughes, Stephanie L. Bush, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Rebeca Gasca, Annelies C. Pierrot-Bults, Ellinor Michel, Jonathan A. Todd, Jeremy R. Young, Karen J. Osborn, Steph B.J. Menken, Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg & Steph B. J. Menken
Pteropods are a widespread group of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs and are uniquely suitable for study of long-term evolutionary processes in the open ocean because they are the only living metazoan plankton with a good fossil record. Pteropods have been proposed as bioindicators to monitor the impacts of ocean acidification and in consequence have attracted considerable research interest, however, a robust evolutionary framework for the group is still lacking. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and...

Data from: Do experiences and perceptions about quality of care differ among social groups in Nepal? : A study of maternal healthcare experiences of women with and without disabilities, and Dalit and non-Dalit women

Hridaya Raj Devkota, Andrew Clarke, Emily Murray & Nora Groce
Background: Suboptimal quality of care and disparities in services by healthcare providers are often reported in Nepal. Experience and perceptions about quality of care may differ according to women’s socio-cultural background, individual characteristics, their exposure and expectations. This study aimed to compare perceptions of the quality of maternal healthcare services between two groups that are consistently considered vulnerable, women with disabilities from both the non-Dalit population and Dalit population and their peers without disabilities from...

Data from: Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: on the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

Karel Janko, Jan Pačes, Hilde Wilkinson-Herbots, Rui J. Costa, Jan Roslein, Pavel Drozd, Nataliia Iakovenko, Jakub Rídl, Miluše Hroudová, Jan Kočí, Radka Reifová, Věra Šlechtová & Lukáš Choleva
Although sexual reproduction is ubiquitous throughout nature, the molecular machinery behind it has been repeatedly disrupted during evolution, leading to the emergence of asexual lineages in all eukaryotic phyla. Despite intensive research, little is known about what causes the switch from sexual reproduction to asexuality. Interspecific hybridization is one of the candidate explanations but the reasons for the apparent association between hybridization and asexuality remain unclear. In this study we combined cross-breeding experiments with population...

Data from: Identification of the Beagle 2 lander on Mars

John C. Bridges, Jim Clemmet, Michael Croon, Mark R. Sims, Derek Pullan, Jan-Peter Muller, Yu Tao, Xiong Xiong, Alfiah R. Putri, Tim Parker, Stuart M. R. Turner & Judith M. Pillinger
The 2003 Beagle 2 Mars lander has been identified in Isidis Planitia at 90.43° E, 11.53° N, close to the predicted target of 90.50° E, 11.53° N. Beagle 2 was an exobiology lander designed to look for isotopic and compositional signs of life on Mars, as part of the European Space Agency Mars Express (MEX) mission. The 2004 recalculation of the original landing ellipse from a 3-sigma major axis from 174 km to 57 km,...

Data from: Foraging bumblebees use social cues more when the task is difficult

David Baracchi, Vera Vasas, Soha Jamshed Iqbal & Sylvain Alem
When foraging in their natural environment, many animals readily complement their personal knowledge with additional social information. To balance the costs and benefits of copying others, animals have to discern situations in which it is more advantageous to use social rather than personal information. Here, we used foraging bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in a controlled laboratory setting and showed that the difficulty of a foraging task affects how the bees weight the two types of information....

Data from: Community water improvement, household water insecurity, and women’s psychological distress: an intervention and control study in Ethiopia

Edward G. J. Stevenson, Argaw Ambelu, Bethany A. Caruso, Yihenew Tesfaye & Matthew C. Freeman
Background: Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to ‘improved’ sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of...

Data from: Approach-induced biases in human information sampling

Laurence T. Hunt, Robb B. Rutledge, W. M. Nishantha Malalasekera, Steven W. Kennerley & Raymond J. Dolan
IInformation sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one’s prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample....

Data from: Multiple independent colonizations into the Congo Basin during the continental radiation of African Mastacembelus spiny eels

Julia J. Day, Antonie Fages, Katherine J. Brown, Emmanuel J. Vreven, Melanie L. J. Stiassny, Roger Bills, John P. Friel, Lukas Rüber & Antoine Fages
Aim: There has been recent interest in the origin and assembly of continental biotas based on densely sampled species-level clades, however, studies from African freshwaters are few so that the commonality of macroevolutionary patterns and processes among continental clades remain to be tested. Within the Afrotropics, the Congo Basin contains the highest diversity of riverine fishes, yet it is unclear how this fauna was assembled. To address this, and the diversification dynamics of a continental...

