209 Works

Data from: Remarkable life history polymorphism may be evolving under divergent selection in the silverleaf sunflower

Brook T. Moyers & Loren H. Rieseberg
Substantial intraspecific variation in life history is rare and potentially a signal of incipient ecological speciation, if variation is driven by geographically heterogenous natural selection. We present the first report of extensive life history polymorphism in Helianthus argophyllus, the silverleaf sunflower, and examine evidence for its evolution by divergent selection. In 18 populations sampled from across the species range and grown in a common garden, most quantitative traits covaried such that individuals could be assigned...

Data from: Adaptive plasticity and niche expansion in an invasive thistle

Kathryn G. Turner, Hélène Fréville & Loren H. Rieseberg
Phenotypic differentiation in size and fecundity between native and invasive populations of a species has been suggested as a causal driver of invasion in plants. Local adaptation to novel environmental conditions through a micro-evolutionary response to natural selection may lead to phenotypic differentiation and fitness advantages in the invaded range. Local adaptation may occur along a stress tolerance trade-off, favoring individuals that, in benign conditions, shift resource allocation from stress tolerance to increased vigor and...

Data from: Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis

Dingqiao Wen, Yun Yu, Matthew W. Hahn & Luay Nakhleh
The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise...

Data from: Dissecting the basis of novel trait evolution in a radiation with widespread phylogenetic discordance

Meng Wu, Jamie L. Kostyun, Matthew W. Hahn & Leonie C. Moyle
Phylogenetic analyses of trait evolution can provide insight into the evolutionary processes that initiate and drive phenotypic diversification. However, recent phylogenomic studies have revealed extensive gene tree-species tree discordance, which can lead to incorrect inferences of trait evolution if only a single species tree is used for analysis. This phenomenon—dubbed “hemiplasy”—is particularly important to consider during analyses of character evolution in rapidly radiating groups, where discordance is widespread. Here we generate whole-transcriptome data for a...

Data from: Neofunctionalization of embryonic head patterning genes facilitates the positioning of novel traits on the dorsal head of adult beetles

Eduardo E. Zattara, Hannah A. Busey, David M. Linz, Yoshinori Tomoyasu & Armin P. Moczek
The origin and integration of novel traits are fundamental processes during the developmental evolution of complex organisms. Yet how novel traits integrate into pre-existing contexts remains poorly understood. Beetle horns represent a spectacular evolutionary novelty integrated within the context of the adult dorsal head, a highly conserved trait complex present since the origin of insects. We investigated whether otd1/2 and six3, members of a highly conserved gene network that instructs the formation of the anterior...

Data from: Joint effects of habitat, zooplankton, host stage structure and diversity on amphibian chytrid

Jessica L. Hite, Jaime Bosch, Saioa Fernández-Beaskoetxea, Daniel Medina & Spencer R. Hall
Why does the severity of parasite infection differ dramatically across habitats? This question remains challenging to answer because multiple correlated pathways drive disease. Here, we examined habitat–disease links through direct effects on parasites and indirect effects on parasite predators (zooplankton), host diversity and key life stages of hosts. We used a case study of amphibian hosts and the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in a set of permanent and ephemeral alpine ponds. A field experiment showed...

Data from: Faster clonal turnover in high-infection habitats provides evidence for parasite-mediated selection

Dorota Paczesniak, Sofia Adolfsson, Katri Liljeroos, Kirsten Klappert, Curt M. Lively & Jukka Jokela
According to the Red Queen hypothesis for sex, parasite-mediated selection against common clones counterbalances the reproductive advantage of asexual lineages, which would otherwise outcompete sexual conspecifics. Such selection on the clonal population is expected to lead to a faster clonal turnover in habitats where selection by parasites is stronger. We tested this prediction by comparing the genetic structure of clonal and sexual populations of freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum between years 2003 and 2007 in three...

Data from: Parallel emergence of negative epistasis across experimental lineages

Peter C. Zee & Gregory J. Velicer
Epistatic interactions can greatly impact evolutionary phenomena, particularly the process of adaptation. Here, we leverage four parallel experimentally evolved lineages to study the emergence and trajectories of epistatic interactions in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. A social gene (pilA) necessary for effective group swarming on soft agar had been deleted from the common ancestor of these lineages. During selection for competitiveness at the leading edge of growing colonies, two lineages evolved qualitatively novel mechanisms for...

Data from: Genetic architecture of isolation between two species of Silene with sex chromosomes and Haldane's rule

Jeffery Paul Demuth, Rebecca J. Flanagan & Lynda F. Delph
Examination of the genetic architecture of hybrid breakdown can provide insight into the genetic mechanisms of commonly observed isolating phenomena such as Haldane’s rule. We used line-cross analysis to dissect the genetic architecture of divergence between two plant species that exhibit Haldane’s rule for male sterility and rarity, Silene latifolia and Silene diclinis. We made 15 types of crosses, including reciprocal F1, F2, backcrosses, and later-generation crosses, grew the seeds to flowering, and measured the...

