863 Works

Suitability of Native Milkweed (Asclepias) Species versus Cultivars for Supporting Monarch Butterflies and Bees in Urban Gardens

Daniel A. Potter
Public interest in ecological landscaping and gardening is fueling a robust market for native plants. Most plants available to consumers through the horticulture trade are cultivated forms that have been selected for modified flowers or foliage, compactness, or other ornamental characteristics. Depending on their traits, some native plant cultivars seem to support pollinators, specialist insect folivores, and insect-based vertebrate food webs as effectively as native plant species, whereas others do not. There is particular need...

ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF FOREST SECTOR IN KENTUCKY

Kamana Poudel
Rural communities depend on the forest sector to fulfill their subsistence needs and maintain economic well-being. The forest sector in Kentucky plays an important role in the state’s rural economic development through provision of market and non-market goods and services along with employment. However, there is lack of understanding of how Kentucky communities’ dependence on forest sector is correlated with the communities’ economic well-being. This research examines the economic contribution of the forest sector and...

ELUCIDATING THE ROLE OF LIGHT-INDUCED CIRCADIAN DISRUPTION ON ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN APOLIPOPROTEINE-DEFICIENT MICE

Jeffrey Chalfant
Circadian rhythms are approximately 24-hour oscillations of nearly every biological process in the body. The circadian system coordinates these rhythms of physiology and behavior with environmental cycles such as the light-dark cycle. Shift workers, who experience irregular exposure to the light-dark cycle, have chronically disrupted circadian rhythms and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms are unknown. Our studies investigated the effects of light-induced circadian disruption on atherosclerosis in ApolipoproteinE-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. We...

A MULTI-METHOD INVESTIGATION OF THE MODERN SEDIMENTATION AND LATE HOLOCENE PALEOLIMNOLOGY OF JUNE LAKE (MONO COUNTY, CA), AND A SURVEY-BASED ANALYSIS OF NINTH GRADERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS GEOLOGY

Eva Lyon
Three distinct manuscripts comprise this dissertation. The first analyzes the modern sedimentary basin of June Lake, a small glacial lake in the eastern Sierra Nevada of California (USA) using a number of data sets, including bathymetry, surface sediment composition, and seismic stratigraphy. The seismic survey revealed sublacustrine morphological features that suggest the basin originated due to ice scour, as well as four acoustically distinct stratigraphic units that reflect the history of sedimentation following glacial scouring....

Deconvolution Tools for Extracting Insight from Challenging Two-Flavin Systems

Dallas Bell
Flavoproteins have long been explored for their ubiquity among a number of metabolic and energetic reactions. The flavin cofactor has the inherent benefit of distinct spectral changes associated with redox transitions; however, the double-edged sword is incurred as these distinct signatures overlap and take up much of the UV-vis spectral range. Therefore, it is crucial to create a method to demarcate the expressed redox transitions for studying these systems. The first portion of these studies...

Zappa’s Remembrance of a Forgotten Style: The Relationship Between Frank Zappa and Doo-Wop as Illustrated in Cruising with Ruben & The Jets

Benjamin Adamo
One of Zappa’s many cherished styles of music was the doo-wop of the mid-1950s through the early 1960s. His love for the style culminated in 1968 with a poor-selling and often forgotten doo-wop record, Cruising with Ruben & The Jets. While the record earned little praise from critics and fans, Zappa considered it as a landmark of his early career, as evidenced in his autobiography. This thesis investigates Zappa’s relationship to doo-wop and “perversion” of...

Characterization and Engineering of Interrupted Adenylation Domains

Taylor Lundy
Nature has historically served as a prolific source of biologically active molecules produced by plants, fungi, and bacteria termed natural products (NPs). These NPs often serve as therapeutic leads due to their structural diversity and unique mechanisms of action. However, many need modifications to make them more effective or safer for human use. This can be a daunting and complicated task to do via traditional organic chemistry because of their complexity, copious stereocenters, and a...

The Vespers Psalms of Baldassare Galuppi

Scot Buzza
Although Baldassare Galuppi was arguably the best known and most successful Italian composer of the eighteenth century, his name, his history, and his works have been relinquished to the periphery of the historiographical narrative. While Galuppi's masses, operas, and solo motets have been examined, his vespers psalms have been neglected by previous musicologists; most of the existing studies have been superficial, with little consideration of important questions such as formal approach, stylistic development, compositional idiosyncrasies,...

