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Kentucky Traffic Collision Facts 2009 Report

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KENTUCKY’S TRAFFIC COLLISION FACTS report for 2009 is based on collision reports submitted to the Kentucky State Police Records Branch. As required by Kentucky Revised Statutes 189.635, “every law enforcement agency whose officers investigate a vehicle accident of which a report must be made...shall file a report of the accident...within ten days after investigation of the accident upon forms supplied by the bureau.” The stated purpose of this requirement is to utilize data on traffic...

Measuring Police Officer Self-Efficacy for Working with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abigail Love
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently one of the most researched of all childhood developmental disorders and is receiving attention in many domains including popular media, social sciences, education, and medicine. The purpose of this dissertation was to design and provide initial psychometric evidence for a scale that measures police officer self-efficacy for working with individuals with ASD. Psychometric properties of a scale designed to measure knowledge of ASD were also explored. Data from 620...

The North American Transportation Security Center

Steven Douglas Kreis & Michael M. Barclay
Executive Summary There are over 800,000 hazardous materials (hazmat) shipments over the nation’s roads each day. According to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), terrorist activity related to the transportation of hazardous materials represents a significant threat to public safety and the nation’s critical infrastructure. Specifically, the federal government has identified the government’s inability to track hazmat shipments on a real-time basis as a significant security vulnerability. In 2004, the U.S. Federal Motor Carrier...

Effects of Potassium Source and Rate on Yield, Quality, and Leaf Chemistry of Dark and Burley Tobacco, and Residual Effects of Soil K Levels

Andrea Brooke Keeney
Field trials were conducted in 2016, 2017 and 2018 with dark fire-cured, dark air-cured, and burley tobacco at Princeton, Murray and Lexington Kentucky. Tobacco variety used in 2016 was a low converter (LC) variety, varieties used in 2017 and 2018 were LC and higher converter (HC) varieties. Potassium sources used at all locations and in all years were potassium sulfate (K2SO4) and potassium chloride (KCl). Application rates used at all locations and in all years...

Testing for Sedimentary Recycling Using Detrital Monazite Geochronology, Zircon \"Double Dating\", and Textures in Pennsylvanian Arenites of the Central Appalachian Basin, Eastern Kentucky

Steven C. Zotto
Detrital monazite Th-Pb and detrital zircon U-Pb and U-Th/He double-dating coupled with sandstone petrography and exhumation rates can be used to test for sediment recycling in Pennsylvanian sandstones within the Alleghenian clastic wedge. The Alleghenian clastic wedge is a logical system in which to test for sediment recycling as four major collisional events (Grenville, Taconic, Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies) likely reworked the continental margin and recycled siliciclastic sediment. The combination of these geochronologic and thermochronologic...

Winning the War

Allen Kevin
Chapter 1 shows that there is a negative relationship observed between sanctions and civil liberties in the target country, which is driven by how exposed the target country's trade was to the sanctioning countries. Using a fixed panel regression covering 160 countries from 1972-2005, it is found that import exposure to the sanctioning countries drives this negative relationship, with every percentage point of import exposure reducing the inverted FHI freedom score by 0.165 points. This...

Measuring Glutamate and Oxygen in Brain Reward Circuits in Animal Models of Cocaine Abuse and Decision-Making

Seth Batten
Drug-specific reward and associated effects on neural signaling are often studied between subjects, where one group self-administers drug and a separate group self-administers a natural reinforcer. However, exposure to drugs of abuse can cause long-term neural adaptations that can affect how an organism responds to drug reward, natural reward, and their reward-associated stimuli. Thus, to isolate drug-specific effects it is important to use models that expose the same organism to all of the aforementioned. Multiple...

The Stakeholder Gap Lens

Heather Chapman
The research around the achievement gap is extensive. However, regardless that the term “achievement gap” is so widely used in academia today, there is often confusion surrounding what the achievement gap is. This study seeks to answer three research questions: (1) To what extent does an achievement gap exist among different subgroups of students in Kentucky’s K-12 public schools? (2) How do the perceptions of parents and teachers interact with decision-making? (3) How do the...

