600 Works

Data from: The role of inbreeding depression and mating system in the evolution of heterostyly

Jennifer J. Weber, Stephen G. Weller, Ann K. Sakai, Olga V. Tsyusko, Travis C. Glenn, Cesar A. Dominguez, Francisco E. Molina-Freaner, Juan Fornoni, Mike Tran, Nhu Nguyen, Karen Nguyen, Lien-Khuong Tran, Greg Joice & Ellen Harding
We investigated the role of morph-based differences in the expression of inbreeding depression in loss of the mid-styled morph from populations of tristylous Oxalis alpina as proposed by theoretical analyses. The extent of self-compatibility of reproductive morphs, the degree of self-fertilization, and the magnitude of inbreeding depression were investigated in three populations of O. alpina differing in their tristylous incompatibility relationships. All three populations exhibited significant inbreeding depression. In two populations with highly modified tristylous...

Data from: Facultative endosymbionts mediate dietary breadth in a polyphagous herbivore

Steven M. Wagner, Adam J. Martinez, Yong-Ming Ruan, Kyungsun L. Kim, Paul A. Lenhart, Allison C. Dehnel, Kerry M. Oliver & Jennifer A. White
1. Intraspecific variation in dietary breadth can influence important ecological and evolutionary processes, yet the mechanisms generating this variation are usually unknown. Maternally-transmitted bacterial symbionts frequently infect insect herbivores, and many have been shown to mediate key ecological interactions. For polyphagous herbivores, infection with particular symbionts is often strongly correlated with feeding on particular plant species, suggesting that facultative symbionts might directly determine herbivore food plant specificity. However, previous tests of this hypothesis have returned...

Data from: Insecticides promote viral outbreaks by altering herbivore competition

Huipeng Pan, Evan L. Preisser, Dong Chu, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Yves Carrière, Xuguo Zhou & Youjun Zhang
While the management of biological invasions is often characterized by a series of single-species decisions, invasive species exist within larger food webs. These biotic interactions can alter the impact of control/eradication programs and may cause suppression efforts to inadvertently facilitate invasion spread and impact. We document the rapid replacement of the invasive Bemisia MEAM1 cryptic species by the cryptic MED species throughout China, and demonstrate that MED is more tolerant of insecticides and a better...

Data from: Mutualism effectiveness of a fungal endophyte in an annual grass is impaired by ozone

Andrea C. Ueno, Pedro E. Gundel, Marina Omacini, Claudio M. Ghersa, Lowell P. Bush & María Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa
1. Ozone is an increasing tropospheric contaminant of climate change. Exposure to ozone may affect the symbiotic relationship between plants and beneficial microorganisms. In particular, the herbivore resistance mechanism conferred by fungal endophytes (defensive mutualism) may be affected, as any of the ozone-triggered effects (such as elicitation of defence mechanisms against biotrophic fungi or oxidative stress in the apoplastic space) may target the symbiont. 2. Symbiotic and non-symbiotic Lolium multiflorum plants were exposed to ozone...

Data from: Gender differences in patterns of authorship do not affect peer review outcomes at an ecology journal

Charles W. Fox, C. Sean Burns, Anna D. Muncy & Jennifer A. Meyer
There is a widespread perception in the academic community that peer review is subject to many biases and can be influenced by the identity and biographic features (such as gender) of manuscript authors. We examined how patterns of authorship differ between men and women, and whether author gender influences editorial and peer review outcomes and/or the peer review process for papers submitted to the journal Functional Ecology between 2010 and 2014. Women represented approximately a...

Data from: Species tree reconstruction of a poorly resolved clade of salamanders (Ambystomatidae) using multiple nuclear loci

Joshua S. Williams, John H. Niedzwiecki & David W. Weisrock
The analysis of diverse data sets can yield different phylogenetic estimates that challenge systematists to explain the source of discordance. The mole salamanders (family Ambystomatidae) are a classic example of this phylogenetic conflict. Previous attempts to resolve the ambystomatid species tree using allozymic, morphological, and mitochondrial sequence data have yielded different estimates, making it unclear which data source best approximates ambystomatid phylogeny and which ones yield phylogenetically inaccurate reconstructions. To shed light on this conflict,...