Evaluation of Alternative Rumble Strip Designs

William Nicholas Staats, Kenneth R. Agent & Brian K. Howell
Since Kentucky’s initial rumble strip designs were adopted, there has been additional research and experimentation in other states with alternative designs as a response to complaints from the public about noise pollution caused by rumble strips. The new research indicates that other rumble strip designs might provide increased interior noise/vibration with decreased exterior noise. Application of these alternative designs in Kentucky could result in improved rumble performance, reduced damage to new pavement, decreased noise pollution,...

TOWARDS THE RATIONAL DESIGN OF ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS THROUGH COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES

Qianxiang Ai
Though organic semiconductors have illustrated potential as industry-relevant materials for electronics applications, there are few guidelines that can take one from molecular design to functional materials. This limitation is, in part, due to incomplete understanding as to how the atomic-scale construction of the π-conjugated molecules that comprise the organic semiconductors determines the nature and strength of both the noncovalent intramolecular interactions that govern molecular conformation and noncovalent intermolecular interactions that regulate the energetic preference for...

ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN INFLAMMATION AND MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY

Emily Hunt
Long term weakness and atrophy of the quadriceps muscle are a direct result of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and persist for up to 10 years post injury. Muscle atrophy ensues regardless of ligamentous reconstruction surgery, indicating that muscle atrophy following injury is a function of the ligament rupture and not reconstruction surgery. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying quadriceps atrophy following ACL rupture is crucial for developing interventions to restore proper quadriceps size and mitigate weakness...

MEASURING POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS’ SENSE OF BELONGING

John Eric Lingat
Research suggests sense of belonging in academic contexts influences student academic outcomes and well-being. Instruments (i.e., surveys, questionnaires) developed to measure sense of belonging mainly focus on the experience of students in middle grades. Few instruments measure sense of belonging experienced by postsecondary students, despite many colleges and universities seeking to improve retention, persistence, and graduation by addressing this complex construct. Furthermore, the rapid growth of online courses necessitates and presents an opportunity to employ...

QUANTIFYING NITROGEN FATE IN KARST AGROECOSYSTEM STREAMS OF CENTRAL KENTUCKY NUMERICAL MODELING AND INSIGHT FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SENSORS

Nolan Bunnell
In-stream fate of nutrients in karst agroecosystems remains poorly understood, despite the known impact of karst on water resources at local to global scales. In the Inner-Bluegrass region of central Kentucky, heterogeneity of karst maturity, flow pathways, and nutrient sources adds to the complexity of quantifying nutrient dynamics, thus requiring novel monitoring and modeling approaches. The significance of these streams is recognized given spring/surface water confluences have been identified as hotspots for biogeochemical transformations. In...

EFFECTS OF HYDROLOGIC VARIATIONS ON HYDRAULIC AND DEFORMATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UNSATURATED SOILS

Majid Mahmoodabadi
Constitutive models that can provide useful insight into the deformational mechanism induced by hydrologic variations are vital for design and analysis of structures where unsaturated regime predominates. An accurate description of unsaturated soils’ behavior not only requires a vigorous constitutive model, but essentially is achievable using real-time mechanical (e.g. small-strain shear modulus) and hydrologic data sets. The main objective of this research was to develop a robust constitutive scheme that is compatible to quick fluctuations...

Antitrust Implications for Mergers Involving Maverick Firms

Alexander McGlothlin
Maverick firms are defined in the Horizontal Merger Guidelines as those firms that may exert a disproportional competitive effect in markets where they compete. The Guidelines mandate that mergers and acquisitions involving maverick firms be given special consideration by the Agencies, however not much is known about maverick firms or their competitive effects when they are acquired. The Guidelines describe characteristics that may be present in a maverick firm, but stop short of providing a...

RAISING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE OF AMERICAN STUDENTS

Sheyla Finkelshteyn
International students and study abroad programs are major components of internationalization efforts for institutions (Beelen & Jones, 2015). Domestic students however do not have any established practice of intercultural training or orientation, even though most universities in America accept international students and promote internationalization which is the increase of intergroup contact as part of globalization (Sakurauchi, 2014). It is crucial to raise the intercultural communication competence (ICC) of American students so they can benefit from...

AN ASSESSMENT OF 2D AND 3D SPATIAL ACCURACY OF PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR LIVESTOCK HEALTH MONITORING

Luis Felipe Pampolini
The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the use of consumer-grade unmanned aircraft systems for image-based remote sensing in agriculture with application towards livestock health monitoring. A two-dimensional spatial error experiment was conducted to quantify the spatial accuracy of georeferenced orthomosaic imagery collected using a drone and processed with photogrammetry software. Treatment variables included altitude above ground level and image data type (visible and multispectral). The results from the ANOVA test indicated that...

