208 Works

Data from: Adaptive plasticity and niche expansion in an invasive thistle

Kathryn G. Turner, Hélène Fréville & Loren H. Rieseberg
Phenotypic differentiation in size and fecundity between native and invasive populations of a species has been suggested as a causal driver of invasion in plants. Local adaptation to novel environmental conditions through a micro-evolutionary response to natural selection may lead to phenotypic differentiation and fitness advantages in the invaded range. Local adaptation may occur along a stress tolerance trade-off, favoring individuals that, in benign conditions, shift resource allocation from stress tolerance to increased vigor and...

Data from: Dissecting the basis of novel trait evolution in a radiation with widespread phylogenetic discordance

Meng Wu, Jamie L. Kostyun, Matthew W. Hahn & Leonie C. Moyle
Phylogenetic analyses of trait evolution can provide insight into the evolutionary processes that initiate and drive phenotypic diversification. However, recent phylogenomic studies have revealed extensive gene tree-species tree discordance, which can lead to incorrect inferences of trait evolution if only a single species tree is used for analysis. This phenomenon—dubbed “hemiplasy”—is particularly important to consider during analyses of character evolution in rapidly radiating groups, where discordance is widespread. Here we generate whole-transcriptome data for a...

Data from: Coevolutionary interactions with parasites constrain the spread of self-fertilization into outcrossing host populations

Samuel Preston Slowinski, Levi T. Morran, , Eric R. Cui, Amrita Bhattacharya, Curtis M. Lively, Patrick C. Phillips & Raymond C. Parrish
Given the cost of sex, outcrossing populations should be susceptible to invasion and replacement by self-fertilization or parthenogenesis. However, biparental sex is common in nature, suggesting that cross-fertilization has substantial short-term benefits. The Red Queen hypothesis (RQH) suggests that coevolution with parasites can generate persistent selection favoring both recombination and outcrossing in host populations. We tested the prediction that coevolving parasites can constrain the spread of self-fertilization relative to outcrossing. We introduced wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans...

Regional differences in the abiotic environment contribute to genomic divergence within a wild tomato species

Matthew Gibson
The wild currant tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium inhabits a wide range of abiotic habitats across its native range of Ecuador and Peru. Although it has served as a key genetic resource for the improvement of domestic cultivars, little is known about the genetic basis of traits underlying local adaptation in this species, nor what abiotic variables are most important for driving differentiation. Here we use redundancy analysis (RDA) and other multivariate statistical methods (structural equation modeling...

Reactivation of latent infections with migration shapes population-level disease dynamics

Daniel Becker, Ellen Ketterson & Richard Hall
Annual migration is common across animal taxa and can dramatically shape the spatial and temporal patterns of infectious disease. Although migration can decrease infection prevalence in some contexts, these energetically costly long-distance movements can also have immunosuppressive effects that may interact with transmission processes in complex ways. Here we develop a mechanistic model for the reactivation of latent infections driven by physiological changes or energetic costs associated with migration (i.e., “migratory relapse”) and its effects...

Data from: A shift from magnitude to sign epistasis during adaptive evolution of a bacterial social trait

Peter C. Zee, Helena Mendes-Soares, Yuen-Tsu Nicco Yu, Susanne A. Kraemer, Heike Keller, Stephan Ossowski, Korbinian Schneeberger & Gregory J. Velicer
While the importance of epistasis in evolution has long been recognized, remarkably little is known about the processes by which epistatic interactions evolve in real time in specific biological systems. Here, we have characterized how the epistatic fitness relationship between a social gene and an adapting genome changes radically over a short evolutionary time frame in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. We show that a highly beneficial effect of this social gene in the ancestral...

Data from: Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis

Dingqiao Wen, Yun Yu, Matthew W. Hahn & Luay Nakhleh
The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise...

Data from: Exogenous kisspeptin enhances seasonal reproductive function in male Siberian hamsters

Allison M. Bailey, Sandra J. Legan & Gregory E. Demas
Animals living in temperate climates are faced with the challenge of reproducing only when environmental conditions are suitable for offspring survival. Environmental cues signalling current and future energy availability (e.g., food availability and photoperiod respectively) are used to appropriately time reproduction. The precise neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating reproduction in response to these cues are unknown. The goal of the present study was to investigate a functional role for kisspeptin, a neuropeptide that shows promise as a...

Data from: Lineages of Silene nutans developed rapid, strong, asymmetric postzygotic reproductive isolation in allopatry

Helene Martin, Pascal Touzet, Mathilde Dufay, Cécile Godé, Eric Schmitt, Emna Lahiani, Lynda F. Delph & Fabienne Van Rossum
Reproductive isolation can rise either as a consequence of genomic divergence in allopatry or as a byproduct of divergent selection in parapatry. To determine whether reproductive isolation in gynodioecious Silene nutans results from allopatric divergence or from ecological adaptation following secondary contact, we investigated the pattern of postzygotic reproductive isolation and hybridization in natural populations using two phylogeographic lineages, western (W1) and eastern (E1). Experimental crosses between the lineages identified strong, asymmetric postzygotic isolation between...

