1,908 Works

BIOINFORMATIC AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSES OF AXOLOTL REGENERATION

Nour Al Haj Baddar
Salamanders have an extraordinary ability to regenerate appendages after loss or amputation, irrespective of age. My dissertation research explored the possibility that regenerative ability is associated with the evolution of novel, salamander-specific genes. I utilized transcriptional and genomic databases for the axolotl to discover previously unidentified genes, to the exclusion of other vertebrate taxa. Among the genes identified were multiple mmps (Matrix metalloproteases) and a jnk1/mapk8 (c-jun-N-terminal kinase) paralog. MMPs function in extracellular matrix remodeling...

Introducing the L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative

F. Douglas Scutchfield & Kevin Patrick
The L.A.U.N.C.H. Collaborative: Linking & Amplifying User-Centered Networks through Connected Health: A Demonstration of Broadband-Enabled Connected Health and Community-Based Co-Design brings together a group of organizations that are eager to use Appalachian Kentucky as a site for the development of a project aimed at creating an environment that addresses two of the nation’s major concerns about cancer. First, individuals who live in rural and remote areas are more likely to die of cancer than those...

Barn-Raising on the Digital Frontier

Bradford W. Hesse, David Ahern, Michele Ellison, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, Robin C. Vanderpool, Karen Onyeije, Michael C. Gibbons, Timothy W. Mullett, Ming-Yuan Chih, Victoria Attencio, Grant Patterson, Jessica Boten, Christopher Hartshorn, Ben Bartolome, Katie Gorscak, Melanie McComsey, Alexandra Hubenko, Bin Huang, Corey Baker & Don Norman
A meta-analysis of oncology papers from around the world revealed that cancer patients who lived more than 50 miles away from hospital centers routinely presented with more advanced stages of disease at diagnosis, exhibited lower adherence to prescribed treatments, presented with poorer diagnoses, and reported a lower quality of life than patients who lived nearer to care facilities. Connected health approaches—or the use of broadband and telecommunications technologies to evaluate, diagnose, and monitor patients beyond...

PRINCIPAL BEHAVIORS THAT FOSTER COLLECTIVE EFFICACY AMONG TEACHERS IN RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENTUCKY

Tanya Jo Jury
The purpose of this study was to examine principal behaviors, identified by teachers and principals, which foster collective efficacy among teachers. As instructional leaders of a school, principals are expected to lead their schools. Behaviors exhibited by the principal can either help or hinder the success of the school and teachers and students in that school. This study will assist principals, aspiring principals, and instructors of principal preparation programs in knowing what behaviors are necessary...

EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF DICAMBA EXPOSURE ON CROP INJURY AND CANOPY CLOSURE OF GLUFOSINATE RESISTANT SOYBEAN

Zachary K. Perry
Dicamba-resistant soybean along with lower volatility dicamba formulations have been introduced in an attempt to control herbicide resistant weeds such as Amaranthus palmeri. This introduction has increased the amount of dicamba being applied later in the growing season increasing the prevalence of dicamba off-target movement. Dicamba damage was simulated by applying low rates of dicamba directly on soybeans at rates (0.5 g ae ha-1, 1 g ae ha-1 and 5 g ae ha-1 dicamba) and...

Impact of Buckwheat and Methyl Salicylate Lures on Natural Enemy Abundance for Early Season Management of Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Sweet Sorghum

Nathan Mercer
Tested effect of buckwheat flowers and methyl salicylate lures to attract natural enemies to sweet sorghum fields to manage Melanaphis sacchari, a recent pest of sweet sorghum.

EFFECT OF SILICA NANOCONFINEMENT OF LIPID BILAYERS ON ITS PHASE TRANSITION AND ON THE COLLOIDAL STABILITY OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES

Aniruddha Shirodkar
In this work, we incorporated 4-(N-Boc-aminometyl) phenylboronic acid (BA), at different concentrations, into 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers confined within nanopores of two different mean pore diameters of 7.4 nm and 11.7 nm of micron sized silica particles. The confinement of DPPC into nanopores resulted in the depression in the main phase transition temperatures compared to the liposomal system. The addition of BA was found to induce disruptions in the acyl chains of the lipid molecules...

