1,748 Works

USGS 104(b) Grant Program

Emily Koyagi, Steve Evans & Lindell Ormsbee
The Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute (KWRRI) is one of 54 federally authorized water resource institutes or centers throughout the United States and its territories. It operates under the authority of the Water Resources Research Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-379 codified at 42 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.) through the Water Resources Research Institutes Program administered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). KWRRI’s annual base grant program under section 104(b) supports the following objectives specified...

Combining Approximate Computing And Adiabatic Logic For Low-Power And Energy-Efficient Iot Edge Computing

Wu Yang
The growing data-intensive applications that run on IoT edge devices require the circuit to be low-power consumption and energy-efficient for limited resources. As conventional Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) scales down to the nanometer technology node, it reaches its limits, such as leakage and power consumption. Adiabatic logic and approximate computing are emerging techniques for the low-power circuit. Adiabatic logic can recycle energy which is a promising solution for building energy-efficient circuits. However, the power clock scheme...

REMOTE SUPPORTED COMMUNICATION FOR ADULTS WITH CHRONIC APHASIA

Allie Hopper
Supported communication is defined as anything that improves access to or participation in communication events or activities (King, Simmons-Mackie, & Beukelman, 2012). This thesis describes the results of a study that took place when a training program to provide graduate students in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) with “hands on” experience in providing supported communication to persons with chronic aphasia (PWA) was interrupted by the outbreak of Coronavirus-19 and switched to a remote delivery format...

SEXUAL BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH ONLINE PARTNER-SEEKING AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN FROM SMALL/MIDSIZED TOWNS OR RURAL AREAS IN KENTUCKY

Vira Pravosud
The HIV epidemic remains one of the most significant public health issues in the United States, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). New avenues for partner-seeking have emerged over the past three decades, including through the Internet, social media, and geosocial networking applications. Consisting of three cross-sectional studies, this dissertation research aimed to determine associations between the use of various online tools for partner-seeking (hereafter collectively referred to as “apps”) and HIV-related...

Framing Early Adolescents’ Self-Efficacy Development

Calah Ford
Self-efficacy, the beliefs learners hold about what they can do, develops largely from how learners perceive and interpret four main sources of information: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social persuasions, and physiological states. Although researchers have shown a relationship between these sources and math self-efficacy, less is known about the factors that may influence how early adolescent learners perceive and interpret information from these sources. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate two possible factors...

Maximums of Total Betti Numbers in Hilbert Families

Jay White
Fix a family of ideals in a polynomial ring and consider the problem of finding a single ideal in the family that has Betti numbers that are greater than or equal to the Betti numbers of every ideal in the family. Or decide if this special ideal even exists. Bigatti, Hulett, and Pardue showed that if we take the ideals with a fixed Hilbert function, there is such an ideal: the lexsegment ideal. Caviglia and...

MICROMENDING THE METABOLIC RIFT

Casey Byrd
The metabolic rift theory explores materials and social exchanges between rural and city communities and human-nature relations. Metabolic rifts can exist both environmentally and socially and are often geographically or culturally unique. Ultimately the metabolic rift is earmarked by increasing disconnection between humans and their environment. This thesis draws upon life cycle analysis studies, social-economic studies, and environmental and sustainability studies to argue that large-scale contemporary urban composting efforts, although well intended, are insufficient to...

BUILDING QUALITY? MIGRATION, SUZHI, AND SUBALTERN MASCULINITY IN THE SHANGHAI CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Leif Johnson
This doctoral dissertation providesa novel perspective on the everyday lives of construction workers in urban China, demonstrating the underpinnings of urban infrastructure and citizenship policy in affective and gendered relations surrounding the construction industry. Drawing on 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork in Shanghai, China, this dissertation makes a series of three related arguments: First, focusing on the role that migrant labor plays in the construction of urban infrastructure in Shanghai, I argue that the physical...

A Tropical Approach to the Brill-Noether Theory Over Hurwitz Spaces

Kaelin Cook-Powell
The geometry of a curve can be analyzed in many ways. One way of doing this is to study the set of all divisors on a curve of prescribed rank and degree, known as a Brill-Noether variety. A sequence of results, starting in the 1980s, answered several fundamental questions about these varieties for general curves. However, many of these questions are still unanswered if we restrict to special families of curves. This dissertation has three...

