2,227 Works

Data from: A population genetic signature of human releases in an invasive ladybeetle

Yukie Kajita, Eric M. O'Neill, Yanbing Zheng, John J. Obrycki & David W. Weisrock
Biological invasions have been accelerated by a variety of human activities. Propagule pressure, the number of introduced individuals and independent introductions, is likely to be influenced by these human activities and may be an important factor for successful range expansion in new environments. We tested whether the current distribution of the predatory ladybeetle Coccinella septempunctata in the introduced range (USA) is the result of multiple historical human introductions or natural range expansion from the first...

Data from: Predator-prey trophic relationships in response to organic management practices

Jason M. Schmidt, Sarah K. Barney, Mark A. Williams, Ricardo T. Bessin, Timothy W. Coolong & James D. Harwood
A broad range of environmental conditions likely regulate predator-prey population dynamics and impact the structure of these communities. Central to understanding the interplay between predator and prey populations and their importance is characterizing the corresponding trophic interactions. Here we use a well-documented molecular approach to examine the structure of the community of natural enemies preying upon the squash bug, Anasa tristis, a herbivorous cucurbit pest that severely hinders organic squash and pumpkin production in the...

Data from: Inbreeding depression increases with environmental stress: an experimental study and meta-analysis

Charles W Fox & David H Reed
Inbreeding-environment interactions occur when inbreeding leads to differential fitness loss in different environments. Inbred individuals are often more sensitive to environmental stress than are outbred individuals, presumably because stress increases the expression of deleterious recessive alleles or cellular safeguards against stress are pushed beyond the organism's physiological limits. We examined inbreeding-environment interactions, along two environmental axes (temperature and rearing host) that differ in the amount of developmental stress they impose, in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus...

Data from: Multiple endosymbiont infections and reproductive manipulations in a linyphiid spider population

Meghan Curry, Leocadia Paliulis, Kelton Welch, James Harwood & Jennifer White
In many arthropods, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria can increase infection frequency by manipulating host reproduction. Multiple infections of different bacteria in a single host population are common, yet few studies have documented concurrent endosymbiont phenotypes or explored their potential interactions. We hypothesized that spiders might be a particularly useful taxon for investigating endosymbiont interactions, because they are host to a plethora of endosymbiotic bacteria and frequently exhibit multiple infections. We established two matrilines from the...

Data from: Concatenation and concordance in the reconstruction of mouse lemur phylogeny: an empirical demonstration of the effect of allele sampling in phylogenetics.

David W. Weisrock, Stacey D. Smith, Lauren M. Chan, Karla Biebouw, Peter M. Kappeler & Anne D. Yoder
The systematics and speciation literature is rich with discussion relating to the potential for gene tree/species tree discordance. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to generate discordance, including differential selection, long-branch attraction, gene duplication, genetic introgression, and/or incomplete lineage sorting. For speciose clades in which divergence has occurred recently and rapidly, recovering the true species tree can be particularly problematic due to incomplete lineage sorting. Unfortunately, the availability of multi-locus or “phylogenomic” data sets does not...

Data from: Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach

David J. Gonthier, Katherine K. Ennis, Serge Farinas, Hsun-Yi Hsieh, Aaron L. Iverson, Péter Batáry, Jörgen Rudolphi, Teja Tscharntke, Bradley J. Cardinale, Ivette Perfecto, H.-Y. Hsieh & P. Batary
Biodiversity loss—one of the most prominent forms of modern environmental change—has been heavily driven by terrestrial habitat loss and, in particular, the spread and intensification of agriculture. Expanding agricultural land-use has led to the search for strong conservation strategies, with some suggesting that biodiversity conservation in agriculture is best maximized by reducing local management intensity, such as fertilizer and pesticide application. Others highlight the importance of landscape-level approaches that incorporate natural or semi-natural areas in...

Data from: Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

Thomas R. Gawriluk, Jennifer Simkin, Katherine L. Thompson, Shishir K. Biswas, Zak Clare-Salzler, John M. Kimani, Stephen G. Kiama, Jeramiah J. Smith, Vanessa O. Ezenwa & Ashley W. Seifert
Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer’ mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size,...

Data from: Impact of sublethal exposure to a pyrethroid-neonicotinoid insecticide on mating, fecundity and development in the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

Sydney E. Crawley, Jennifer R. Gordon, Katelyn A. Kowles, Michael F. Potter & Kenneth F. Haynes
Sublethal exposure to an insecticide may alter insect feeding, mating, oviposition, fecundity, development, and many other life history parameters. Such effects may have population-level consequences that are not apparent in traditional dose-mortality evaluations. Earlier, we found that a routinely used combination insecticide that includes a pyrethroid and a neonicotinoid (Temprid® SC) had deleterious effects on multiple bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that sublethal exposure impacts physiology and reproduction as well. We...

