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Dairy Dialogue Map

Colby Vorland, Andrew Brown & David Allison

Diversity Residency Toolkit

Kalani Adolpho, Maya Bergamasco, Ana Corral, , , & Liburd Tavernier W

Data package from 'Pantropical variability in tree crown allometry' Global Ecology and Biogeography 2021. DOI: 10.1111/geb.13231

Grace Jopaul Loubota Panzou, Adeline Fayolle, Tommaso Jucker, Oliver Phillips, Stephanie Bohlman, Lindsay F. Banin, Simon L. Lewis, Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Luciana F. Alves, Cécile Antin, Eric Arets, Luzmila Arroyo, Timothy R. Baker, Nicolas Barbier, Hans Beeckman, Uta Berger, Yannick Enock Bocko, Frans Bongers, Sam Bowers, Thom Brade, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Arthur Chantrain, Jerome Chave, Halidou Compaore & David Coomes

Data and R Markdown files for: Estimating the capacity of Chamaecrista fasciculata for adaptation to change in precipitation

Anna Peschel, Emma Boehm & Ruth Shaw
Adaptation through natural selection may be the only means by which small and fragmented plant populations will persist through present day environmental change. A population’s additive genetic variance for fitness (VA(W)) represents its immediate capacity to adapt to the environment in which it exists. We evaluated this property for a population of the annual legume Chamaecrista fasciculata through a quantitative genetic experiment in the tallgrass prairie region of the Midwest USA, where changing climate is...

Rapid differentiation of plasticity in life history and morphology during invasive range expansion and concurrent local adaptation in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

Patrick T. Rohner & Armin P. Moczek
Understanding the interplay between genetic differentiation, ancestral plasticity, and the evolution of plasticity during adaptation to environmental variation is critical to predict populations’ responses to environmental change. However, the role of plasticity in rapid adaptation in nature remains poorly understood. We here use the invasion of the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus in the United States during the last half century to study the contribution of ancestral plasticity and post-invasion evolution of plastic responses in rapid...

Do cogovernance and CSOs supplement municipal capacity for service delivery? An assessment of differences in simple versus complex services

Renzo De La Riva Agüero
Municipal governments in the Global South vary in their ability to provide not only complex social services, like environmentally proper solid waste disposal, but even simple services, like trash collection from the streets. This paper examines whether variation in service provision outcomes is associated with service-specific municipal administrative capacity, locally embedded civil society organization (CSO) presence, and collaborative governance for local planning and budgeting (or cogovernance). Using a panel dataset of Peruvian municipalities, I find...

Data from: Density-dependent fitness, not dispersal movements, drives temporal variation in spatial genetic structure in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)

Eric B. Liebgold, Nicole M. Gerlach & Ellen D. Ketterson
Some studies have found that dispersal rates and distances increase with density, indicating that density-dependent dispersal likely affects spatial genetic structure. In an 11-year mark-recapture study on a passerine, the dark-eyed junco, we tested whether density affected dispersal distance and/or fine-scale spatial genetic structure. Contrary to expectations, we found no effect of pre-dispersal density on dispersal distance or the proportion of locally-produced juveniles returning to the population from which they hatched. However, even though density...

Data from: Phylogenomics reveals three sources of adaptive variation during a rapid radiation

James B. Pease, David C. Haak, Matthew W. Hahn & Leonie C. Moyle
Speciation events often occur in rapid bursts of diversification, but the ecological and genetic factors that promote these radiations are still much debated. Using whole transcriptomes from all 13 species in the ecologically and reproductively diverse wild tomato clade (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon), we infer the species phylogeny and patterns of genetic diversity in this group. Despite widespread phylogenetic discordance due to the sorting of ancestral variation, we date the origin of this radiation to approximately...

Data from: Modulation of the cutaneous silent period in the upper-limb with whole-body instability

Nathaniel R. Eckert, Brach Poston, Zachary A. Riley & Nathanial R. Eckert
The silent period induced by cutaneous electrical stimulation of the digits has been shown to be task-dependent, at least in the grasping muscles of the hand. However, it is unknown if the cutaneous silent period is adaptable throughout muscles of the entire upper limb, in particular when the task requirements are substantially altered. The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristics of the cutaneous silent period in several upper limb muscles when...