Data from: Concordance analysis in mitogenomic phylogenetics

David W. Weisrock
Here I advocate the utility of Bayesian concordance analysis as a mechanism for exploring the magnitude and source of phylogenetic signal in concatenated mitogenomic phylogenetic studies. While typically applied to the study of independently evolving gene trees, Bayesian concordance analysis can also be applied to linked, but individually analyzed, gene regions using a prior probability that reflects the expectation of similar phylogenetic reconstructions. For true branches in the mitogenomic tree, concordance factors should represent the...

Data from: Parallel tagged amplicon sequencing reveals major lineages and phylogenetic structure in the North American tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex

Eric M. O'Neill, Rachel Schwartz, C. T. Bullock, Joshua S. Williams, H. B. Shaffer, X. Aguilar-Miguel, Gabriela Parra-Olea, David W. Weisrock & C. Thomas Bullock
Modern analytical methods for population genetics and phylogenetics are expected to provide more accurate results when data from multiple genome-wide loci are analyzed. We present the results of an initial application of parallel tagged sequencing (PTS) on a next generation platform to sequence thousands of barcoded PCR amplicons generated from 95 nuclear loci and 93 individuals sampled across the range of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex. To manage the bioinformatic processing of this...

Data from: Species discovery and validation in a cryptic radiation of endangered primates: coalescent-based species delimitation in Madagascar's mouse lemurs

Scott Hotaling, Mary Foley, Nicolette Lawrence, Jose Bocanegra, Marina B. Blanco, Rodin Rasoloarison, Peter M. Kappeler, Meredith A. Barrett, Anne D. Yoder, David W. Weisrock, Mary E. Foley & Nicolette M. Lawrence
Implementation of the coalescent model in a Bayesian framework is an emerging strength in genetically based species delimitation studies. By providing an objective measure of species diagnosis, these methods represent a quantitative enhancement to the analysis of multilocus data, and complement more traditional methods based on phenotypic and ecological characteristics. Recognized as two species 20 years ago, mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus) now comprise more than 20 species, largely diagnosed from mtDNA sequence data. With each...

Data from: Mechanical conflict system: a novel operant method for the assessment of nociceptive behavior

Steven Harte, Jessica B. Meyers, Renee Donahue, Bradley K. Taylor, Thomas J. Morrow, Steven E. Harte & Renee R. Donahue
A new operant test for preclinical pain research, termed the Mechanical Conflict System (MCS), is presented. Rats were given a choice either to remain in a brightly lit compartment or to escape to a dark compartment by crossing an array of height-adjustable nociceptive probes. Latency to escape the light compartment was evaluated with varying probe heights (0, .5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm above compartment floor) in rats with neuropathic pain induced by constriction...

Data from: Multigenerational exposure to silver ions and silver nanoparticles reveals heightened sensitivity and epigenetic memory in Caenorhabditis elegans

Carolin L. Schultz, Anye Wamucho, Olga V. Tsyusko, Jason M. Unrine, Alison Crossley, Claus Svendsen & David J. Spurgeon
The effects from multigenerational exposures to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in their pristine and transformed states are currently unknown despite such exposures being an increasingly common scenario in natural environments. Here, we examine how exposure over 10 generations affects the sensitivity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to pristine and sulfidized Ag ENPs and AgNO3. We also include populations that were initially exposed over six generations but kept unexposed for subsequent four generations to allow recovery from...

