208 Works

Evolution of multivariate wing allometry in schizophoran flies (Diptera: Schizophora)

Patrick T. Rohner
The proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying scaling relationships as well as their evolutionary consequences remain an enigmatic issue in evolutionary biology. Here I investigate the evolution of wing allometries in the Schizophora, a group of higher Diptera that radiated ~65 million years ago, by studying static allometries in five species using multivariate approaches. Despite the vast ecological diversity observed in contemporary members of the Schizophora and independent evolutionary histories throughout most of the Cenozoic, size-related...

Substrate quality drives fungal necromass decay and decomposer community structure under contrasting vegetation types

Katilyn Beidler, Richard Phillips, Erin Andrews, François Maillard, Ryan Mushinski & Peter Kennedy
1. Fungal mycelium is increasingly recognized as a central component of soil biogeochemical cycling, yet our current understanding of the ecological controls on fungal necromass decomposition is limited to single sites and vegetation types. 2. By deploying common fungal necromass substrates in a temperate oak savannah and hardwood forest in the midwestern USA, we assessed the generality of the rate at which high- and low-quality fungal necromass decomposes; further, we investigated how the decomposer ‘necrobiome’...

Data from: Mycelia-derived C contributes more to nitrogen cycling than root-derived C in ectomycorrhizal alpine forests

Ziliang Zhang, Richard P. Phillips, Wenqiang Zhao, Yuanshuang Yuan, Qing Liu & Huajun Yin
1. Plant roots and their associated microbial symbionts impact carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, but estimates of the relative contributions of root- versus microbe-derived dynamic inputs are highly uncertain. Roots release C into soil via exudation and turnover (i.e., root-derived C), but also by allocating C to mycorrhizal fungal mycelia, which exude C and undergo turnover (i.e., mycelia-derived C). Given that the relative contributions of root- and mycelia-derived C inputs are unknown, a...

Data from: Early breeding females experience greater telomere loss

Jessica L. Graham, Carolyn M. Bauer, Britt J. Heidinger, Ellen D. Ketterson & Timothy J. Greives
Annual reproductive success is often highest in individuals that initiate breeding early, yet relatively few individuals start breeding during this apparently optimal time. This suggests that individuals, particularly females who ultimately dictate when offspring are born, incur costs by initiating reproduction early in the season. We hypothesized that increases in the aging rate of somatic cells may be one such cost. Telomeres, the repetitive DNA sequences on the ends of chromosomes, may be good proxies...

Data from: Insulin signaling’s role in mediating tissue-specific nutritional plasticity and robustness in the horn-polyphenic beetle Onthophagus taurus

Sofia Casasa & Armin P. Moczek
Organisms cope with nutritional variation via developmental plasticity, adjusting trait size to nutrient availability for some traits while enabling others to develop in a nutritionally robust manner. Yet, the developmental mechanisms that regulate organ-specific growth across nutritional gradients remain poorly understood. We assessed the functions of members of the insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway (IIS) in the regulation of nutrition sensitivity and robustness in males of the horn-polyphenic beetle Onthophagus taurus, as well as potential regulatory interactions...

Data from: Comparative developmental transcriptomics reveals rewiring of a highly conserved gene regulatory network during a major life history switch in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris

Jennifer W. Israel, Megan L. Martik, Maria Byrne, Elizabeth C. Raff, Rudolf A. Raff, David R. McClay & Gregory A. Wray
The ecologically significant shift in developmental strategy from planktotrophic (feeding) to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding) development in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris is one of the most comprehensively studied life history transitions in any animal. Although the evolution of lecithotrophy involved substantial changes to larval development and morphology, it is not known to what extent changes in gene expression underlie the developmental differences between species, nor do we understand how these changes evolved within the context of...

Data from: Genome-wide patterns of regulatory divergence revealed by introgression lines

Rafael F. Guerrero, Amanda L. Posto, Leonie Clare Moyle & Matthew W. Hahn
Understanding the genetic basis for changes in transcriptional regulation is an important aspect of understanding phenotypic evolution. Using interspecific introgression lines, we infer the mechanisms of divergence in genome-wide patterns of gene expression between the nightshades Solanum pennellii and S. lycopersicum (domesticated tomato). We find that cis- and trans-regulatory changes have had qualitatively similar contributions to divergence in this clade, unlike results from other systems. Additionally, expression data from four tissues (shoot apex, ripe fruit,...

