62 Works

Data from: Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds

Ferran Sayol, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Tim M. Blackburn, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Human-driven extinctions can affect our understanding of evolution, through the nonrandom loss of certain types of species. Here, we explore how knowledge of a major evolutionary transition—the evolution of flightlessness in birds—is biased by anthropogenic extinctions. Adding data on 581 known anthropogenic extinctions to the extant avifauna increases the number of species by 5%, but quadruples the number of flightless species. The evolution of flightlessness in birds is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in more than...

Fire Safety Engineering: Education Report 2 of 8

Jose Torero, David Lange, Mahmut Horasan, Andres Osorio, Cristian Maluk, Juan Hidalgo & Peter Johnson
The Education Report discusses the current status of education and training of fire safety engineers; as well as the competencies which are expected of a fire safety engineering professional

Fire Safety Engineering: The Methods Report 3 of 8

David Lange, Jose Torero, Andres Osorio, Nate Lobel, Cristian Maluk & Juan P Hidalgo
The Methods Report takes a closer look at international guidelines and methods currently used for Fire Safety Engineering and considers where fundamental change is needed for Australia

Trust and Transparency in times of Crisis: Results from an Online Survey During the First Wave (April 2020) of the COVID-19 Epidemic in the UK

Luisa Enria, Naomi Waterlow, Nina Rogers, Hannah Brindle, Sham Lal, Rosalind M. Egoo, Shelley Lees & Chrissy Roberts

Rail Network Crime and Passenger Travel in the Pandemic

Anthony Dixon, Lara Adamson & Nick Tilley

An Introduction to Systematic Literature Reviews In Engineering Education

Inês Direito, Shannon Chance & Manish Malikc

Understandings of \"Global Responsibility’ Expressed By Civil Engineers Working in London

Shannon Chance, Inez Direito & J. Mitchell

Exploring the Impact of Brexit on UK’S Engineering Education Sector from the Perspective of European Students and Staff

Inez Direito, William Williams & Shannon Chance

Data accompanying ‘Microstructural controls on thermal crack damage and the presence of a temperature-memory effect during cyclic thermal stressing of rocks’ submitted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters

John Browning, Ali Daoud, Philip Meredith & Thomas Mitchell
Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic wave velocity data recorded during a series of high temperature thermal cracking experiments by Daoud et al., in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory of the University College London. The data gives the time and magnitude of AE output which were recorded contemporaneously whilst cyclically heating three rock types (A Slaufrudalur Granophyre, A Santorini Andesite and a Seljadalur Basalt). The ultrasonic wave velocity data was recorded pre- and post- heating....

Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola)

Alexandros Vasilikopoulos, Bernhard Misof, Karen Meusemann, Doria Lieberz, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G. Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Ralph S. Peters, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Böhm, Shanlin Liu, Paschalia Kapli, Carola Greve, James E. Jepson, Xingyue Liu, Xin Zhou, Horst Aspöck & Ulrike Aspöck
Background The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera, and the timeline of diversification of thelineages of Neuropterida. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to...

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

Data from: A circuit mechanism for decision making biases and NMDA receptor hypofunction

Sean Cavanagh, Norman Lam, John Murray, Laurence Hunt & Steven Kennerley
Decision-making biases can be features of normal behaviour, or deficits underlying neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used behavioural psychophysics, spiking-circuit modelling and pharmacological manipulations to explore decision-making biases during evidence integration. Monkeys showed a pro-variance bias (PVB): a preference to choose options with more variable evidence. The PVB was also present in a spiking circuit model, revealing a potential neural mechanism for this behaviour. To model possible effects of NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonism on this behaviour, we...

Tuning cell behavior with nanoparticle shape

Loris Rizzello, Alessandro Poma, Eva Liatsi-Douvitsa, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria De Matteis, Cesare De Pace, Adrian Joseph, Claudia Contini, Edoardo Scarpa, Josep Martí, Loris Rizzello & Senio De Souza
We investigated how the shape of polymeric vesicles, made by the exact same material, impacts the replication activity and metabolic state of both cancer and non-cancer cell types. First, we isolated discrete geometrical structures (spheres and tubes) from a heterogeneous sample using density-gradient centrifugation. Then, we characterized the cellular internalization and the kinetics of uptake of both types of polymersomes in different cell types (either cancer or non-cancer cells). We also investigated the cellular metabolic...

Data from: Contrasting trajectories of morphological diversification on continents and islands in the Afrotropical white-eye radiation

Julia J. Day, Frederico C. Martins, Joseph A. Tobias & David J. Murrell
Aim Morphological and lineage evolution are predicted to follow different patterns in island and mainland radiations. However, the extent to which these geographical contexts influence evolutionary trajectories remains poorly understood, in part because few studies have focused on species-rich clades colonising continents and archipelagos over comparable timeframes. Focusing on a diverse songbird clade radiating on the African continent and adjacent islands, we tested whether morphological evolution is best explained by adaptive or non-adaptive processes, and...

Review of Energy Policy 2020

Robert Gross, Keith Bell, Mike Bradshaw, Christian Brand, Jason Chilvers, Paul Dodds, Antony Froggatt, Richard Hanna, Tom Hargreaves, Phil Heptonstall, Caroline Kuzemko, Richard Lowes, Faye Wade & Jan Webb

Survival infrastructures under COVID-19

Ayona Datta
Blog posting on how Covid-19 affects the lives of migrants in India.