Data from: Testing the molecular clock using mechanistic models of fossil preservation and molecular evolution

Rachel C. M. Warnock, Ziheng Yang & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Molecular sequence data provide information about relative times only, and fossil-based age constraints are the ultimate source of information about absolute times in molecular clock dating analyses. Thus, fossil calibrations are critical to molecular clock dating, but competing methods are difficult to evaluate empirically because the true evolutionary time scale is never known. Here, we combine mechanistic models of fossil preservation and sequence evolution in simulations to evaluate different approaches to constructing fossil calibrations and...

Data from: Extreme behavioural shifts by baboons exploiting risky, resource-rich, human-modified environments

Gaelle Fehlmann, M. Justin O’Riain, Catherine Kerr-Smith, Stephen Hailes, Adrian Luckman, Emily L. C. Shepard & Andrew J. King
A range of species exploit anthropogenic food resources in behaviour known as ‘raiding’. Such behavioural flexibility is considered a central component of a species’ ability to cope with human-induced environmental changes. Here, we study the behavioural processes by which raiding male chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) exploit the opportunities and mitigate the risks presented by raiding in the suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa. Ecological sampling and interviews conducted with ‘rangers’ (employed to manage the baboons’...

Data from: Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment

Chris B. Thaxter, Graeme M. Buchanan, Carr Jamie, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Tim Newbold, Rhys E. Green, Joseph A. Tobias, Wendy B. Foden, Sue O'Brien & James W. Pearce-Higgins
Mitigation of anthropogenic climate change involves deployments of renewable energy worldwide, including wind farms, which can pose a significant collision risk to volant animals. Most studies into the collision risk between species and wind turbines, however, have taken place in industrialized countries. Potential effects for many locations and species therefore remain unclear. To redress this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of recorded collisions between birds and bats and wind turbines within developed countries....

Data from: Predicting animal behaviour using deep learning: GPS data alone accurately predict diving in seabirds

Ella Browning, Mark Bolton, Ellie Owen, Akiko Shoji, Tim Guilford & Robin Freeman
1.In order to prevent further global declines in biodiversity, identifying and understanding key habitats is crucial for successful conservation strategies. For example, globally, seabird populations are under threat and animal movement data can identify key at-sea areas and provide valuable information on the state of marine ecosystems. To date, in order to locate these areas, studies have used Global Positioning System (GPS) to record position and are sometimes combined with Time Depth Recorder (TDR) devices...

Data from: A map of abstract relational knowledge in the human hippocampal–entorhinal cortex

Mona M. Garvert, Raymond J. Dolan, Timothy E.J. Behrens & Timothy EJ Behrens
The hippocampal–entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal–entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that...

Data from: Terrestrial-focused protected areas are effective for conservation of freshwater fish diversity in Lake Tanganyika

Adam W. Britton, Julia J. Day, Christopher J. Doble, Benjamin P. Ngatunga, Kirsty M. Kemp, Chris Carbone, David J. Murrell, B.P. Ngatunga, J.J. Day, D.J. Murrell, C.J. Doble & A.W. Britton
Freshwater protected areas are rarely designed specifically for this purpose and consequently their conservation benefit cannot be guaranteed. Using Lake Tanganyika as a test case we investigated the benefits of terrestrial-focussed protected areas on the alpha and beta taxonomic and functional diversity of the diverse endemic rocky-shore cichlid fishes. Lake Tanganyika has limited protected shorelines and continued human population growth in its catchment, which has potential for negative impacts on habitat quality and key biological...

Data from: Assessing the conservation value of secondary savanna for large mammals in the Brazilian Cerrado

Guilherme B. Ferreira, Jorge A. Ahumada, Marcelo J. R. Oliveira, Fernando F. De Pinho, Izabela M. Barata, Chris Carbone & Ben Collen
Debate about the conservation value of secondary habitats has tended to focus on tropical forests, increasingly recognizing the role of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation. However, there remains a lack of information about the conservation value of secondary savannas. Here, we conducted a camera trap survey to assess the effect of secondary vegetation on large mammals in a Brazilian Cerrado protected area, using a single-season occupancy framework to investigate the response of individual species (species-level...

