62 Works

Of woodlice and men: A Bayesian account of cognition, life and consciousness. An interview with Karl Friston.

Karl Friston, Martin Fortier & Daniel Friedman
Prof. Karl J. Friston is a scientist who has made fundamental contributions to areas such as functional brain imaging, statistical techniques for dynamical systems, and the Free Energy Principle (FEP). Here, various topics are formally and informally explored. First there are personal, scientific, and mathematical accounts related to the (origins of the) FEP, and how the FEP diverges from the Predictive coding and Bayesian brain hypotheses. Next, there is a discussion of how the FEP...

An Overview of Recent Findings on the Effect of Light on Circulation Rhythms

Ben Ransley

Parental perspectives of children’s use of internet connected toys

Ioanna Palaiologou, Lorna Arnott & Colette Gray
Internet Connected Toys (IoToys) are becoming increasingly popular among very young children (birth to seven years) within families. Meanwhile, increasingly complex and multipurpose digital devices and IoToys require new attitudes, aptitudes and competences on the part of parents. This qualitative study focused on examining how children interact with IoToys at home and in early childhood education. Data were collected using a multi-method approach over an eight-month period. We conducted interviews with parents and teachers, observed...

Data From: Analysing social media forums to discover potential causes of phasic shifts in cryptocurrency price series

Andrew Burnie, Emine Yilmaz & Tomaso Aste
The recent extreme volatility in cryptocurrency prices occurred in the setting of popular social media forums devoted to the discussion of cryptocurrencies. We develop a framework that discovers potential causes of phasic shifts in the price movement captured by social media discussions. This draws on principles developed in healthcare epidemiology where, similarly, only observational data are available. Such causes may have a major, one-off effect or recurring effects on the trend in the price series....

Data from: Increased dystrophin production with golodirsen in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Diane E. Frank, Frederick J. Schnell, Cody Akana, Saleh H. El-Husayni, Cody A. Desjardins, Jennifer Morgan, Jay S. Charleston, Valentina Sardone, Joana Domingos, George Dickson, Volker Straub, Michela Guglieri, Eugenio Mercuri, Laurent Servais & Francesco Muntoni
Objective To report safety, pharmacokinetics, exon 53 skipping, and dystrophin expression in golodirsen-treated patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) amenable to exon 53 skipping. Methods Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week dose titration of once-weekly golodirsen; Part 2 is an ongoing, open-label evaluation. Safety and pharmacokinetics were primary and secondary objectives of Part 1. Primary biological outcome measures of part 2 were blinded exon skipping and dystrophin protein production on muscle biopsies (baseline,...

A total-evidence dated phylogeny of Echinoidea combining phylogenomic and paleontological data

Nicolás Mongiardino Koch & Jeffrey Thompson
Phylogenomic and paleontological data constitute complementary resources for unravelling the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of lineages, yet few studies have attempted to fully integrate them. Several unique properties of echinoids (sea urchins) make them especially useful for such synthetizing approaches, including a remarkable fossil record that can be incorporated into explicit phylogenetic hypotheses. We revisit the phylogeny of crown group Echinoidea using a total-evidence dating approach that combines the largest phylogenomic dataset for the...

Evolution of the speech‐ready brain: The voice/jaw connection in the human motor cortex

Steven Brown, Ye Yuan & Michel Belyk
A prominent model of the origins of speech, known as the “frame/content” theory, posits that oscillatory lowering and raising of the jaw provided an evolutionary scaffold for the development of syllable structure in speech. Because such oscillations are non‐vocal in most non‐human primates, the evolution of speech required the addition of vocalization onto this scaffold in order to turn such jaw oscillations into vocalized syllables. In the present functional MRI study, we demonstrate overlapping somatotopic...

Data from: Ten more years of discovery: revisiting the quality of the sauropodomorph dinosaur fossil record

Daniel Cashmore, Philip Mannion, Paul Upchurch & Richard Butler
Spatiotemporal changes in fossil specimen completeness can bias our understanding of a group’s evolutionary history. The quality of the sauropodomorph fossil record was assessed a decade ago, but the number of valid species has since increased by 60%, and 17% of the taxa from that study have since undergone taxonomic revision. Here, we assess how 10 years of additional research has changed our outlook on the group’s fossil record. We quantified the completeness of all...

Data from: Late Cretaceous bird from Madagascar reveals unique development of beaks

Patrick O'Connor, Alan Turner, Joseph Groenke, Ryan Felice, Raymond Rogers, David Krause & Lydia Rahantarisoa
Mesozoic birds display considerable diversity in size, flight adaptations and feather organization, but exhibit relatively conserved patterns of beak shape and development. Although Neornithine (that is, crown group) birds also exhibit constraint on facial development, they have comparatively diverse beak morphologies associated with a range of feeding and behavioural ecologies, in contrast to Mesozoic birds. Here we describe a crow-sized stem bird, Falcatakely forsterae gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous epoch of Madagascar...

Higher sociability leads to lower reproductive success in female kangaroos

Alecia Carter, Clementine Menz, Best Emily, Natalie Freeman, Ross Dwyer, Simone Blomberg & Anne Goldizen
In social mammals, social integration is generally assumed to improve females’ reproductive success. Most species demonstrating this relationship exhibit complex forms of social bonds and interactions. However, female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) exhibit social preferences, yet do not appear to cooperate directly. It is unclear what the fitness consequences of sociability could be in species that do not exhibit obvious forms of cooperation. Using four years of life history, spatial, and social data from...

National bat monitoring programme roost counts dataset

Lea Dambly, Kate Jones, Katherine Boughey & Nick Isaac
Many long-term wildlife population monitoring programmes rely on citizen scientists for data collection. This can offer several benefits over traditional monitoring practices as it is a cost-effective, large-scale approach capable of providing long time series data and raising public environmental awareness. Whilst there is a debate about the quality of citizen science data, a standardised sampling design can allow citizen science data to be of a similar quality to those collected by professionals. However, many...