Kentucky Traffic Collision Facts 2016

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KENTUCKY’S TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, “every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate a vehicle accident of which a report must be made...shall file a report of the accident...within ten days after investigation of the accident upon forms supplied by the bureau.” The stated purpose of this requirement is to utilize data on traffic collisions for...

Data from: Oviposition traits generate extrinsic postzygotic isolation between two pine sawfly species

Emily E. Bendall, Kim L. Vertacnik & Catherine R. Linnen
Background: Although empirical data indicate that ecological speciation is prevalent in nature, the relative importance of different forms of reproductive isolation and the traits generating reproductive isolation remain unclear. To address these questions, we examined a pair of ecologically divergent pine-sawfly species: while Neodiprion pinetum specializes on a thin-needled pine (Pinus strobus), N. lecontei utilizes thicker-needled pines. We hypothesized that extrinsic postzygotic isolation is generated by oviposition traits. To test this hypothesis, we assayed ovipositor...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in species composition constrains plant community responses to herbivory and fertilization

Dorothee Hodapp, Elizabeth T. Borer, W. Stanley Harpole, Eric M. Lind, Eric W. Seabloom, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, Carlos A. Arnillas, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Marc Cadotte, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott Collins, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Oscar Iribarne, Johannes M.H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Kimberly J. La Pierre … & Johannes M. H. Knops
Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta-diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major...

Data from: Geographic clines in wing morphology relate to colonization history in New World but not Old World populations of yellow dung flies

Martin A. Schaefer, David Berger, Patrick T. Rohner, Anders Kjaersgaard, Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Frédéric Guillaume, Charles W. Fox, Wolf Blanckenhorn & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Geographic clines offer insights about putative targets and agents of natural selection as well as tempo and mode of adaptation. However, demographic processes can lead to clines that are indistinguishable from adaptive divergence. Using the widespread yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), we examine quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) of wing shape across North America, Europe and Japan, and compare this differentiation with that of ten microsatellites (FST). Morphometric analyses of 28 populations reared at...

Data from: Patterns of authorship in ecology and evolution: first, last and corresponding authorship vary with gender and geography

Charles W. Fox, Josiah P. Ritchey, C.E. Timothy Paine & C. E. Timothy Paine
The position of an author on the byline of a paper affects the inferences readers make about their contributions to the research. We examine gender differences in authorship in the ecology literature using two datasets: submissions to six journals between 2010 and 2015 (regardless of whether they were accepted), and manuscripts published by 151 journals between 2009 and 2015. Women were less likely to be last (i.e., ‘senior’) authors (averaging ~23% across journals, years and...

Visualizing Barrier Dune Topographic State Space and Inference of Resilience Properties

Li-Chih Hsu
The linkage between barrier island morphologies and dune topographies, vegetation, and biogeomorphic feedbacks, has been examined. The two-fold stability domain (i.e., overwash-resisting and overwash-reinforcing stability domains) model from case studies in a couple of islands along the Georgia Bight and Virginia coast has been proposed to examine the resilience properties in the barrier dune systems. Thus, there is a need to examine geographic variations in the dune topography among and within islands. Meanwhile, previous studies...

Biomechanical Effects of a Hip Orthosis on Lumbo-Pelvic Coordination

Matthew Ballard
Abnormal lumbar movement has been observed in individuals who have a history of low back pain (LBP). Affected individuals display a reduction in lumbar spine rotation during trunk movement tasks, while pelvic rotation increases to compensate. Reduced lumbar contribution to forward bending is associated with increased compressive forces and increased shearing demand of the task on the lower back. This abnormal lumbo-pelvic coordination (LPC) can persist beyond LBP symptom alleviation and may contribute to further...

Determining Rates of Landscape Response to Tectonic Forcing Across a Range of Temporal Scales and Erosional Mechanisms

Meredith Swallom
Understanding how mountain landscapes respond to variations in tectonic forcing over a range of temporal scales in active mountain belts remains as a prominent challenge in tectonic and geomorphological studies. Although a number of empirical and numerical studies have examined this problem, many of them were complicated by issues of scale and climatic variability. More specifically, the relative efficiencies of fluvial and glacial erosion, which are presumably controlled by climate, are difficult to unravel. The...

