217 Works

Data from: A multispecies coalescent model for quantitative traits

Fabio K. Mendes, Jesualdo A. Fuentes-González, Joshua G. Schraiber & Matthew W. Hahn
We present a multispecies coalescent model for quantitative traits that allows for evolutionary inferences at micro- and macroevolutionary scales. A major advantage of this model is its ability to incorporate genealogical discordance underlying a quantitative trait. We show that discordance causes a decrease in the expected trait covariance between more closely related species relative to more distantly related species. If unaccounted for, this outcome can lead to an overestimation of a trait's evolutionary rate, to...

Data from: Plastic responses to competition: does bacteriocin production increase in the presence of nonself competitors?

Amrita Bhattacharya, Hannah Tae‐Young Pak, Farrah Bashey & Hannah Tae-Young Pak
Anticompetitor traits such as the production of allelopathic toxins can confer significant competitive benefits but are often costly to produce. Evolution of these traits may be facilitated by environment‐specific induction; however, the extent to which costly anticompetitor traits are induced by competitors is not well explored. Here, we addressed this question using bacteriocins, which are highly specific, proteinaceous anticompetitor toxins, produced by most lineages of bacteria and archaea. We tested the prediction that bacteriocin production...

Data from: Parasite rearing and infection temperatures jointly influence disease transmission and shape seasonality of epidemics

Marta S. Shocket, Daniela Vergara, Andrew J. Sickbert, Jason M. Walsman, Alexander T. Strauss, Jessica L. Hite, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
Seasonal epidemics erupt commonly in nature and are driven by numerous mechanisms. Here, we suggest a new mechanism that could determine the size and timing of seasonal epidemics: rearing environment changes the performance of parasites. This mechanism arises when the environmental conditions in which a parasite is produced impact its performance—independently from the current environment. To illustrate the potential for ‘rearing effects’, we show how temperature influences infection risk (transmission rate) in a Daphnia-fungus disease...

Data from: Mycelia-derived C contributes more to nitrogen cycling than root-derived C in ectomycorrhizal alpine forests

Ziliang Zhang, Richard P. Phillips, Wenqiang Zhao, Yuanshuang Yuan, Qing Liu & Huajun Yin
1. Plant roots and their associated microbial symbionts impact carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, but estimates of the relative contributions of root- versus microbe-derived dynamic inputs are highly uncertain. Roots release C into soil via exudation and turnover (i.e., root-derived C), but also by allocating C to mycorrhizal fungal mycelia, which exude C and undergo turnover (i.e., mycelia-derived C). Given that the relative contributions of root- and mycelia-derived C inputs are unknown, a...

Data from: Effects of between-site variation in soil microbial communities and plant-soil feedbacks on the productivity and composition of plant communities

Jonathan T. Bauer, Noah Blumenthal, Anna J. Miller, Julia K. Ferguson & Heather L. Reynolds
A critical challenge in the science and practice of restoration ecology is to understand the drivers of variation in restoration outcomes. Soil microbial communities may have a role in explaining this variation due to both site-to-site variation in the composition of soil microbial communities and due to variation that can arise due to plant-soil feedbacks. We tested the relative importance of between-site variation in soil microbial community composition and plant-soil feedbacks in shaping plant community...

Data from: Resources, key traits, and the size of fungal epidemics in Daphnia populations

David J. Civitello, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Aimee N. Smith, Marta S. Shocket, Meghan A. Duffy & Spencer R. Hall
1. Parasites can profoundly affect host populations and ecological communities. Thus, it remains critical to identify mechanisms that drive variation in epidemics. Resource availability can drive epidemics via traits of hosts and parasites that govern disease spread. 2. Here, we map resource–trait–epidemic connections to explain variation in fungal outbreaks (Metschnikowia bicuspidata) in a zooplankton host (Daphnia dentifera) among lakes. We predicted epidemics would grow larger in lakes with more phytoplankton via three energetic mechanisms. First,...

Data from: Does older adults' cognitive function disrupt the malleability of their attitudes toward outgroup members?: an fMRI investigation

Anne C. Krendl & Elizabeth A. Kensinger
In the current study we examine how individual differences in older adults’ global cognitive function impacts the extent to which their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals are malleable. Because prior research has elucidated the neural processes that are involved in evaluating stigmatized individuals who are responsible or not responsible for their condition, a cognitive neuroscience approach may be well-suited to answer this question. In the current study, 36 older and 17 young adults underwent functional magnetic...

Data from: Early breeding females experience greater telomere loss

Jessica L. Graham, Carolyn M. Bauer, Britt J. Heidinger, Ellen D. Ketterson & Timothy J. Greives
Annual reproductive success is often highest in individuals that initiate breeding early, yet relatively few individuals start breeding during this apparently optimal time. This suggests that individuals, particularly females who ultimately dictate when offspring are born, incur costs by initiating reproduction early in the season. We hypothesized that increases in the aging rate of somatic cells may be one such cost. Telomeres, the repetitive DNA sequences on the ends of chromosomes, may be good proxies...