INCORPORATION OF SUMMER ANNUAL MIXTURES INTO GRAZING SYSTEMS IN KENTUCKY

Kelly Mercier
Utilizing summer annual grass-legume forage mixtures has the potential to improve forage yield and nutritive characteristics, and/or animal performance during times when cool-season pasture growth is limited by high temperatures. Legumes can utilize atmospheric nitrogen, which can increase crude protein and forage digestibility in mixtures. As nitrogen application generally improves both the yield and nutritive characteristics of summer annual forages, but can have a negative effect on legume competitiveness, nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for legume-containing summer...

Psychological Distress and Relationship Satisfaction Among Survivors of Sexual Violence

Alyssa Campbell
The World Health Organization (WHO; 2002) has indicated that sexual violence is a serious public health concern, and both the WHO and the United Nations (UN) have declared that violence against women, in particular, is a profound violation of human rights (UN General Assembly, 1993; WHO, 2017). Although the systemic and negative impact of trauma on family and intimate relationships have been well documented, the empirical literature regarding the effects of adult sexual trauma on...

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL POLYMERIC MATERIALS FOR THEIR APPLICATION IN MONITORING AND REMEDIATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

Rishabh Shah
Remediation of environmental pollutants from water is one of the major challenges in the 21st century. Utilizing novel polymeric materials to accomplish this challenge has garnered a lot of interest in recent times. Flexibility in synthesizing as well as functionalizing makes them attractive for their application in pollutant remediation. This work is based on development and characterization of novel crosslinked polymeric as well as linear polymeric materials from biphenyl-based monomers, biphenyl based crosslinker and a...

RATE TO MEASURE MATHEMATICS TEACHING: USING THE MANY-FACET RASCH MODELING TO REEVALUATE THE MATHEMATICS CLASSROOM OBSERVATION PROTOCOL FOR PRACTICES (MCOP2)

Chunling Niu
Rater-mediated classroom observation protocols are increasingly being used for teaching performance assessments, which makes identifying and controlling for various rater effects a central issue to ensure the rating quality. A series of validation studies under the classical test theory framework, including content validity, interrater reliability, and structure analysis, have been completed for the 16-item Mathematics Classroom Observation Protocol for Practices (MCOP2). However, the MCOP2 data have never been investigated under the Rasch framework. Due to...

ClpXP Degradation System in Escherichia coli, a Study of Its Energy Sources and Its Applications in Managing the Expression Levels of Targeted Membrane and Soluble Proteins

Thilini Abeywansha
ClpXP is an Escherichia coli protease that carries out energy-dependent intracellular proteolysis. In recent years, this system has been widely studied due to its importance as protein regulatory machinery and a virulence factor. Protein substrates of ClpXP contain degrons with a specific protein sequence. SsrA tag is one of the five degrons known to designate proteins for ClpXP degradation. SsrA is an 11 amino acid peptide added to the C-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains translated...

RESIDUAL SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION IN MACROECOLOGICAL AND BIOGEOGRAPHICAL MODELING

Guetchine Gaspard
Macroecological and biogeographical modelers have predicted the distribution of species across space relying on the relationship between biotic processes and environmental variables. Such a method employs data associated, for instance, with species abundance or presence/absence, climate, geomorphology, and soils. Statistical analyses found in previous studies have highlighted the importance of accounting for the effects of spatial autocorrelation (SAC), which indicates a level of dependence between pairs of nearby observations. A consensus has existed that residual...

\"Playing the Game\"

Graciela Barajas
Latinx members of the FFA Organization are disproportionately underrepresented in leadership positions. When they do get elected to leadership offices, they oftentimes have to accept behaviors that erase their cultural identity. This study aims to find what aspects of their identity they feel they have to give up in order to be seen as a potential state or national FFA candidate. Findings include the participation of the state-officer game, joining cliques that fit the white...

Precision Drug Delivery for Vancomycin Efficacy and Safety in Critically Ill Patients

Alexander Flannery
Vancomycin is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic for hospitalized patients. Despite this fact and decades of clinical use, clinicians remain challenged to meet dosing targets of this narrow therapeutic index drug as well as minimize the risks of therapy, primarily nephrotoxicity. These concerns are magnified in critically ill patients given their severity. Accordingly, in a series of five clinical studies, we sought to identify optimal methods of vancomycin administration in critically ill patients to maximize...