ENCOURAGING HEALTHY EATING AMONG OLDER ADULTS USING THE TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL

Lauren Brinkman Roberson
Older adults, defined as those age 60 and above, are at an increased risk for many health-related complications that are directly related to nutrition (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). This study highlights the lack of nutrition education material developed for older adults in Kentucky. Such material has great potential to influence the health of older adults (Chernoff, 2001). This study evaluated an intervention developed, by means of formative research, to teach older adults...

Judicial Elections, Public Opinion, and their Impact on State Criminal Justice Policy

Travis Taylor
This dissertation explores whether and how the re-election prospects faced by trial court judges in many American states influence criminal justice policy, specifically, state levels of incarceration, as well as the disparity in rates of incarceration for Whites and Blacks. Do states where trial court judges must worry about facing reelection tend to encourage judicial behavior that results in higher incarceration rates? And are levels of incarceration and racial disparities in the states influenced by...

EFFECTS OF RELATIVE INERTIAL LOAD ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND QUADRICEPS ELECTROMYOGRAPHY DURING FLYWHEEL RESISTANCE TRAINING SQUATS

Jason Todd Brantley
Flywheel resistance training (FRT) has become an increasingly popular modality for exercising due to its unique application of providing external resistance. Little is known about how changes in relative inertial loads affects performance and electromyography (EMG) activity. The purpose of this study was to examine how performance metrics and quadriceps EMG activity are affected by relative inertial load during FRT-based squats. Fifteen resistance trained individuals completed five sets of five repetitions of squats with varying...

EL BILDUNGSROMAN FEMENINO MExICANO

Yorki Encalada Egúsquiza
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have not only favored a steady growth in Chicana literary production but have also revealed an alternative identity of the Mexican American border woman, the meXicana. Rosa Linda Fregoso, in MeXicana Encounters (2003), coins and defines this term as “the interface between Mexicana and Chicana,” and employs it to examine the experiences and representations of Mexicanas and Chicanas without eliminating the differences between them. This study borrows this...

Flame Stabilization of a Premixed Jet in Vitiated Coflow

Tyler Owens
Premixed staged combustion in gas turbine engines can reduce emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures but can also lead to different stability characteristics when compared to traditional combustors. High pressure ratio and subsequently high temperatures can lead to conditions suitable for both autoignition and premixed flame propagation in an environment where spatial fuel/air variations are present. An experimental facility which issues a premixed jet into a coflowing vitiated mixture was studied to examine the stability...

New Surficial Geologic Mapping along the I-65 Corridor in Bullitt, Hardin, and Nelson Counties, Kentucky

Matthew Massey, Maxwell L., III Hammond, Antonia E. Bottoms & Steven L. Martin
This project presents new surficial geologic mapping that will address immediate societal needs and support new scientific discovery in an area of west-central Kentucky prioritized with the guidance of the Kentucky State Geological Mapping Advisory Committee (KSGMAC). The new mapping presented represents four new 1:24,000-scale (or greater) surficial geologic maps located along the actively developing I-65 corridor south of the Louisville metropolitan area. The study area is also situated in a geologically unique area that...

Data from: A genomic assessment of population structure and gene flow in an aquatic salamander identifies the roles of spatial scale, barriers, and river architecture

Mason O. Murphy, Kara S. Jones, Steven J. Price & David W. Weisrock
Population structure and gene flow of species in lotic environments can be constrained by river network architecture, species life history and heterogeneous local barriers. Identifying the factors that influence population structure and gene flow, especially in species limited to movement within a river network, is vital for understanding the evolutionary and demographic history of a species. We explored population structure and gene flow for a fully aquatic salamander, the common mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), in Kentucky...

Data from: Lake regionalization and diatom metacommunity structuring in tropical South America

Xavier Benito, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Miriam Steinitz-Kannan, Maria I. Vélez & Michael M. McGlue
Lakes and their topological distribution across Earth’s surface impose ecological and evolutionary constraints on aquatic metacommunities. In this study, we group similar lake ecosystems as metacommunity units influencing diatom community structure. We assembled a database of 195 lakes from the tropical Andes and adjacent lowlands (8ºN–30ºS and 58–79ºW) with associated environmental predictors to examine diatom metacommunity patterns at two different levels: taxon and functional (deconstructed species matrix by ecological guilds). We also derived spatial variables...

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