MonaLog: a Lightweight System for Natural Language Inference Based on Monotonicity

Hai Hu, Qi Chen, Kyle Richardson, Atreyee Mukherjee, Lawrence S. Moss & Sandra Kübler

Secondary sexual trait melanization in black scavenger flies: nutritional plasticity and its evolution

Patrick T. Rohner
The black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica exhibits polyphenic development resulting in alternate small black and large amber male morphs. Although the behavior, ecology, and physiology of both morphs are being scrutinized, the evolutionary origins of the nutritional polyphenism remain poorly understood. I here use a comparative approach to study variation in the degree of melanization of the forefemur —a secondary sexual trait. Melanization showed nutritional plasticity in all species and character mapping suggests polyphenic development...

Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Mountain Building in the Tien Shan

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GHENGIS was a deployment of 28 broad band stations in the central and western Tien Shan (Kygyzstan and western Xinjiang). The first two years saw a limited deployment of 6 and 15 stations, respectively, and the full deployment ran for the final year. Initally the sensors were 40Ts, but these were upgraded to a combination of STS-2 and CMG-3ESP in the final year. Recording rate was continuous and sample rates generally at 40 Hz.

Data from: Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail

Deanna M. Soper, Kayla C. King, Daniela Vergara & Curt M. Lively
Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilising, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of...

Data from: Reanalysis suggests that genomic islands of speciation are due to reduced diversity, not reduced gene flow

Tami E. Cruickshank & Matthew W. Hahn
The metaphor of “genomic islands of speciation” was first used to describe heterogeneous differentiation among loci between the genomes of closely related species. The biological model proposed to explain these differences was that the regions showing high levels of differentiation were resistant to gene flow between species, while the remainder of the genome was being homogenized by gene flow and consequently showed lower levels of differentiation. However, the conditions under which such differentiation can occur...

Data from: Resource allocation during ontogeny is influenced by genetic, developmental, and ecological factors in the horned beetle, Onthophagus taurus

Daniel B. Schwab & Armin P. Moczek
Resource allocation trade-offs arise when developing organs are in competition for a limited pool of resources to sustain growth and differentiation. Such competition may constrain the maximal size to which structures can grow and may force a situation in which the evolutionary elaboration of one structure may only be possible at the expense of another. However, recent studies have called into question both the consistency and evolutionary importance of resource allocation trade-offs. This study focuses...

Data from: Variability in potential to exploit different soil organic phosphorus compounds among tropical montane tree species

Brian S. Steidinger, Benjamin L. Turner, Adriana Osorio, James W. Dalling & Adriana Corrales
We hypothesized that tropical plant species with different mycorrhizal associations reduce competition for soil phosphorus (P) by specializing to exploit different soil organic P compounds. We assayed the activity of root/mycorrhizal phosphatase enzymes of four tree species with contrasting root symbiotic relationships–arbuscular mycorrhizal (angiosperm and conifer), ectomycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal–collected from one of three soil sites within a montane tropical forest. We also measured growth and foliar P of these seedlings in an experiment with P...

Data from: Temporal variation favors the evolution of generalists in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Catriona Condon, Brandon S. Cooper, Sam Yeaman, & Michael J. Angilletta
In variable environments, selection should favor generalists that maintain fitness across a range of conditions. However, costs of adaptation may generate fitness trade-offs and lead to some compromise between specialization and generalization that maximizes fitness. Here, we evaluate the evolution of specialization and generalization in 20 populations of Drosophila melanogaster experimentally evolved in constant and variable thermal environments for 3 years. We developed genotypes from each population at two temperatures after which we measured fecundity...

Data from: Inter-locus sexually antagonistic coevolution creates indirect selection for increased recombination

Amy Lynn Dapper & Curtis M. Lively
The ubiquity of recombination in nature is a paradox because it breaks up combinations of alleles favored by natural selection. Theoretical work has shown that antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can result in rapid fluctuations in epistasis, which can create a short-term advantage to recombination. Here we show that another kind of antagonistic coevolution, inter-locus sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC), can also create indirect selection for modifiers that increase the rate of recombination, and that...

Data from: Faster clonal turnover in high-infection habitats provides evidence for parasite-mediated selection

Dorota Paczesniak, Sofia Adolfsson, Katri Liljeroos, Kirsten Klappert, Curt M. Lively & Jukka Jokela
According to the Red Queen hypothesis for sex, parasite-mediated selection against common clones counterbalances the reproductive advantage of asexual lineages, which would otherwise outcompete sexual conspecifics. Such selection on the clonal population is expected to lead to a faster clonal turnover in habitats where selection by parasites is stronger. We tested this prediction by comparing the genetic structure of clonal and sexual populations of freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum between years 2003 and 2007 in three...