The Distributional and Countercyclical Effects of Public Capital Investment in Transportation Infrastructure

Matthijs B. Schendstok
While the long run productivity of federal highway infrastructure spending has been well researched, their short run effects and effects on income inequality. This dissertation explores those under-researched unconventional effects. In the first chapter, I investigate the effects of federal infrastructure grants on income inequality. I find that grants reduce inequality in both recipient and neighboring states. The reduction is driven by greater income among the bottom three income quintiles. I explore two mechanisms using...

The Effects of Destruction

Kara Riesing
Destructive events such as natural disasters and terrorist attacks occur not only in developing economies but also developed economies. Consequently, the response of these economies has been observed in case of both type of events. This dissertation is a collection of essays regarding natural disasters, terrorist attacks and the macroeconomy. Specifically, I examine the response of local labor markets that reflect a wide spectrum of economies, but also have a safety-net in the form of...

Review of Non-Standard Warm Mix Asphalt Projects

Tim C., Jr. Scully
Periodically, when the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet’s (KYTC) the Division of Construction receives requests to use non-standard warm mix asphalt technologies, it may be asked to waive the temperature specification or other product specifications/processes. The short-term and long-term impacts of this waiver are not completely understood. The Division of Construction approves these requests and notes their use, however, no follow-up studies have been done to evaluate the performance of non-standard warm mix asphalt. Similarly, no previous...

Audubon Parkway Slab Lifting at MP 22.75

Tim C., Jr. Scully
The approach/departure Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) panels on the eastbound and westbound side of Audubon Parkway at MP 22.75 over route KY 2120 began to exhibit settlement and cracking in a few locations, which created an uncomfortable ride for motorists. To address this problem, the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) contracted with MasterDry to repair the PCC panel settlement. MasterDry claims that its two-part polyurethane material expands into a rigid foam that fills voids, stabilizes slabs,...

2019 Safety Belt Usage Survey in Kentucky

Erin Lammers, Kenneth R. Agent & Eric R. Green
The objective of the survey summarized in this report was to establish a statewide safety belt usage rate in Kentucky for 2019. This rate can be compared to those determined from previous surveys. The 2019 statewide survey documents the continued effect associated with law enforcement, related education, and general public attitude.

Pathway Connectivity in an Epigenetic Fluviokarst System

Ethan Adams
Fluviokarst landscapes are dominated by both fluvial and karst features. Interpreting hydrologic pathways of fluviokarst can be confounded by the unknown connectivity of the various flow regimes. A combined discrete-continuum (CDC) hybrid numeric model for simulating the surface and subsurface hydrology and hydraulics in fluviokarst basins was formulated to investigate fluviokarst pathways. This model was applied to the Cane Run Royal Springs basin in Kentucky USA. A priori constraints on parameterization were avoided via multi-stage...

Policy, Aggregate Productivity and Misallocation

Guowen Chen
This dissertation explores the effects of factors such as industrial policy and listing on the stock market on manufacturing firms’ profitability and productivity. The second chapter investigates the effect of industrial policies on misallocation using a rich data-set of Chinese firms. Using a difference-in-difference approach, I provide evidence that government policies (i.e. the 10th Five Year Plan) favoring particular industries lead to increased misallocation (i.e., an increase in the dispersion of revenue productivity across firms...

Essays on Institutions and Development

Andrew Jonelis
The essays in this dissertation examine how political institutions affect economic development. In the first essay, I examine how executive control of the legislature shapes the time horizon of governing politicians and its effect on economic growth. The second essay examines how border changes over the past two centuries have provided different areas within modern countries with different institutional histories and how this affects the geographic concentration of economic activity. For the final essay, I...

Adapting Crash Modification Factors for the Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Environment

Federico Lause
The Crash Modification Factor (CMF) clearinghouse can be used to estimate benefits for specific highway safety countermeasures. It assists safety professionals in the allocation of investments. The clearinghouse contains over 7000 entries of which only 446 are categorized as intelligent transportation systems or advanced technology, but none directly address connected or autonomous vehicles (CAVs). Further, the effectiveness of highway safety countermeasures is assumed to remain constant over time, an assumption that is particularly problematic as...