Data from: Genomic evidence for the parallel evolution of coastal forms in the Senecio lautus complex

Federico Roda, Luke Ambrose, Gregory M. Walter, Huanle L. Liu, Andrea Schaul, Andrew Lowe, Pieter B. Pelser, Peter Prentis, Loren H. Rieseberg & Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
Instances of parallel ecotypic divergence where adaptation to similar conditions repeatedly cause similar phenotypic changes in closely related organisms are useful for studying the role of ecological selection in speciation. Here we used a combination of traditional and next generation genotyping techniques to test for the parallel divergence of plants from the Senecio lautus complex, a phenotypically variable groundsel that has adapted to disparate environments in the South Pacific. Phylogenetic analysis of a broad selection...

Data from: A stochastic neuronal model predicts random search behaviors at multiple spatial scales in C. elegans

William M. Roberts, Steven B. Augustine, Kristy J. Lawton, Theodore H. Lindsay, Tod R. Thiele, Eduardo J. Izquierdo, Serge Faumont, Rebecca A. Lindsay, Matthew Cale Britton, Navin Pokala, Cornelia I. Bargmann & Shawn R. Lockery
Random search is a behavioral strategy used by organisms from bacteria to humans to locate food that is randomly distributed and undetectable at a distance. We investigated this behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, an organism with a small, well-described nervous system. Here we formulate a mathematical model of random search abstracted from the C. elegans connectome and fit to a large-scale kinematic analysis of C. elegans behavior at submicron resolution. The model predicts behavioral...

Data from: Genomic islands of divergence are not affected by geography of speciation in sunflowers.

Sebastien Renaut, Christopher J. Grassa, Sam Yeaman, Zhao Lai, Nolan K. Kane, Brook T. Moyers, John E. Bowers, John M. Burke & Loren H. Rieseberg
Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic...

Data from: Factors essential for L,D-transpeptidase-mediated peptidoglycan cross-linking and β-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli

Christiane Bouchier, Jean-Emmanuel Hugonnet, Michel Arthur, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Yves Brun, Michael Van Nieuwenhze, Louis B Rice, Alejandro Monton, Tanneke Den Blaauwen, Etienne Carbonnelle, Carole Veckerlé & Kuyek Tu
The target of β-lactam antibiotics is the D,D-transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) for synthesis of 4→3 cross-links in the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Unusual 3→3 cross-links formed by L,D-transpeptidases were first detected in Escherichia coli more than four decades ago, however no phenotype has previously been associated with their synthesis. Here we show that production of the L,D-transpeptidase YcbB in combination with elevated synthesis of the (p)ppGpp alarmone by RelA lead to full...

Data from: Complex selection on a regulator of social cognition: evidence of balancing selection, regulatory interactions and population differentiation in the prairie vole Avpr1a locus

Alejandro Berrio, Rafael F. Guerrero, Galina V. Aglyamova, Mariam Okhovat, Mikhail V. Matz & Steven M. Phelps
Adaptive variation in social behavior depends upon standing genetic variation, but we know little about how evolutionary forces shape genetic diversity relevant to brain and behavior. In prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), variants at the Avpr1a locus predict expression of the vasopressin 1a receptor in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a brain region that mediates spatial and contextual memory; cortical V1aR abundance in turn predicts diversity in space-use and sexual fidelity in the field. To examine the...

Data from: Concordance of bacterial communities of two tick species and blood of their shared rodent host

Evelyn C. Rynkiewicz, Chris Hemmerich, Clay Fuqua, Keith Clay & Douglas B. Rusch
High-throughput sequencing is revealing that most macro-organisms house diverse microbial communities. Of particular interest are disease vectors whose microbiome could potentially affect pathogen transmission and vector competence. We investigated bacterial community composition and diversity of the ticks Dermacentor variabilis (n = 68) and Ixodes scapularis (n = 15) and blood of their shared rodent host, Peromyscus leucopus (n = 45) to quantify bacterial diversity and concordance. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified from genomic DNA...

Data from: Trade‐off between reproductive and anti‐competitor abilities in an insect–parasitic nematode–bacteria symbiosis

Sofia Bertoloni Meli & Farrah Bashey
Mutualistic symbionts can provide diverse benefits to their hosts and often supply key trait variation for host adaptation. The bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes play a crucial role in successful colonization of and reproduction in the insect host. Additionally, these symbionts can produce a diverse array of antimicrobial compounds to deter within‐host competitors. Natural isolates of the symbiont, Xenorhabdus bovienii, show considerable variation in their ability to target sympatric competitors via bacteriocins, which can inhibit...

Data from: Plant-soil feedbacks shift from negative to positive with decreasing light in forest understory species

Lauren M. Smith & Heather L. Reynolds
Net pairwise plant–soil feedbacks (PSF) may be an important factor structuring plant communities, yet the influence of abiotic context on PSF is not yet understood. Abiotic factors such as light availability can alter plant–soil interactions, potentially resulting in strong context dependence of PSF. Here, we present an experiment in which we measured whole-soil net pairwise feedbacks amongst six common forest understory species across a gradient of light availability. Light treatments were imposed throughout both phases...