Fire Safety Engineering: Professional Development Report 6 of 8

David Lange, Peter Johnson, Jose Torero, Juan P Hidalgo, Cristian Maluk & Felix Wiesner
The Professional Development Report addresses the resource and skill constraints hindering the full professionalisation of fire safety engineering, in order to one day achieve a sustainable provision of fire safety engineering professionals.

Data from: Spatiotemporal variation in completeness of the early cynodont fossil record and its implications for mammalian evolutionary history

Grace Varnham, Philip Mannion & Christian Kammerer
Mammals are the only surviving group of Cynodontia, a synapsid clade that first appears in the fossil record in the late Permian, ~260 million years ago. Here, using three metrics that capture skeletal completeness, we quantify the quality of the early cynodont fossil record in time and space to evaluate the impact of sampling and preservational biases on our understanding of the group’s evolutionary history. There is no consistent global sampling signal for early cynodonts....

Linking socioeconomic inequalities and type 2 diabetes through obesity and lifestyle factors among Mexican adults: a structural equations modeling approach

Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Delfino Vargas-Chanes, Sheyla Hernández, David Napier, Simón Barquera & Paloma Muñoz-Aguirre
Objective. To assess the association between type 2 dia­betes (DM2) and socioeconomic inequalities, mediated by the contribution of body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), and diet (diet-DII). Materials and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data of adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey of Mexico City. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as height and weight, dietary intake, leisure time activity and the presence of DM2 were measured. We fitted a structural...

Data from: Nutritional geometry of mitochondrial genetic effects on male fertility

M. Florencia Camus, James Moore & Max Reuter
Organismal fitness is partly determined by how well the nutritional intake matches sex-specific metabolic requirements. Metabolism itself is underpinned by complex genomic interactions involving products from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Products from these two genomes must coordinate how nutrients are extracted, utilised and recycled; processes vital for fuelling reproduction. Given the complicated nature of metabolism, it is not well understood how the functioning of these two genomes is modulated by nutrients. Here we use...

Defining species when there is gene flow

Ziheng Yang & Xiyun Jiao
Whatever one’s definition of species, it is generally expected that individuals of the same species should be genetically more similar to each other than they are to individuals of another species. Here we show that in the presence of cross-species gene flow, this expectation may be incorrect. We use the multispecies coalescent model with migration or introgression to study the impact of gene flow on genetic differences within and between species and highlight a surprising...

The apparent exponential radiation of Phanerozoic land vertebrates is an artefact of spatial sampling biases

Roger Close, Roger Benson, John Alroy, Matthew Carrano, Terri Cleary, Emma Dunne, Philip Mannion, Mark Uhen & Richard Butler
There is no consensus about how terrestrial biodiversity was assembled through deep time, and in particular whether it has risen exponentially over the Phanerozoic. Using a database of 38,711 fossil occurrences, we show that the spatial extent of the ‘global’ terrestrial tetrapod fossil record itself expands exponentially through the Phanerozoic, and that this spatial variation explains around 75% of the variation in known fossil species counts. Controlling for this bias, we find that regional-scale terrestrial...

R implementation of the Ecological Risk due to Flow Alteration (ERFA) method

C.L.R. Laize & J.R. Thompson
This application is an implementation of the Ecological Risk due to Flow Alteration (ERFA) method in R language. This method assesses the potential impact of flow change on river ecosystems. Although the code was developed with a geographical focus on southeast Asia (example datasets are provided for the Mekong River Basin), it can be applied for any location where baseline and scenario monthly river flow time series are available. This program is distributed in the...

Intermedia agenda-setting networks

Samuel Stern & Giacomo Livan
We investigate the impact of noise and topology on opinion diversity in social networks. We do so by extending well-established models of opinion dynamics to a stochastic setting where agents are subject both to assimilative forces by their local social interactions, as well as to idiosyncratic factors preventing their population from reaching consensus. We model the latter to account for both scenarios where noise is entirely exogenous to peer influence and cases where it is...

Association of gray matter atrophy patterns with clinical phenotype and progression in multiple sclerosis

Maria A Rocca, Paola Valsasina, Alessandro Meani, Claudio Gobbi, Chiara Zecca, Alex Rovira, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Hugh Kearney, Olga Ciccarelli, Lucy Matthews, Jacqueline Palace, Antonio Gallo, Alvino Bisecco, Carsten Lukas, Barbara Bellenberg, Frederik Barkhof, Hugo Vrenken, Paolo Preziosa & Massimo Filippi
Objectives. Grey matter (GM) involvement is clinically relevant in multiple sclerosis (MS). Using source-based morphometry (SBM), we characterized GM atrophy and its 1-year evolution across different MS phenotypes. Methods. Clinical and MRI data were obtained at 8 European sites from 170 healthy controls (HCs) and 398 MS patients (34 clinically isolated syndromes [CIS], 226 relapsing-remitting [RR], 95 secondary progressive [SP] and 43 primary progressive [PP] MS). Fifty-seven HC and 144 MS underwent 1-year follow-up. Baseline...

Registration Year

  • 2020

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  • University College London
  • University of Queensland
  • Arup Group (United Kingdom)
  • Technological University Dublin
  • University of Strathclyde
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Sydney
  • University of Birmingham