Data from: Two complete mitochondrial genomes from Praticolella mexicana Perez, 2011 (Polygyridae) and gene order evolution in Helicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

Russell L. Minton, Marco A. Martinez Cruz, Mark L. Farman & Kathryn E. Perez
Helicoidea is a diverse group of globally distributed land snails. While much is known regardingthe relationships of helicoid taxa, comparatively little is known about the evolution of themitochondrial genome in the superfamily. We sequenced two complete mitochondrial genomesfrom Praticolella mexicana Perez, 2011 representing the first such data from the helicoid familyPolygyridae, and used them in an evolutionary analysis of mitogenomic gene order. We foundthe mitochondrial genome of P. mexicana to be 14,008 bp in size,...

Data from: The influence of locus number and information content on species delimitation: an empirical test case in an endangered Mexican salamander

Paul M. Hime, Scott Hotaling, Richard E. Grewelle, Eric M. O'Neill, S. Randal Voss, H. Bradley Shaffer & David W. Weisrock
Perhaps the most important recent advance in species delimitation has been the development of model-based approaches to objectively diagnose species diversity from genetic data. Additionally, the growing accessibility of next-generation sequence datasets provides powerful insights into genome-wide patterns of divergence during speciation. However, applying complex models to large datasets is time consuming and computationally costly, requiring careful consideration of the influence of both individual and population sampling, as well as the number and informativeness of...

Effects of Abiotic Stresses on Sorbitol and Ribitol Accumulation and Sorbitol Biosynthesis and Metabolism in Tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L.]

Afaf Almaghamsi
Abiotic stresses are responsible for limiting crop production worldwide. Among diverse abiotic stresses, drought and salinity are the most challenging. Plants under these conditions have diverse strategies for tolerating stress. Osmotic adjustment and osmoprotection occur in plants during salinity and drought stress through accumulation of compatible solutes to a high level without interfering with cellular metabolism. Polyols (sugar alcohols) including sorbitol and ribitol are one such class of compatible solutes. Using plants of wild-type (WT)...

Two Essays on Input Substitution and Optimal Decision Making in Crop and Livestock Production Systems

John T., Jr. Allison
The thesis presented consists of two essays that analyze input substitution and decision making in crop and livestock production systems. The first essay consists of a whole-farm analysis that sought to optimize feed mixes and enterprise combinations for an organic dairy operation in the Southeastern United States. This was accomplished through mathematical programming where whole-farm net returns were maximized, and total feed costs were minimized simultaneously for four milk production level cases. Additionally, the sensitivity...

Autologous Peripheral Nerve Grafts to the Brain for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

Andrew Welleford
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disorder of the nervous system that causes problems with movement (motor symptoms) as well as other problems such as mood disorders, cognitive changes, sleep disorders, constipation, pain, and other non-motor symptoms. The severity of PD symptoms worsens over time as the disease progresses, and while there are treatments for the motor and some non-motor symptoms there is no known cure for PD. Thus there is a high demand for therapies...

Characterizing an In Vitro Model of Severe Focal Traumatic Brain Injury in Hippocampal Slice Cultures

Julia Elaine Jagielo-Miller
In the United States, 2.8 million people suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI) annually. Between 25%-50% of TBI injuries happen under alcohol intoxication. It is not understood how alcohol impacts patient outcomes via secondary injury pathways. Secondary injury pathways offer a window for therapeutic interventions, but there has been little success finding effective medications. Slice cultures offer a way to study secondary injury mechanisms in a controlled manner. The transection injury can model excitotoxicy seen...

A Compromised Liver Alters PCB Toxicity and Nutrient Metabolism

Jazmyne D. L. Barney
Environmental contamination is a public health concern. In particular persistent organic pollutants like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with multiple chronic inflammatory diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD prevalence has steadily increased and is expected to continue to rise with an estimated 25% of the world’s population and 80-100 million people affected in the United States alone. Importantly, the liver is the primary site for endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism, hence its proper...