Data from: Divergence in style length and pollen size leads to a postmating-prezygotic reproductive barrier among populations of Silene latifolia

Amanda N. Brothers & Lynda F. Delph
A central tenet of speciation research is the need to identify reproductive isolating barriers. One approach to this line of research is to identify the phenotypes that lead to reproductive isolation. Several studies on flowering plants have shown that differences in style length contribute to reproductive isolation between species, leading us to consider whether style length could act as a reproductive barrier among populations of a single species. This could occur if style length varied...

Data from: Parallel emergence of negative epistasis across experimental lineages

Peter C. Zee & Gregory J. Velicer
Epistatic interactions can greatly impact evolutionary phenomena, particularly the process of adaptation. Here, we leverage four parallel experimentally evolved lineages to study the emergence and trajectories of epistatic interactions in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. A social gene (pilA) necessary for effective group swarming on soft agar had been deleted from the common ancestor of these lineages. During selection for competitiveness at the leading edge of growing colonies, two lineages evolved qualitatively novel mechanisms for...

Data from: RRapid global spread of wRi-like Wolbachia across multiple Drosophila

Michael Turelli, Brandon S. Cooper, Kelly M. Richardson, Paul S. Ginsberg, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Chenling X. Antelope, Kevin J. Kim, Michael R. May, Antoine Abrieux, Derek A. Wilson, Michael J. Bronski, Brian R. Moore, Jian-Jun Gao, Michael B. Eisen, Joanna C. Chiu, William R. Conner & Ary A. Hoffmann
Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects, but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare. Here we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila...

Data from: Spatial soil heterogeneity has a greater effect on symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and plant growth than genetic modification with Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes

Tanya E. Cheeke, Ursel M. Schütte, Chris M. Hemmerich, Mitchell B. Cruzan, Todd N. Rosenstiel & James D. Bever
Maize, genetically modified with the insect toxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is widely cultivated, yet its impacts on soil organisms are poorly understood. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbiotic associations with plant roots and may be uniquely sensitive to genetic changes within a plant host. In this field study, the effects of nine different lines of Bt maize and their corresponding non-Bt parental isolines were evaluated on AMF colonization and community diversity in plant...

Data from: Joint effects of habitat, zooplankton, host stage structure and diversity on amphibian chytrid

Jessica L. Hite, Jaime Bosch, Saioa Fernández-Beaskoetxea, Daniel Medina & Spencer R. Hall
Why does the severity of parasite infection differ dramatically across habitats? This question remains challenging to answer because multiple correlated pathways drive disease. Here, we examined habitat–disease links through direct effects on parasites and indirect effects on parasite predators (zooplankton), host diversity and key life stages of hosts. We used a case study of amphibian hosts and the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in a set of permanent and ephemeral alpine ponds. A field experiment showed...

Data from: Evidence of developmental niche construction in dung beetles: effects on growth, scaling and reproductive success

Daniel B. Schwab, Sofia Casasa & Armin P. Moczek
Niche construction occurs when organisms modify their environments and alter selective conditions through their physiology and behaviours. Such modifications can bias phenotypic variation and enhance organism–environment fit. Yet few studies exist that experimentally assess the degree to which environmental modifications shape developmental and fitness outcomes, how their influences may differ among species and identify the underlying proximate mechanisms. Here, we experimentally eliminate environmental modifications from the developmental environment of Onthophagus dung beetles. We show that...

Data from: Effects of a non-native grass invasion decline over time

S. Luke Flory, Jonathan Bauer, Richard P. Phillips & Keith Clay
Most research on dynamics and impacts of plant invasions has evaluated patterns and effects over brief time periods (i.e. <4 years). As such, little is known about the persistence of invasions and their long-term impacts on native species. To experimentally evaluate longer-term effects of invasions, we established field plots with native tree and herbaceous species and then invaded half of the plots with the most widespread invasive grass in the eastern United States (Microstegium vimineum)....

Data from: Fine-Scale Mapping of Recombination Rate in Drosophila Refines its Correlation to Diversity and Divergence

R. J. Kulathinal, S. M. Bennett, C. L. Fitzpatrick & Mohamed A. F. Noor
Regional rates of recombination often correlate with levels of nucleotide diversity, and either selective or neutral hypotheses can explain this relationship. Regional recombination rates also correlate with nucleotide differences between human and chimpanzee, consistent with models where recombination is mutagenic; however, a lack of correlation is observed in the Drosophila melanogaster group, consistent with models invoking natural selection. Here, we revisit the relationship among recombination, diversity, and interspecies difference by generating empirical estimates of these...