Data from: Aging alters interspecific competition between two sympatric insect-parasitic nematode species

Farrah Bashey-Visser, Tara Sarin, Curtis M. Lively & Farrah Bashey
Interspecific competition can vary depending on the stage, age, or physiological state of the competitors. Competitive ability often increases with age or size; alternatively, senescence can lead to a loss of viability and reduced competitive success. Differences between species in their age-specific competitive abilities can promote coexistence in the face of substantial niche overlap. We examined two sympatric species of nematodes (genus Steinernema) to determine whether their competitive relationship changes as a function of age....

Data from: Habitat, predators, and hosts regulate disease in Daphnia through direct and indirect pathways

Alexander T. Strauss, Marta S. Shocket, David J. Civitello, Jessica L. Hite, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
Community ecology can link habitat to disease via interactions among habitat, focal hosts, other hosts, their parasites, and predators. However, complicated food web interactions (i.e., trophic interactions among predators, and their impacts on host density and diversity) often obscure the important pathways regulating disease. Here, we disentangle community drivers in a case study of planktonic disease, using a two-step approach. In step one, we tested univariate field patterns linking community interactions to two disease metrics....

Data from: Weak coordination between leaf structure and function among closely related tomato species

Christopher D. Muir, Miquel À. Conesa, Emilio J. Roldán, Arántzazu Molins & Jeroni Galmés
Theory predicts that natural selection should favor coordination between leaf physiology, biochemistry and anatomical structure along a functional trait spectrum from fast, resource-acquisitive syndromes to slow, resource-conservative syndromes. However, the coordination hypothesis has rarely been tested at a phylogenetic scale most relevant for understanding rapid adaptation in the recent past or for the prediction of evolutionary trajectories in response to climate change. We used a common garden to examine genetically based coordination between leaf traits...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of outcrossing and host mortality rates in host-pathogen experimental coevolution

Levi T. Morran, , Ian A. Gelarden, Curtis M. Lively & Raymond C. Parrish
Cross-fertilization is predicted to facilitate the short-term response and the long-term persistence of host populations engaged in antagonistic coevolutionary interactions. Consistent with this idea, our previous work has shown that coevolving bacterial pathogens (Serratia marcescens) can drive obligately selfing hosts (Caenorhabditis elegans) to extinction, while the obligately outcrossing and partially outcrossing populations persisted. We focused the present study on the partially outcrossing (mixed mating) and obligately outcrossing hosts, and analyzed the changes in the host...

Data from: Nematode-bacteria nutualism: selection within the mutualism supersedes selection outside of the mutualism

Levi T. Morran, McKenna J. Penley, Victoria S. Byrd, Andrew J. Meyer, Timothy S. O'Sullivan, Farrah Bashey-Visser, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Curtis M. Lively & Farrah Bashey
The coevolution of interacting species can lead to codependent mutualists. Little is known about the effect of selection on partners within verses apart from the association. Here, we determined the effect of selection on bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) both within and apart from its mutualistic partner (a nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae). In nature, the two species cooperatively infect and kill arthropods. We passaged the bacteria either together with (M+), or isolated from (M−), nematodes under two different...

Data from: Thermal adaptation of cellular membranes in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Brandon S. Cooper, Loubna A. Hammad & Kristi L/ Montooth
1. Changes in temperature disrupt the fluidity of cellular membranes, which can negatively impact membrane integrity and cellular processes. Many ectotherms, including Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), adjust the glycerophospholipid composition of their membranes to restore optimal fluidity when temperatures change, a type of trait plasticity termed homeoviscous adaptation. 2. Existing data suggest that plasticity in the relative abundances of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) underlies cellular adaptation to temporal variability in the thermal environment....

Macroimmunology: the drivers and consequences of spatial patterns in wildlife immune defense

Daniel Becker, Gregory Albery, Maureen Kessler, Tamika Lunn, Caylee Falvo, Gábor Czirják, Lynn Martin & Raina Plowright
1. Spatial variation in parasite pressure, abiotic and biotic conditions, and anthropogenic factors can all shape immune phenotypes across spatial scales. Identifying the most important spatial drivers of immunity could help preempt infectious disease risks, especially in the context of how large-scale factors such as urbanization affect defense by changing environmental conditions. 2. We provide a synthesis of how to apply macroecological approaches to the study of ecoimmunology (i.e., macroimmunology). We first review spatial factors...

Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...

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