Neurobehavioral Measurements of Natural and Opioid Reward Value

Aaron Smith
In the last decade, (non)prescription opioid abuse, opioid use disorder (OUD) diagnoses, and opioid-related overdoses have risen and represent a significant public health concern. One method of understanding OUD is as a disorder of choice that requires choosing opioid rewards at the expense of other nondrug rewards. The characterization of OUD as a disorder of choice is important as it implicates decision- making processes as therapeutic targets, such as the valuation of opioid rewards. However,...

Learning to Map the Visual and Auditory World

Tawfiq Salem
The appearance of the world varies dramatically not only from place to place but also from hour to hour and month to month. Billions of images that capture this complex relationship are uploaded to social-media websites every day and often are associated with precise time and location metadata. This rich source of data can be beneficial to improve our understanding of the globe. In this work, we propose a general framework that uses these publicly...

Cat in the Classroom

T. Kody Frey
Adjusting one’s communication is a fundamental requirement for human interaction (Gasiorek, 2016a). Individuals adapt communication behavior according to the circumstances surrounding the situation, resulting in different patterns and forms of speech relative to spouses, family members, coworkers, or friends. Yet, researchers in instructional communication have not yet substantially applied adjustment as a theoretical lens for understanding instructor-student classroom interactions (Gasiorek & Giles, 2012; Soliz & Giles, 2014; Soliz & Bergquist, 2016). Apart from overlooking this...

TRANSCRIPTOMIC AND CELLULAR RESPONSE TO MECHANICAL OVERLOAD AND THE UNDERLYING ROLE OF MACROPHAGES IN EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX REMODELING

Bailey D. Peck
The extracellular matrix (ECM) in skeletal muscle plays an integral role in tissue development, structural support, and force transmission. Upon mechanical loading, including resistance exercise, which alter muscle fiber contractile activity, size, orientation and connectivity, remodeling processes must occur that involve both ECM deposition and degradation. ECM remodeling involves many cell types in muscle, but the focus of our research was directed towards macrophages, which participate in the early immune response to damage and loading....

Simultaneous Tolerance Intervals for Response Surface and Mixture Designs Using the Adjusted Product Set Method

Aisaku Nakamura
Various methods for constructing simultaneous tolerance intervals for regression models have been developed over the years, but all of them can be shown to be conservative. In this thesis, extensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the degree of conservatism with respect to their coverage probabilities. A new strategy to fit simultaneous tolerance intervals on linear models is proposed by modifying an existing method, which we call the adjusted product set (APS) method. The APS method...

ETHANOL SUSTAINS PHOSPHORYLATED TAU PROTEIN IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN THE CULTURED NEONATAL RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

Caleb Bailey
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are comprised of developmental, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, affecting an estimated 2%-5% of childrenand costing up to $4 billion annually in the United States alone. Although some behavioral therapies can help, the biochemical mechanisms that underpin FASDs need further elucidation for development of more efficacious therapeutics. The tau protein modulates cytoskeletal structure in neurons, and thereby plays an integral role in proper development and function...

MEASURING VARIABILITY IN MODEL PERFORMANCE MEASURES

Matthew Rutledge
As data become increasingly available, statisticians are confronted with both larger sample sizes and larger numbers of predictors. While both of these factors are beneficial in building better predictive models and allowing for better inference, models can become difficult to interpret and often include variables of little practical significance. This dissertation provides methods that assist model builders to better understand and select from a collection of candidate models. We study the asymptotic distribution of AIC...

New Surficial Geologic Mapping along the I-65 Corridor in Bullitt, Hardin, and Nelson Counties, Kentucky

Matthew Massey, Maxwell L., III Hammond, Antonia E. Bottoms & Steven L. Martin
This project presents new surficial geologic mapping that will address immediate societal needs and support new scientific discovery in an area of west-central Kentucky prioritized with the guidance of the Kentucky State Geological Mapping Advisory Committee (KSGMAC). The new mapping presented represents four new 1:24,000-scale (or greater) surficial geologic maps located along the actively developing I-65 corridor south of the Louisville metropolitan area. The study area is also situated in a geologically unique area that...

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