A CASE STUDY TO EXPLORE THE PERCEPTION OF A WOMAN PARTICIPANT IN DRUG COURT OF A COMMUNITY-BASED ARTS PROGRAM ON SUBSTANCE USE RECOVERY OUTCOMES

Catherine L. Troop
Addiction to drugs is a complex, chronic, and multi-faceted disease that often involves cycles of relapse and remission. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in women in the United States is 19.5 percent and 7.1 percent, respectively (McHugh, Wigderson, & Greenfield, 2014) yet there is a significant dearth of efficacious substance abuse treatment services tailored specifically to women. In addition, literature suggests that the third aspect of Bandura’s Social Cognitive theory (self-efficacy)...

The Effects of Systematic Manipulation of Reinforcement Within a Classroom Management System

Amanda Gayle Chavez
Research suggests that best practice is for teachers to incorporate evidence-based classroom management strategies into their daily routines to improve student behavior. One aspect crucial to evidence-based practices is the rate at which teachers deliver reinforcement. Though research recommends reinforcement be provided frequently within classroom management systems (Robacker et al., 2016), no objective recommendation exists that assists teachers in delivering it systematically. In this study, a single case withdrawal design was used to analyze the...

A QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE AGENCY OF WOMEN IN THEIR 30S AND 40S WHO USE DATING APPLICATIONS

Tera Buerkle
The use of dating applications (apps) to find romantic and sexual partners is widespread across age groups, however, there is a paucity of research on dating apps with those in middle adulthood. Sexual script theory suggests that women’s agency (i.e. the ability to act in one’s own best interest) may be impacted by expectations from an inherently sexualized context, such as dating apps. Feminist theory contends that women’s agency is complicated by gender socialization due...

THE EFFECTS OF A STRENGTHS BASED FACULTY COACHING INTERVENTION ON FIRST-YEAR UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT ACADEMIC CONFIDENCE

Conrad Davies
Deficiency remediation models of education imply that students may enter the university with deficiencies, problems, or needs that imply the student needs to be “fixed” before they can proceed in their academic studies. In contrast, strengths-based education models infer that students come to the university with inherent talents, natural propensities, and behaviors that can be leveraged to overcome their challenges. These differing perspectives can influence the effectiveness of university policies designed to improve student retention....

THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF TRAUMA-INFORMED POSITIVE EDUCATION IN THE SECONDARY MATHEMATICS CLASSROOM IN DISRUPTING THE PRESCHOOL-TO-PRISON PIPELINE

Jessica Michele Doering
This mixed-methods study considered the potential for trauma-informed mathematics education to disrupt the preschool-to-prison (or school-to-prison) pipeline. Phenomenological qualitative interviews were conducted in conjunction with the use of the Attitudes Related to Trauma-Informed Care (ARTIC; Baker et al., 2016) scale to determine teacher perceptions of trauma-informed care practices, their thoughts regarding challenging classroom behaviors and the connection of these behaviors with trauma and the pipeline, and their ideas about how much of an impact teachers...

INTEGRATING PERSUASIVE MESSAGING STRATEGIES INTO HIGHER EDUCATION EARLY ALERT INTERVENTIONS TO IMPROVE STUDENT ACADEMIC BEHAVIORS

Joseph Gayheart
Higher Education is at a critical juncture as both public and private institutions seek to attract, retain, and graduate students. Institutions of higher education have traditionally developed communication and engagement strategies that become part of early warning/alert systems intended to increase student positive academic behaviors and improve student success. Persuasion can be a powerful tool in improving communication—especially when persuasive messages are deployed within the complex and ever-changing media landscape. Communication and persuasion scholars, for...

AN EXAMINATION OF HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS SUPPORT OF STUDENTS’ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SELF-EFFICACY

Kenneth Murfay
Providing students with experiences to increase their confidence (self-efficacy) to be physically active is important because of the many health benefits associated with physical activity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2020). Several studies have shown that physical activity (PA) tends to decline as students age (Cooper et al., 2015; Metcalf et al., 2015; Troiano et al., 2008) and the largest declines usually occur in adolescence (Sallis, 2000). It is recommended that physical...

A Biochemical Characterization of the Fusion Proteins from Enveloped RNA Viruses

Chelsea T. Barrett
Enveloped viruses must bind target cells and then fuse the viral membrane with a cell membrane to enter a host cell. These viruses use one or more surface glycoproteins to carry out these critical functions. The surface glycoprotein that carries out the fusion function, termed a fusion protein, is divided into three classes based on structural similarities. Some of the most studied human viral pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola virus, influenza, measles,...

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