A Systematic Review of Mindfulness Interventions’ Impact on Athlete Emotional Distress & Wellbeing

Trevor Nathan Tierney
Mindfulness-based interventions’ (MBIs) effectiveness for improving wellbeing and reducing emotional distress is well-documented in both clinical and non-clinical sections of the general population (McAlarnen & Longshore, 2017). Although mindfulness has been shown to be effective with these populations, less is known about the specific effects for athletes. The effects of MBI’s for athletes may be different given that the intention for MBIs in the sport context is typically to improve performance, where in most other...

Fiscal Year 2003 FHWA-536 Report for the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet

Steven Douglas Kreis
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to submit a biennial report on local highway finances. The purpose of these reports is to provide FHWA with the data it needs to capture the financing of highway activities at the local level. Based on this information, it can identify trends in revenue, expenditures, investments, and program development, and in turn make decisions about future investments. The report, FHWA-536, asks agencies to report on four...

FROM GENES TO SPECIES

Emily Bendall
My dissertation focuses on how differences accumulate across the genome during ecological speciation with geneflow. To do this I used two species of Neodiprionpine sawflies, which are plant-feeding hymenopterans with high host specificity. I used experimental crosses to measure both intrinsic and extrinsic postzygotic isolation and to understand the contribution of specific traits to reproductive isolation. Despite substantial genetic divergence and haploid males in which all recessive incompatibilities should be expressed, I found surprisingly little...

METADATA MANAGEMENT FOR CLINICAL DATA INTEGRATION

Ningzhou Zeng
Clinical data have been continuously collected and growing with the wide adoption of electronic health records (EHR). Clinical data have provided the foundation to facilitate state-of-art researches such as artificial intelligence in medicine. At the same time, it has become a challenge to integrate, access, and explore study-level patient data from large volumes of data from heterogeneous databases. Effective, fine-grained, cross-cohort data exploration, and semantically enabled approaches and systems are needed. To build semantically enabled...

ATV Dynamics and Pediatric Rider Safety

It has been observed through numerous academic and governmental agency studies that pediatric all-terrain vehicle ridership carries significant risk of injury and death. While no doubt valuable to safety, the post-hoc approach employed in these studies does little to explain the why and how behind the risk factors. Furthermore, there has been no prolonged, widespread, organized, and concerted effort to reconstruct and catalog the details and causes of the large (20,000+) number of ATV-related injuries...

Arthropod Resistant Tomatoes

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most economically important vegetable crops grown around globe but is a host for numerous pests and pathogens. In the future, tomato breeders will have to focus on increasing fruit quantity and on enhancing pest resistance. Many accessions of the wild relative of tomato, S. habrochaites display high levels of resistance towards arthropods such as spider mites. The presence of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, 7-epi-zingiberene, found in S. habrochaites type...

ADVANCED MULTILEVEL MODELS FOR COMPARING GROUP CHARACTERISTICS

Rongxiu Wu
To help improve and advance research methodology when comparing the group characteristics, two advanced multilevel models were developed and introduced, which would allow a deeper and more refined look at the issue of sex differences in reading achievement. The first model is a restricted multilevel model for the examination of institutional effects on multiple groups of individuals. The goal of this multivariate multilevel model with individuals nested within institutions was to estimate the institutional effects...

Evaluation of Kentucky Grown Soft Red Winter Wheat with Sensory Evaluation for Bread-making Capabilities and Quality

Asa Conkwright
Soft red winter (SRW) wheat is a type of wheat that is best suited to grow in Kentucky. However, due to its low protein content, it is an undesirable flour for bread and is usually used for cakes, cookies, crackers, and pastries. This is problematic because this limits the ability for commercial bakers to have a local source of flour, forcing them to purchase from sources outside the state. In doing so, bakers are sacrificing...

IN PURSUIT OF UNDERSTANDING BARREL VARIATION

Jarrad Wade Gollihue
Bourbon whiskey is a distilled spirit which is a uniquely American with several legal requirements including 1) the major grain in the mash is corn, 2) must be aged in a new charred white oak barrel, and 3) made in the United States of America. Kentucky is the whiskey historical home, producing most of the bourbon in the United States. Interest in whiskey has developed a need to understand more about the underlying chemistry of...

DYNAMIC BALANCING OF FORAGING AND DEFENSIVE EFFORT CONTRIBUTE TO THE OPTIMALITY OF THE HONEY BEE ROBBING STRATEGY

The optimality of a foraging strategy shifts in response to dynamic ecological conditions and the need to devote effort to other tasks. Nest defense and foraging effort in the honey bee may trade off as both tasks are performed by a shared workforce of physiologically-specialized individuals in exclusive roles. Honey robbing is a foraging strategy predicted to benefit from simultaneous increases in foraging and defensive effort, but may be constrained by workforce specialization. We developed...