Morten Lauridsen's Choral Cycle, Nocturnes

Margaret Owens
Morten Lauridsen is one of the most prolific composers of choral music in the 20th and 21st centuries. His characteristic tone is both readily identifiable and timeless. Works such as Lux Aeterna, Les Chansons des Roses, “Sure on this Shining Night” (from Nocturnes) , and “O magnum mysterium” have solidified his place as one of the most important compositional voices in modern choral music. Lauridsen’s most often-performed choral works have been individual movements excerpted from...

Composite Nonparametric Tests in High Dimension

Alejandro Villasante Tezanos
This dissertation focuses on the problem of making high-dimensional inference for two or more groups. High-dimensional means both the sample size (n) and dimension (p) tend to infinity, possibly at different rates. Classical approaches for group comparisons fail in the high-dimensional situation, in the sense that they have incorrect sizes and low powers. Much has been done in recent years to overcome these problems. However, these recent works make restrictive assumptions in terms of the...

Automated Network Security with Exceptions Using SDN

Sergio A. Rivera Polanco
Campus networks have recently experienced a proliferation of devices ranging from personal use devices (e.g. smartphones, laptops, tablets), to special-purpose network equipment (e.g. firewalls, network address translation boxes, network caches, load balancers, virtual private network servers, and authentication servers), as well as special-purpose systems (badge readers, IP phones, cameras, location trackers, etc.). To establish directives and regulations regarding the ways in which these heterogeneous systems are allowed to interact with each other and the network...

Discovery of Novel Pharmacotherapeutics for Substance Use Disorders

Na-Ra Lee
Substance use disorders are serious health concerns in the United States. Furthermore, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports a continuous increase in substance use disorders in the United States during the last 10 years. However, there are not many effective pharmacotherapeutics available for substance use disorders. The current dissertation is focused on research aimed at discovering pharmacotherapeutics for substance use disorders. First part of dissertation focused on discovering methamphetamine (METH) use disorder...

A Pilot Study of a Multiple Health Behavior Change Intervention for Smokers

Srihari Seshadri
Background: Being both obese and a smoker increases the probability of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, diseases that impact Kentucky residents disproportionately. Kentucky (KY) has a high incidence of obesity (34.2%) and smoking (24.5 %). Weight gain associated with smoking cessation also can undermine health benefits of quitting, and may lead to smoking relapse. Aim: The aim of the pilot study was to implement and evaluate a Multiple Health Behavioral Change (MHBC)...

Suicide Attitudes and Terror Mangement Theory

Athena Kheibari
Virtually every mental health problem carries stigma, but suicide appears to run so counter to our accumulative, achievement-oriented society, that it poses even greater threat of stigma. While suicide is inherently troubling in that it opposes the fundamental human instinct for self-preservation, the tendency to stigmatize and reject individuals affected by suicide appears to be counterproductive and excessive. Hence, the purpose of this three-manuscript dissertation is to gain a more nuanced understanding of suicide attitudes...

Analysis of Surface Integrity in Machining of CFRP Under Different Cooling Conditions

Arjun Nagaraj
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) are a class of advanced materials widely used in versatile applications including aerospace and automotive industries due to their exceptional physical and mechanical properties. Owing to the heterogenous nature of the composites, it is often a challenging task to machine them unlike metals. Drilling in particular, the most commonly used process for component assembly is critical especially in the aerospace sector which demands parts of highest quality and surface integrity....

Targeted Illumincation Strategies for Hydrogen Production from Purple Non-Sulfur Bacteria

John Craven
The movement towards a more sustainable energy economy may require not only the generation of cleaner fuel sources, but the conversion of waste streams into value-added products. Phototrophic purple non-sulfur bacteria are capable of metabolizing VFAs (volatile fatty acids)and generate hydrogen as a byproduct of nitrogen fixation using energy absorbed from light. VFAs are easily produced from dark anaerobic fermentation of food, agricultural, and municipal wastes, which could then be fed into photobioreactors of purple...

Rule Mining and Sequential Pattern Based Predictive Modeling with EMR Data

Orhan Abar
Electronic medical record (EMR) data is collected on a daily basis at hospitals and other healthcare facilities to track patients’ health situations including conditions, treatments (medications, procedures), diagnostics (labs) and associated healthcare operations. Besides being useful for individual patient care and hospital operations (e.g., billing, triaging), EMRs can also be exploited for secondary data analyses to glean discriminative patterns that hold across patient cohorts for different phenotypes. These patterns in turn can yield high level...

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