Data from: Phase III of Wright's Shifting Balance Process and the variance among demes in migration rate

Michael J. Wade
Interdemic selection by the differential migration of individuals out from demes of high fitness and into demes of low fitness (Phase III) is one of the most controversial aspects of Wright's Shifting Balance Theory. I derive a relationship between Phase III migration and the interdemic selection differential, S, and show its potential effect on FST. The relationship reveals a diversifying effect of interdemic selection by Phase III migration on the genetic structure of a metapopulation....

Data from: Genetic architecture of isolation between two species of Silene with sex chromosomes and Haldane's rule

Jeffery Paul Demuth, Rebecca J. Flanagan & Lynda F. Delph
Examination of the genetic architecture of hybrid breakdown can provide insight into the genetic mechanisms of commonly observed isolating phenomena such as Haldane’s rule. We used line-cross analysis to dissect the genetic architecture of divergence between two plant species that exhibit Haldane’s rule for male sterility and rarity, Silene latifolia and Silene diclinis. We made 15 types of crosses, including reciprocal F1, F2, backcrosses, and later-generation crosses, grew the seeds to flowering, and measured the...

Living in Your Letters: Assessing Congruence Between Espoused and Enacted Values of One Fraternity/Sorority Community

Heather Matthews, Leigh Featherstone, Lisa Blunder, Allison J. Gerling, Sarah Lodge & Rachel B. Messenger

Data from: Female Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis thurberi) produce male-like song in a territorial context during the early breeding season

Dustin G. Reichard, Daniel E. Brothers, Serena E. George, Jonathan W. Atwell & Ellen D. Ketterson
Reports of female song, once considered a rarity, have recently increased across a variety of avian taxa. Females of many species can be induced to produce male-like song with exogenous testosterone, but observations of female song in free-living birds remain limited by incomplete sampling of females. Here, we report three independent observations of female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) producing male-like song early in the breeding season (i.e. post-territory establishment, pre-nesting) in a recently established non-migratory,...

Data from: Mitochondria and Wolbachia titers are positively correlated during maternal transmission

Lucas P. Henry, Irene L.G. Newton & Irene L. G. Newton
Mothers provide their offspring with symbionts. Maternally transmitted, intracellular symbionts must disperse from mother to offspring with other cytoplasmic elements, like mitochondria. Here, we investigated how the intracellular symbiont Wolbachia interacts with mitochondria during maternal transmission. Mitochondria and Wolbachia may interact antagonistically and compete as each population tries to ensure its own evolutionary success. Alternatively, mitochondria and Wolbachia may cooperate as both benefit from ensuring the fitness of the mother. We characterized the relationship between...

Sexual size dimorphism is associated with reproductive life history trait differentiation in coexisting sepsid flies

Wolf Blanckenhorn, Julian Baur, Juan Pablo Busso, Athene Giesen, Natalia Gourgoulianni, Nicola Van Koppenhagen, Jeannine Roy, Martin Schäfer, Alexandra Wegmann & Patrick Rohner
Organismal life histories evolve as syndromes, resulting in correlated evolutionary differentiation of key traits that ultimately aid in discerning species. Reproductive success depends both on the absolute body size of an individual and its size relative to the opposite sex: sexual size dimorphism. In an attempt to further elucidate their coexistence and ecological diversification, we compared standard life history (first reproduction, clutch size, egg size) and associated reproductive trait differentiation of 15 widespread European sepsid...

Multi-dimensional biodiversity hotspots and the future of taxonomic, ecological, and phylogenetic diversity: a case study of North American rodents

Tara Smiley, Pascal Title, Miriam Zelditch & Rebecca Terry
Aim: We investigate geographic patterns across taxonomic, ecological, and phylogenetic diversity to test for spatial (in)congruency and identify aggregate diversity hotspots in relation to present land-use and future climate. Simulating extinctions of imperiled species, we demonstrate where losses across diversity dimensions and geography are predicted. Location: North America Time period: Present-day, future Major taxa studied: Rodentia Methods: Using geographic range maps for rodent species, we quantified spatial patterns for eleven dimensions of diversity: taxonomic (species,...

A Bayesian extension of phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS): incorporating uncertainty in the comparative study of trait relationships and evolutionary rates

Jesualdo Arturo Fuentes González, P. David Polly & Emília P. Martins
Phylogenetic comparative methods use tree topology, branch lengths, and models of phenotypic change to take into account non-independence in statistical analysis. However, these methods normally assume that trees and models are known without error. Approaches relying on evolutionary regimes also assume specific distributions of character states across a tree, which often result from ancestral state reconstructions that are subject to uncertainty. Several methods have been proposed to deal with some of these sources of uncertainty,...

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