Data from: Phase III of Wright's Shifting Balance Process and the variance among demes in migration rate

Michael J. Wade
Interdemic selection by the differential migration of individuals out from demes of high fitness and into demes of low fitness (Phase III) is one of the most controversial aspects of Wright's Shifting Balance Theory. I derive a relationship between Phase III migration and the interdemic selection differential, S, and show its potential effect on FST. The relationship reveals a diversifying effect of interdemic selection by Phase III migration on the genetic structure of a metapopulation....

Data from: Variability in potential to exploit different soil organic phosphorus compounds among tropical montane tree species

Brian S. Steidinger, Benjamin L. Turner, Adriana Osorio, James W. Dalling & Adriana Corrales
We hypothesized that tropical plant species with different mycorrhizal associations reduce competition for soil phosphorus (P) by specializing to exploit different soil organic P compounds. We assayed the activity of root/mycorrhizal phosphatase enzymes of four tree species with contrasting root symbiotic relationships–arbuscular mycorrhizal (angiosperm and conifer), ectomycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal–collected from one of three soil sites within a montane tropical forest. We also measured growth and foliar P of these seedlings in an experiment with P...

Data from: Lineages of Silene nutans developed rapid, strong, asymmetric postzygotic reproductive isolation in allopatry

Helene Martin, Pascal Touzet, Mathilde Dufay, Cécile Godé, Eric Schmitt, Emna Lahiani, Lynda F. Delph & Fabienne Van Rossum
Reproductive isolation can rise either as a consequence of genomic divergence in allopatry or as a byproduct of divergent selection in parapatry. To determine whether reproductive isolation in gynodioecious Silene nutans results from allopatric divergence or from ecological adaptation following secondary contact, we investigated the pattern of postzygotic reproductive isolation and hybridization in natural populations using two phylogeographic lineages, western (W1) and eastern (E1). Experimental crosses between the lineages identified strong, asymmetric postzygotic isolation between...

Data from: Effects of a non-native grass invasion decline over time

S. Luke Flory, Jonathan Bauer, Richard P. Phillips & Keith Clay
Most research on dynamics and impacts of plant invasions has evaluated patterns and effects over brief time periods (i.e. <4 years). As such, little is known about the persistence of invasions and their long-term impacts on native species. To experimentally evaluate longer-term effects of invasions, we established field plots with native tree and herbaceous species and then invaded half of the plots with the most widespread invasive grass in the eastern United States (Microstegium vimineum)....

Data from: Development of an ultra-dense genetic map of the sunflower genome

John E. Bowers, Savithri Nambeesan, Jonathan Corbi, John M. Burke, Michael S. Barker, Loren H. Rieseberg & Steven J. Knapp
The development of ultra-dense genetic maps has the potential to facilitate detailed comparative genomic analyses and whole genome sequence assemblies. Here we describe the use of a custom Affymetrix GeneChip containing nearly 2.4 million features (25 bp sequences) targeting 86,023 unigenes from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and related species to test for single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs) in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population derived from a cross between confectionery and oilseed sunflower lines (RHA280 x...

Data from: Evidence of developmental niche construction in dung beetles: effects on growth, scaling and reproductive success

Daniel B. Schwab, Sofia Casasa & Armin P. Moczek
Niche construction occurs when organisms modify their environments and alter selective conditions through their physiology and behaviours. Such modifications can bias phenotypic variation and enhance organism–environment fit. Yet few studies exist that experimentally assess the degree to which environmental modifications shape developmental and fitness outcomes, how their influences may differ among species and identify the underlying proximate mechanisms. Here, we experimentally eliminate environmental modifications from the developmental environment of Onthophagus dung beetles. We show that...

Data from: Resource allocation during ontogeny is influenced by genetic, developmental, and ecological factors in the horned beetle, Onthophagus taurus

Daniel B. Schwab & Armin P. Moczek
Resource allocation trade-offs arise when developing organs are in competition for a limited pool of resources to sustain growth and differentiation. Such competition may constrain the maximal size to which structures can grow and may force a situation in which the evolutionary elaboration of one structure may only be possible at the expense of another. However, recent studies have called into question both the consistency and evolutionary importance of resource allocation trade-offs. This study focuses...