END-TO-END PREDICTION OF WELD PENETRATION IN REAL TIME BASED ON DEEP LEARNING

WENHUA JIAO
Welding is an important joining technique that has been automated/robotized. In automated/robotic welding applications, however, the parameters are preset and are not adaptively adjusted to overcome unpredicted disturbances, which cause these applications to not be able to meet the standards from welding/manufacturing industry in terms of quality, efficiency, and individuality. Combining information sensing and processing with traditional welding techniques is a significant step toward revolutionizing the welding industry. In practical welding, the weld penetration as...

Social Constraint, Social Support and Psychological Functioning in Rural and Nonrural Cancer Survivors

Jessica Rivera Rivera
This cross-sectional study identified the nature and strength of the relationship between social and psychological functioning, and explored if these relationships differ as a function of environmental and personal characteristics. Participants (n=87) consist of breast, prostate, colorectal, lung, and head and neck cancer survivors who were diagnosed within the past five years. Cancer survivors were recruited through a cancer registry and outpatient clinics. Data collection involved questionnaire and medical records review. In linear regression models...

STRIATED MUSCLE SPECIFIC RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L3-LIKE

Laura Brown
Ribosomes are the molecular machinery of the cell that catalyzes synthesis of peptides from amino acids. The eukaryotic ribosome is made up of four strands of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ~80 ribosomal proteins. While many tissues routinely exhibit variations of ribosomal protein stoichiometry, tissue specific ribosomal proteins are rare. The ribosomal protein with the highest tissue specificity of any ribosomal protein is found in striated muscle, ribosomal protein L3-like (RPL3L). Other than its tissue specificity,...

Attentional Control in Infancy

Hannah White
Infants’ ability to channel their cognitive resources by controlling their visual attention allows them to be active agents in their learning and development. Individual differences in attentional control have been linked to a wide variety of developmental outcomes including disparities between social classes in cognitive functioning. However, it is yet unknown when in development differences in attentional control related to sociodemographic factors emerge, or how factors of the home environment and the infant’s stress response...

Geographic Variation in the Structure of Kentucky’s Population Health Systems

Rachel Hogg-Graham, Angela Carman, Glen P. Mays & Pierre Martin Dominique Zephyr
Introduction: Research examining geographic variation in the structure of population health systems is continuing to emerge, and most of the evidence that currently exists divides systems by urban and rural designation. Very little is understood about how being rural and Appalachian impacts population health system structure and strength. Purpose: This study examines geographic differences in key characteristics of population health systems in urban, rural non-Appalachian, and rural Appalachian regions of Kentucky. Methods: Data from a...

Selective Electron Beam Etching of Materials Using Liquid Reactants

Sarah Lami
Selective Electron Beam Etching of Materials Using Liquid Reactants Nanoscience and nanotechnology require advances in processing, patterning, and characterization of materials to overcome current limitations and generate new de-vices. Electron and ion beam-based processes are vital for fabrication and nano-scale prototyping with significant applications in nanoscale electronic, photonic, and magnetic devices; integrated circuit debugging; and lithographic mask and imprint template repair. Focused ion and electron beams are routinely used to locally add (printing) or sub-tract...

Examining Cultural Influences on Dietary Behaviors among Mexican Americans with Low Acculturation

Mexican Americans represent approximately 63 percent of the total Hispanic population in the US and are disproportionately affected by health disparities related to poor nutrition status. With this community among the fastest growing populations in the US, it is critical to address the health disparities and the relationship between culture and diet to provide evidence-based nutrition interventions that are culturally sensitive to specific communities. The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study is to examine the...

Health Priorities, Current Lifestyle Behaviors, and Barriers to a Healthy Lifestyle Among Emergency Department Nurses

Shannon White
Background: Emergency nurses are tasked with managing the hectic, unpredictable, and constantly changing environment of an ED. In addition, emergency nurses have been shown to have high levels of stress, irregular meal schedules, rotating shift work, long hours, and a lack of physical activity. Furthermore, research has suggested that nurses are at an increased risk for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (Phiri, et al., 2014), in addition to a high...

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