Data from: Development of an ultra-dense genetic map of the sunflower genome

John E. Bowers, Savithri Nambeesan, Jonathan Corbi, John M. Burke, Michael S. Barker, Loren H. Rieseberg & Steven J. Knapp
The development of ultra-dense genetic maps has the potential to facilitate detailed comparative genomic analyses and whole genome sequence assemblies. Here we describe the use of a custom Affymetrix GeneChip containing nearly 2.4 million features (25 bp sequences) targeting 86,023 unigenes from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and related species to test for single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs) in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population derived from a cross between confectionery and oilseed sunflower lines (RHA280 x...

Data from: Experimental evolution: assortative mating and sexual selection, independent of local adaptation, lead to reproductive isolation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei

Dean M. Castillo, Melissa K. Burger, Curtis M. Lively & Lynda F. Delph
Using experimental evolution, we investigated the contributions of ecological divergence, sexual selection, and genetic drift to the evolution of reproductive isolation in Caenorhabditis remanei. The nematodes were reared on two different environments for 100 generations. They were assayed for fitness on both environments after 30, 64, and 100 generations, and hybrid fitnesses were analyzed after 64 and 100 generations. Mating propensity within and between populations was also analyzed. The design allowed us to determine whether...

Data from: Neofunctionalization of embryonic head patterning genes facilitates the positioning of novel traits on the dorsal head of adult beetles

Eduardo E. Zattara, Hannah A. Busey, David M. Linz, Yoshinori Tomoyasu & Armin P. Moczek
The origin and integration of novel traits are fundamental processes during the developmental evolution of complex organisms. Yet how novel traits integrate into pre-existing contexts remains poorly understood. Beetle horns represent a spectacular evolutionary novelty integrated within the context of the adult dorsal head, a highly conserved trait complex present since the origin of insects. We investigated whether otd1/2 and six3, members of a highly conserved gene network that instructs the formation of the anterior...

Data from: Remarkable life history polymorphism may be evolving under divergent selection in the silverleaf sunflower

Brook T. Moyers & Loren H. Rieseberg
Substantial intraspecific variation in life history is rare and potentially a signal of incipient ecological speciation, if variation is driven by geographically heterogenous natural selection. We present the first report of extensive life history polymorphism in Helianthus argophyllus, the silverleaf sunflower, and examine evidence for its evolution by divergent selection. In 18 populations sampled from across the species range and grown in a common garden, most quantitative traits covaried such that individuals could be assigned...

Data from: Decay rates of leaf litters from arbuscular mycorrhizal trees are more sensitive to soil effects than litters from ectomycorrhizal trees

Meghan G. Midgley, Edward Brzostek & Richard P. Phillips
While it is well established that leaf litter decomposition is controlled by climate and substrate quality at broad spatial scales, conceptual frameworks that consider how local-scale factors affect litter decay in heterogeneous landscapes are generally lacking. A critical challenge in disentangling the relative impacts of and interactions among local-scale factors is that these factors frequently covary due to feedbacks between plant and soil communities. For example, forest plots dominated by trees that associate with ectomycorrhizal...

Data from: Genetic diversity, infection prevalence, and possible transmission routes of Bartonella spp. in vampire bats

Daniel J. Becker, Laura M. Bergner, Alexandra B. Bentz, Richard J. Orton, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Bartonella spp. are globally distributed bacteria that cause endocarditis in humans and domestic animals. Recent work has suggested bats as zoonotic reservoirs of some human Bartonella infections; however, the ecological and spatiotemporal patterns of infection in bats remain largely unknown. Here we studied the genetic diversity, prevalence of infection across seasons and years, individual risk factors, and possible transmission routes of Bartonella in populations of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in Peru and Belize, for...

Data from: Extracting coherent tree-ring climatic signals across spatial scales from extensive forest inventory data

Louis Duchesne, Loïc D'Orangeville, Rock Ouimet, Danile Houle, Daniel Kneeshaw & Loïc D’Orangeville
Increasing access to extensively replicated and broadly distributed tree-ring collections has led to a greater use of these large data sets to investigate climate forcing on tree growth. However, the number of chronologies added to large accessible databases is declining and few are updated, while chronologies are often sparsely distributed and are more representative of marginal growing environments. On the other hand, National Forest Inventories (NFI), although poorly replicated at the plot level as compared...

Piñon Flats Small Aperture Array, High Frequency Array

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The Piñon Flat Passive Source High Frequency Array Experiment of the IRIS Eurasian Seismic Studies Program was conducted in April and May, 1990, at Piñon Flat Observatory, California. Goals of the field portion of the experiment were to obtain a detailed, unaliased record of the seismic wavefields from local and regional events, as well as to test and prepare equipment and personnel for similar ESSP deployments in the Soviet Union during 1991 and 1992. Piñon...

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