Exploring the Role of Insulin Receptor Signaling in Hippocampal Learning and Memory, Neuronal Calcium Dysregulation, and Glucose Metabolism

Hilaree Frazier
In the late 90’s, emerging evidence revealed that the brain is insulin-sensitive, highlighted by broad expression of brain-specific insulin receptors and reports of circulating brain insulin. Contemporary literature robustly supports the role of insulin signaling in normal brain function and suggests that insulin-related processes diminish with aging, evidenced by decreased signaling markers, reduced insulin receptor density, and lower levels of insulin transport across the blood-brain barrier. In the context of pathological cognitive decline, clinical trials...

Data from: Natatanuran frogs used the Indian Plate to step-stone disperse and radiate across the Indian Ocean

Zhi-Yong Yuan, Bao-Lin Zhang, Christopher J. Raxworthy, David W. Weisrock, Paul M. Hime, Jie-Qiong Jin, Emily M. Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Sean D. Holland, Michelle L. Kortyna, Wei-Wei Zhou, Min-Sheng Peng, Jing Che, Elizabeth Prendini, Paul M Hime, Emily M Lemmon, Sean D Holland, Michelle L Kortyna, David W Weisrock & Alan R Lemmon
Natatanura raw assembled sequencesNatatanura_seqs.zip

Data from: Mountaintop removal mining alters stream salamander population dynamics

Steven J. Price, Sara Beth Freytag, Simon J. Bonner, Andrea N. Drayer, Brenee' L. Muncy, Jacob M. Hutton & Christopher D. Barton
Aim: Population dynamics are often tightly linked to the condition of the landscape. Focusing on a landscape impacted by mountaintop removal coal mining (MTR), we ask the following questions: (1) How does MTR influence vital rates including occupancy, colonization and persistence probabilities, and conditional abundance of stream salamander species and life stages? (2) Do species and life stages respond similar to MTR mining or is there significant variation among species and life stages? Location: Freshwater...

Access to Autism Spectrum Disorder Services for Rural Appalachian Citizens

Angela Scarpa, Laura S. Jensen, Denis Gracanin, Sharon L. Ramey, Angela V. Dahiya, L. Maria Ingram, Jordan Albright, Alyssa J. Gatto, Jen P. Scott & Lisa Ruble
Background: Low-resource rural communities face significant challenges regarding availability and adequacy of evidence-based services. Purposes: With respect to accessing evidence-based services for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), this brief report summarizes needs of rural citizens in the South-Central Appalachian region, an area notable for persistent health disparities. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data during focus groups with 33 service providers and 15 caregivers of children with ASD in rural southwest...

Evaluation of Guardrail Needs and Update of Guardrail Rating Program

Brian K. Howell, William Nicholas Staats & Nancy Albright
The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) seeks to reduce the frequency of roadway departure crashes, which often prove fatal. Roadside barriers such as guardrail have proven effective at mitigating these crashes, however, the demand for installations is high throughout the state. KYTC must prioritize prospective guardrail locations to match available funds with the most critical, or unsafe, sites. The current guardrail rating program (GRP) was established in 1989 to identify and prioritize guardrail needs. Despite periodic...

Caregivers of Parents with Alzheimer's Disease

Matthew Cornu
This study furthers Alzheimer’s family literature regarding the impact of caregiver attachment, readiness to provide care, and caregiver quality of life. A sample of 33 participants caring for a parent with Alzheimer’s disease in the state of Kentucky was recruited to complete a questionnaire for the study. The questionnaire consisted of an online survey about participants’ experiences and attachments growing up with their parents, their experiences becoming caregivers to their parents with Alzheimer’s disease, and...

The Economic Impacts of Land Use Policies in Lexington, Kentucky

Christopher R. Bollinger, William H. Hoyt, Michael W. Clark & Xiaozhou Ding
Every five years, Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government’s Planning Commission adopts a comprehensive plan detailing goals and objectives that guide the city’s land use planning. Maintaining the city’s urban service area and preserving its rural and agricultural areas are integral parts of this plan. Within the urban service area, land is zoned to permit various types of urban uses such as residential, commercial, and industrial use. Land outside the urban service area is subject to several...

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