Data from: Extensive introgression in a malaria vector species complex revealed by phylogenomics

Michael C. Fontaine, James B. Pease, Aaron Steele, Robert M. Waterhouse, Daniel E. Neafsey, Igor V. Sharakhov, Xiofang Jiang, Andrew B. Hall, Flaminia Catteruccia, Evdoxia Kakani, Sarah N. Mitchell, Yi-Chieh Wu, Hilary A. Smith, R. Rebecca Love, Mara K. Lawniczak, Michel A. Slotman, Scott J. Emrich, Matthew W. Hahn & Nora J. Besansky
Introgressive hybridization is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon, but its role in evolution remains contested. Here we use newly available reference genome assemblies to investigate phylogenetic relationships and introgression in a medically important group of Afrotropical mosquito sibling species. We have identified the correct species branching order to resolve a contentious phylogeny, and show that lineages leading to the principal vectors of human malaria were among the first to split. Pervasive autosomal introgression between...

Data from: Effect of acute stressor on reproductive behavior differs between urban and rural birds

Mikus Abolins-Abols, Sydney F. Hope & Ellen D. Ketterson
The life-history trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction posits that investment in one function decreases investment in the other. Manipulating the costs and benefits of functions involved in a trade-off may alter this interaction. Here we ask whether investment in self-maintenance during a stress response alters territorial behavior in wild Dark-eyed Juncos and whether rural and urban birds, which are known to differ in the magnitude of the stress response (greater in rural), also differ in...

Data from: Insulin signaling’s role in mediating tissue-specific nutritional plasticity and robustness in the horn-polyphenic beetle Onthophagus taurus

Sofia Casasa & Armin P. Moczek
Organisms cope with nutritional variation via developmental plasticity, adjusting trait size to nutrient availability for some traits while enabling others to develop in a nutritionally robust manner. Yet, the developmental mechanisms that regulate organ-specific growth across nutritional gradients remain poorly understood. We assessed the functions of members of the insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway (IIS) in the regulation of nutrition sensitivity and robustness in males of the horn-polyphenic beetle Onthophagus taurus, as well as potential regulatory interactions...

Data from: Herbivory enhances the diversity of primary producers in pond ecosystems

Mathew A. Leibold, Spencer R. Hall, Val H. Smith & David A. Lytle
Diversity of primary producer is often surprisingly high, despite few limiting factors such as nutrients and light to facilitate species coexistence. In theory, the presence of herbivores could increase the diversity of primary producers, resolving this “paradox of the plankton”. Little experimental evidence supports this natural enemies hypothesis, but previous tests suffer from several deficiencies. Previous experiments often did not allow for multigeneration effects; utilized low diversity assemblages of herbivores; and limited opportunities for new...

Data from: \"Transcriptome sequencing of the Antarctic Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl (Caryophillaceae)\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 February 2015 – 31 March 2015

Laura Bertini, Silvia Proietti & Carla Caruso
This article documents the public availability of raw transcriptome sequence data and assembled contigs of the Antarctic plant Colobanthus quitensis grown in two different climatic conditions. BLAST hits are also provided.

Data from: Direct and indirect genetic effects in life history traits of flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum)

Esther D. Ellen, Katrijn Peeters, Merel Verhoeven, Rieta Gols, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Michael J. Wade, Marcel Dicke & Piter Bijma
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are the basis of social interactions among conspecifics, and can affect genetic variation of non-social as well as social traits. We used flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) of two phenotypically distinguishable populations to estimate genetic (co)variances and the effect of IGEs on three life-history traits: development time (DT), growth rate (GR), and pupal body mass (BM). We found that GR was strongly affected by social environment with IGEs accounting for 18% of...

Data from: Molecular mechanisms of postmating prezygotic reproductive isolation uncovered by transcriptome analysis

James B. Pease, Rafael F. Guerrero, Natasha Sherman, Matthew Hahn, Leonie C. Moyle, Matthew W. Hahn & Natasha A. Sherman
Little is known about the physiological responses and genetic mutations associated with reproductive isolation between species, especially for postmating prezygotic isolating barriers. Here, we examine changes in gene expression that accompany the expression of ‘unilateral incompatibility’ (UI)—a postmating prezygotic barrier in which fertilization is prevented by gamete rejection in the reproductive tract [in this case of pollen tubes (male gametophytes)] in one direction of a species cross, but is successful in the reciprocal crossing direction....