Data from: A shift from magnitude to sign epistasis during adaptive evolution of a bacterial social trait

Peter C. Zee, Helena Mendes-Soares, Yuen-Tsu Nicco Yu, Susanne A. Kraemer, Heike Keller, Stephan Ossowski, Korbinian Schneeberger & Gregory J. Velicer
While the importance of epistasis in evolution has long been recognized, remarkably little is known about the processes by which epistatic interactions evolve in real time in specific biological systems. Here, we have characterized how the epistatic fitness relationship between a social gene and an adapting genome changes radically over a short evolutionary time frame in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. We show that a highly beneficial effect of this social gene in the ancestral...

Data from: Experimental evolution: assortative mating and sexual selection, independent of local adaptation, lead to reproductive isolation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei

Dean M. Castillo, Melissa K. Burger, Curtis M. Lively & Lynda F. Delph
Using experimental evolution, we investigated the contributions of ecological divergence, sexual selection, and genetic drift to the evolution of reproductive isolation in Caenorhabditis remanei. The nematodes were reared on two different environments for 100 generations. They were assayed for fitness on both environments after 30, 64, and 100 generations, and hybrid fitnesses were analyzed after 64 and 100 generations. Mating propensity within and between populations was also analyzed. The design allowed us to determine whether...

Data from: Coevolutionary interactions with parasites constrain the spread of self-fertilization into outcrossing host populations

Samuel Preston Slowinski, Levi T. Morran, , Eric R. Cui, Amrita Bhattacharya, Curtis M. Lively, Patrick C. Phillips & Raymond C. Parrish
Given the cost of sex, outcrossing populations should be susceptible to invasion and replacement by self-fertilization or parthenogenesis. However, biparental sex is common in nature, suggesting that cross-fertilization has substantial short-term benefits. The Red Queen hypothesis (RQH) suggests that coevolution with parasites can generate persistent selection favoring both recombination and outcrossing in host populations. We tested the prediction that coevolving parasites can constrain the spread of self-fertilization relative to outcrossing. We introduced wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans...

Data from: Reanalysis suggests that genomic islands of speciation are due to reduced diversity, not reduced gene flow

Tami E. Cruickshank & Matthew W. Hahn
The metaphor of “genomic islands of speciation” was first used to describe heterogeneous differentiation among loci between the genomes of closely related species. The biological model proposed to explain these differences was that the regions showing high levels of differentiation were resistant to gene flow between species, while the remainder of the genome was being homogenized by gene flow and consequently showed lower levels of differentiation. However, the conditions under which such differentiation can occur...

Data from: Female Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis thurberi) produce male-like song in a territorial context during the early breeding season

Dustin G. Reichard, Daniel E. Brothers, Serena E. George, Jonathan W. Atwell & Ellen D. Ketterson
Reports of female song, once considered a rarity, have recently increased across a variety of avian taxa. Females of many species can be induced to produce male-like song with exogenous testosterone, but observations of female song in free-living birds remain limited by incomplete sampling of females. Here, we report three independent observations of female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) producing male-like song early in the breeding season (i.e. post-territory establishment, pre-nesting) in a recently established non-migratory,...

Data from: Divergence in style length and pollen size leads to a postmating-prezygotic reproductive barrier among populations of Silene latifolia

Amanda N. Brothers & Lynda F. Delph
A central tenet of speciation research is the need to identify reproductive isolating barriers. One approach to this line of research is to identify the phenotypes that lead to reproductive isolation. Several studies on flowering plants have shown that differences in style length contribute to reproductive isolation between species, leading us to consider whether style length could act as a reproductive barrier among populations of a single species. This could occur if style length varied...

Data from: Genetic diversity, infection prevalence, and possible transmission routes of Bartonella spp. in vampire bats

Daniel J. Becker, Laura M. Bergner, Alexandra B. Bentz, Richard J. Orton, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Bartonella spp. are globally distributed bacteria that cause endocarditis in humans and domestic animals. Recent work has suggested bats as zoonotic reservoirs of some human Bartonella infections; however, the ecological and spatiotemporal patterns of infection in bats remain largely unknown. Here we studied the genetic diversity, prevalence of infection across seasons and years, individual risk factors, and possible transmission routes of Bartonella in populations of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in Peru and Belize, for...

Data from: Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail

Deanna M. Soper, Kayla C. King, Daniela Vergara & Curt M. Lively
Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilising, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of...

Data from: Inter-locus sexually antagonistic coevolution creates indirect selection for increased recombination

Amy Lynn Dapper & Curtis M. Lively
The ubiquity of recombination in nature is a paradox because it breaks up combinations of alleles favored by natural selection. Theoretical work has shown that antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can result in rapid fluctuations in epistasis, which can create a short-term advantage to recombination. Here we show that another kind of antagonistic coevolution, inter-locus sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC), can also create indirect selection for modifiers that increase the rate of recombination, and that...

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