Data from: Feeding specialisation and longer generation time are associated with relatively larger brains in bees

Ferran Sayol, Miguel Á. Collado, Joan Garcia-Porta, Marc A. Seid, Jason Gibbs, Ainhoa Agorreta, Diego San Mauro, Ivo Raemakers, Daniel Sol & Ignasi Bartomeus
Despite their miniature brains, insects exhibit substantial variation in brain size. Although the functional significance of this variation is increasingly recognized, research on whether differences in insect brain sizes are mainly the result of constraints or selective pressures has hardly been performed. Here, we address this gap by combining prospective and retrospective phylogenetic-based analyses of brain size for a major insect group, bees (superfamily Apoidea). Using a brain dataset of 93 species from North America...

Drosophila-parasitoid interactions along an elevation gradient in an Australian rainforest, 2016

C.T. Jeffs, J.C.D. Terry, M. Higgie, A. Jandová, H. Konvičková, J.J. Brown, C-H. Lue, M. Schiffer, E.K. O’Brien, J. Bridle, J. Hrček & O.T. Lewis
The dataset contains records of Drosophila flies and associated parasitic wasps collected along two elevational (temperature) gradients from Australian rainforest site. The data is presented at the individual Drosophila pupae level. It describes patterns of parasitism levels from 14 sites and the structure of quantitative food webs at six sites. Also included are temperature records from each site.

Fire Safety Engineering: Education Report 2 of 8

Jose Torero, David Lange, Mahmut Horasan, Andres Osorio, Cristian Maluk, Juan Hidalgo & Peter Johnson
The Education Report discusses the current status of education and training of fire safety engineers; as well as the competencies which are expected of a fire safety engineering professional

Fire Safety Engineering: The Methods Report 3 of 8

David Lange, Jose Torero, Andres Osorio, Nate Lobel, Cristian Maluk & Juan P Hidalgo
The Methods Report takes a closer look at international guidelines and methods currently used for Fire Safety Engineering and considers where fundamental change is needed for Australia

Trust and Transparency in times of Crisis: Results from an Online Survey During the First Wave (April 2020) of the COVID-19 Epidemic in the UK

Luisa Enria, Naomi Waterlow, Nina Rogers, Hannah Brindle, Sham Lal, Rosalind M. Egoo, Shelley Lees & Chrissy Roberts

Rail Network Crime and Passenger Travel in the Pandemic

Anthony Dixon, Lara Adamson & Nick Tilley

An Introduction to Systematic Literature Reviews In Engineering Education

Inês Direito, Shannon Chance & Manish Malikc

Understandings of \"Global Responsibility’ Expressed By Civil Engineers Working in London

Shannon Chance, Inez Direito & J. Mitchell

Exploring the Impact of Brexit on UK’S Engineering Education Sector from the Perspective of European Students and Staff

Inez Direito, William Williams & Shannon Chance

Data accompanying ‘Microstructural controls on thermal crack damage and the presence of a temperature-memory effect during cyclic thermal stressing of rocks’ submitted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters

John Browning, Ali Daoud, Philip Meredith & Thomas Mitchell
Acoustic emissions (AE) and ultrasonic wave velocity data recorded during a series of high temperature thermal cracking experiments by Daoud et al., in the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory of the University College London. The data gives the time and magnitude of AE output which were recorded contemporaneously whilst cyclically heating three rock types (A Slaufrudalur Granophyre, A Santorini Andesite and a Seljadalur Basalt). The ultrasonic wave velocity data was recorded pre- and post- heating....

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

Tuning cell behavior with nanoparticle shape

Loris Rizzello, Alessandro Poma, Eva Liatsi-Douvitsa, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria De Matteis, Cesare De Pace, Adrian Joseph, Claudia Contini, Edoardo Scarpa, Josep Martí, Loris Rizzello & Senio De Souza
We investigated how the shape of polymeric vesicles, made by the exact same material, impacts the replication activity and metabolic state of both cancer and non-cancer cell types. First, we isolated discrete geometrical structures (spheres and tubes) from a heterogeneous sample using density-gradient centrifugation. Then, we characterized the cellular internalization and the kinetics of uptake of both types of polymersomes in different cell types (either cancer or non-cancer cells). We also investigated the cellular metabolic...

Data from: Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds

Ferran Sayol, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Tim M. Blackburn, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Human-driven extinctions can affect our understanding of evolution, through the nonrandom loss of certain types of species. Here, we explore how knowledge of a major evolutionary transition—the evolution of flightlessness in birds—is biased by anthropogenic extinctions. Adding data on 581 known anthropogenic extinctions to the extant avifauna increases the number of species by 5%, but quadruples the number of flightless species. The evolution of flightlessness in birds is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in more than...

Data from: Contrasting trajectories of morphological diversification on continents and islands in the Afrotropical white-eye radiation

Julia J. Day, Frederico C. Martins, Joseph A. Tobias & David J. Murrell
Aim Morphological and lineage evolution are predicted to follow different patterns in island and mainland radiations. However, the extent to which these geographical contexts influence evolutionary trajectories remains poorly understood, in part because few studies have focused on species-rich clades colonising continents and archipelagos over comparable timeframes. Focusing on a diverse songbird clade radiating on the African continent and adjacent islands, we tested whether morphological evolution is best explained by adaptive or non-adaptive processes, and...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    62

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Affiliations

  • University College London
    62
  • University of Queensland
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  • Arup Group (United Kingdom)
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  • Technological University Dublin
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  • University of Strathclyde
    2
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
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  • University of Cambridge
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  • University of Edinburgh
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  • University of Sydney
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