Data from: Genome-wide patterns of regulatory divergence revealed by introgression lines

Rafael F. Guerrero, Amanda L. Posto, Leonie Clare Moyle & Matthew W. Hahn
Understanding the genetic basis for changes in transcriptional regulation is an important aspect of understanding phenotypic evolution. Using interspecific introgression lines, we infer the mechanisms of divergence in genome-wide patterns of gene expression between the nightshades Solanum pennellii and S. lycopersicum (domesticated tomato). We find that cis- and trans-regulatory changes have had qualitatively similar contributions to divergence in this clade, unlike results from other systems. Additionally, expression data from four tissues (shoot apex, ripe fruit,...

Artificial light at night amplifies seasonal relapse of haemosporidian parasites in a widespread songbird

Daniel Becker, Devraj Singh, Qiuyun Pan, Jesse Montoure, Katherine Talbott, Sarah Wanamaker & Ellen Ketterson
Urban habitats can shape interactions between hosts and parasites by altering within-host processes such as resistance. Artificial light at night is common in urban environments, and chronic exposure can impair host immunity in ways that may increase infection. However, studies of causal links between this stressor, immunity, and infection dynamics are rare, particularly in migratory animals. Here, we experimentally tested how artificial light at night affects cellular immunity and intensity of infection with haemosporidian parasites...

Evolution of multivariate wing allometry in schizophoran flies (Diptera: Schizophora)

Patrick T. Rohner
The proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying scaling relationships as well as their evolutionary consequences remain an enigmatic issue in evolutionary biology. Here I investigate the evolution of wing allometries in the Schizophora, a group of higher Diptera that radiated ~65 million years ago, by studying static allometries in five species using multivariate approaches. Despite the vast ecological diversity observed in contemporary members of the Schizophora and independent evolutionary histories throughout most of the Cenozoic, size-related...

Substrate quality drives fungal necromass decay and decomposer community structure under contrasting vegetation types

Katilyn Beidler, Richard Phillips, Erin Andrews, François Maillard, Ryan Mushinski & Peter Kennedy
1. Fungal mycelium is increasingly recognized as a central component of soil biogeochemical cycling, yet our current understanding of the ecological controls on fungal necromass decomposition is limited to single sites and vegetation types. 2. By deploying common fungal necromass substrates in a temperate oak savannah and hardwood forest in the midwestern USA, we assessed the generality of the rate at which high- and low-quality fungal necromass decomposes; further, we investigated how the decomposer ‘necrobiome’...

Data for Body mass-related changes in mammal community assembly patterns during the late Quaternary of North America

Silvia Pineda-Munoz
The late Quaternary of North America was marked by prominent ecological changes, including the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinction, the spread of human settlements, and the rise of agriculture. Here we examine the mechanistic reasons for temporal changes in mammal species association and body size during this time period. Building upon the co-occurrence results from Lyons et al. (2016) – wherein each species pair was classified as spatially aggregated, segregated, or random – we examined body mass...

Secondary sexual trait melanization in black scavenger flies: nutritional plasticity and its evolution

Patrick T. Rohner
The black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica exhibits polyphenic development resulting in alternate small black and large amber male morphs. Although the behavior, ecology, and physiology of both morphs are being scrutinized, the evolutionary origins of the nutritional polyphenism remain poorly understood. I here use a comparative approach to study variation in the degree of melanization of the forefemur —a secondary sexual trait. Melanization showed nutritional plasticity in all species and character mapping suggests polyphenic development...

MonaLog: a Lightweight System for Natural Language Inference Based on Monotonicity

Hai Hu, Qi Chen, Kyle Richardson, Atreyee Mukherjee, Lawrence S. Moss & Sandra Kübler

Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Mountain Building in the Tien Shan

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GHENGIS was a deployment of 28 broad band stations in the central and western Tien Shan (Kygyzstan and western Xinjiang). The first two years saw a limited deployment of 6 and 15 stations, respectively, and the full deployment ran for the final year. Initally the sensors were 40Ts, but these were upgraded to a combination of STS-2 and CMG-3ESP in the final year. Recording rate was continuous and sample rates generally at 40 Hz.

Living in Your Letters: Assessing Congruence Between Espoused and Enacted Values of One Fraternity/Sorority Community

Heather Matthews, Leigh Featherstone, Lisa Blunder, Allison J. Gerling, Sarah Lodge & Rachel B. Messenger

Piñon Flats Small Aperture Array, High Frequency Array

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The Piñon Flat Passive Source High Frequency Array Experiment of the IRIS Eurasian Seismic Studies Program was conducted in April and May, 1990, at Piñon Flat Observatory, California. Goals of the field portion of the experiment were to obtain a detailed, unaliased record of the seismic wavefields from local and regional events, as well as to test and prepare equipment and personnel for similar ESSP deployments in the Soviet Union during 1991 and 1992. Piñon...

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