Data from: Experimental and statistical reevaluation provides no evidence for Drosophila courtship song rhythms

David L. Stern, Jan Clemens, Philip Coen, Adam J. Calhoun, John B. Hogenesch, Ben J. Arthur & Mala Murthy
From 1980 to 1992, a series of influential papers reported on the discovery, genetics, and evolution of a periodic cycling of the interval between Drosophila male courtship song pulses. The molecular mechanisms underlying this periodicity were never described. To reinitiate investigation of this phenomenon, we previously performed automated segmentation of songs but failed to detect the proposed rhythm [Arthur BJ, et al. (2013) BMC Biol 11:11; Stern DL (2014) BMC Biol 12:38]. Kyriacou et al....

Data from: A genome for gnetophytes and early evolution of seed plants

Tao Wan, Zhi-Ming Liu, Ling-Fei Li, Andrew R. Leitch, Ilia J. Leitch, Rolf Lohaus, Zhong-Jian Liu, Hai-Ping Xin, Yan-Bing Gong, Yang Liu, Wen-Cai Wang, Ling-Yun Chen, Yong Yang, Laura J. Kelly, Ji Yang, Jin-Ling Huang, Zhen Li, Ping Liu, Li Zhang, Hong-Mei Liu, Hui Wang, Shu-Han Deng, Meng Liu, Ji Li, Lu Ma … & Xiao-Ming Wang
Gnetophytes are an enigmatic gymnosperm lineage comprising three genera, Gnetum, Welwitschia and Ephedra, which are morphologically distinct from all other seed plants. Their distinctiveness has triggered much debate as to their origin, evolution and phylogenetic placement among seed plants. To increase our understanding of the evolution of gnetophytes, and their relation to other seed plants, we report here a high-quality draft genome sequence for Gnetum montanum, the first for any gnetophyte. By using a novel...

Data from: Human visual exploration reduces uncertainty about the sensed world

M. Berk Mirza, Rick A. Adams, Christoph Mathys & Karl J. Friston
In previous papers, we introduced a normative scheme for scene construction and epistemic (visual) searches based upon active inference. This scheme provides a principled account of how people decide where to look, when categorising a visual scene based on its contents. In this paper, we use active inference to explain the visual searches of normal human subjects; enabling us to answer some key questions about visual foraging and salience attribution. First, we asked whether there...

Data from: Bumblebees show cognitive flexibility by improving on an observed complex behavior

Olli J. Loukola, Clint J. Perry, Louie Coscos & Lars Chittka
We explored bees’ behavioral flexibility in a task that required transporting a small ball to a defined location to gain a reward. Bees were pretrained to know the correct location of the ball. Subsequently, to obtain a reward, bees had to move a displaced ball to the defined location. Bees that observed demonstration of the technique from a live or model demonstrator learned the task more efficiently than did bees observing a “ghost” demonstration (ball...

Data from: Social Reward Questionnaire—Adolescent Version and its association with callous–unemotional traits

Lucy Foulkes, Craig S. Neumann, Ruth Roberts, Eamon McCrory & Essi Viding
During adolescence, social interactions are a potent source of reward. However, no measure of social reward value exists for this age group. In this study, we adapted the adult Social Reward Questionnaire, which we had previously developed and validated, for use with adolescents. Participants aged 11–16 (n = 568; 50% male) completed the Social Reward Questionnaire—Adolescent Version (SRQ-A), alongside measures of personality traits—five-factor model (FFM) and callous–unemotional (CU) traits—for construct validity purposes. A confirmatory factor...

Data from: Gene duplication and co-evolution of G1/S transcription factors specificity in fungi are essential for optimizing cell fitness

Adi Hendler, Edgar M. Medina, Anastasiya Kishkevich, Mehtap Abu-Qarn, Steffi Klier, Nicolas E. Buchler, Robertus A. M. De Bruin & Amir Aharoni
Transcriptional regulatory networks play a central role in optimizing cell survival. How DNA binding domains and cis-regulatory DNA binding sequences have co-evolved to allow the expansion of transcriptional networks and how this contributes to cellular fitness remains unclear. Here we experimentally explore how the complex G1/S transcriptional network evolved in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by examining different chimeric transcription factor (TF) complexes. Over 300 G1/S genes are regulated by either one of the two...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    38

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    38

Affiliations

  • University College London
    38
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • Ghent University
    2
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • Charles University
    2
  • University of Bern
    2
  • University of Sydney
    2
  • Natural History Museum
    2
  • Zoological Society of London
    2