207 Works

Data from: The timing of molecular and morphological changes underlying reproductive transitions in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon)

Stacey L. Vosters, Cathleen P. Jewell, Natasha A. Sherman, Frances Einterz, Benjamin K. Blackman & Leonie C. Moyle
Molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from genetic self-incompatibility to self-compatibility are well documented, but the evolution of other reproductive trait changes that accompany shifts in reproductive strategy (mating system) remain comparatively poorly understood. A notable exception is the transition from exserted styles to styles with recessed positions relative to the anthers in wild tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon). This phenotypic change has been previously attributed to specific mutation in the promoter of a gene that influences...

Data from: Runaway coevolution: adaptation to heritable and nonheritable environments

Devin M. Drown & Michael J. Wade
Populations evolve in response to the external environment, whether abiotic (e.g., climate) or biotic (e.g., other conspecifics). We investigated how adaptation to biotic, heritable environments differs from adaptation to abiotic, non-heritable environments. We found that, for the same selection coefficients, the coadaptive process between genes and heritable environments is much faster than genetic adaptation to an abiotic non-heritable environment. The increased rate of adaptation results from of the positive association generated by reciprocal selection between...

Data from: Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)

Christopher D. Muir, James B. Pease & Leonie C. Moyle
Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL Sign Test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not...

Data from: Height and clonality traits determine plant community responses to fertilization

Timothy L. Dickson, Gary G. Mittelbach, Heather L. Reynolds & Katherine L. Gross
Fertilization via agricultural inputs and nutrient deposition is one of the major threats to global terrestrial plant richness, yet we still do not fully understand the mechanisms by which fertilization decreases plant richness. Tall clonal species have recently been proposed to cause declines in plant species richness by increasing in abundance in response to fertilization and competing strongly with other species. We tested this hypothesis in a fertilization experiment in a low productivity grassland by...

Data from: Multiple reproductive barriers separate recently diverged sunflower ecotypes

Katherine L. Ostevik, Rose L. Andrew, Sarah P. Otto & Loren H. Rieseberg
Measuring reproductive barriers between groups of organisms is an effective way to determine the traits and mechanisms that impede gene flow. However, to understand the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive speciation, it is important to distinguish between the barriers that arise early in the speciation process and those that arise after speciation is largely complete. In this paper we comprehensively test for reproductive isolation between recently diverged (< 10,000 years bp) dune and non-dune...

Data from: MycoDB, a global database of plant response to mycorrhizal fungi

V. Bala Chaudhary, Megan A. Rúa, Anita Antoninka, James D. Bever, Jeffery Cannon, Ashley Craig, Jessica Duchicela, Alicia Frame, Monique Gardes, Catherine Gehring, Michelle Ha, Miranda Hart, Jacob Hopkins, Baoming Ji, Nancy Collins Johnson, Wittaya Kaonongbua, Justine Karst, Roger T. Koide, Louis J. Lamit, James Meadow, Brook G. Milligan, John C. Moore, , Bridget Piculell, Blake Ramsby … & Jason D. Hoeksema
Plants form belowground associations with mycorrhizal fungi in one of the most common symbioses on Earth. However, few large-scale generalizations exist for the structure and function of mycorrhizal symbioses, as the nature of this relationship varies from mutualistic to parasitic and is largely context-dependent. We announce the public release of MycoDB, a database of 4,010 studies (from 438 unique publications) to aid in multi-factor meta-analyses elucidating the ecological and evolutionary context in which mycorrhizal fungi...

Data from: Within-population covariation between sexual reproduction and susceptibility to local parasites

Amanda K. Gibson, Julie Y. Xu & Curtis M. Lively
Evolutionary biology has yet to reconcile the ubiquity of sex with its costs relative to asexual reproduction. Here, we test the hypothesis that coevolving parasites maintain sex in their hosts. Specifically, we examined the distributions of sexual reproduction and susceptibility to local parasites within a single population of freshwater snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Susceptibility to local trematode parasites (Microphallus sp.) is a relative measure of the strength of coevolutionary selection in this system. Thus, if coevolving...

Data from: Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post-domestication introgression with wild relatives.

Gregory J. Baute, Nolan C. Kane, Christopher J. Grassa, Zhao Lai & Loren H. Rieseberg
• The development of modern crops typically involves both selection and hybridization, but to date most studies have focused on the former. In the present study we explore how both processes, and their interactions, have molded the genome of the cultivated sunflower, a globally important oilseed. • To identify genes targeted by selection during the domestication and improvement of sunflower, and to detect post-domestication hybridization with wild species, we analyzed transcriptome sequences of 80 genotypes,...

Data from: Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop Noug (Guizotia abyssinica)

Hannes Dempewolf, Misteru Tesfaye, Abel Teshome, Anne Bjorkman, Rose L. Andrew, Moira Scascitelli, Scott Black, Endashaw Bekele, Johannes M. M. Engels, Quentin C. B. Cronk, Loren H. Rieseberg & Anne D. Bjorkman
Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semi-domesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop-wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population,...

Data from: \"Transcriptome resources for two highly divergent Silene latifolia populations\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 February 2015 – 31 March 2015

Peter Fields, Laura Weingartner & Lynda Delph
Here we have used next-generation Illumina sequencing to generate transcriptomes of four S. latifolia individuals from two morphologically divergent populations from disparate habitats, including including two females from Xativa, Spain and two males from Zagreb, Croatia. Spanish plants experience a much hotter, drier climate than Croatian plants, and the populations have ecologically relevant differences in floral and leaf characteristics (e.g., Spain has thicker leaves and produces fewer, larger flowers in comparison) (data not shown). This...

Data from: \"A reduced representation libraries approach for nuclear marker development via 454 sequencing applied on Tetramorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 February 2015 to 31 March 2015

Herbert C. Wagner, Francesco Cicconardi, Gregor A. Wachter, Heike Ritthammer, Florian M. Steiner, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner & Wolfgang Arthofer
To clarify species boundaries in the cryptic Tetramorium caespitum/impurum ant species complex, a multi-disciplinary approach is necessary. Nuclear DNA markers constitute one important step in species delimitation. We established a reduced representation library (RRL) based on amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) PCR products of four species. Amplicons were size-selected by gel-electrophoresis, DNA-fragments recovered from the agarose gels, and 454 libraries constructed by a commercial provider. Pyrosequencing yielded 490,155 reads, from which we designed cross-species amplifying primer...

Data from: Signals of selection in conditionally expressed genes in the diversification of three horned beetles species

Melissa H. Pespeni, Jason T. Ladner & Armin P. Moczek
Species radiations may be facilitated by phenotypic differentiation already present within populations, such as those arising through sex-specific development or developmental processes biased toward particular reproductive or trophic morphs. We sought to test this hypothesis by utilizing a comparative transcriptomic approach to contrast among and within-species differentiation using three horned beetle species in the genus Onthophagus. These three species exhibit differences along three phenotypic axes reflective of much of the interspecific diversity present within the...

Data from: Negative plant-phyllosphere feedbacks in native Asteraceae hosts – a novel extension of the plant-soil feedback framework

Briana K. Whitaker, Jonathan T. Bauer, James D. Bever & Keith Clay
Over the past 25 years, the plant-soil feedback (PSF) framework has catalyzed our understanding of how belowground microbiota impact plant fitness and species coexistence. Here, we apply a novel extension of this framework to microbiota associated with aboveground tissues, termed ‘plant-phyllosphere feedback (PPFs)’. In parallel greenhouse experiments, rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbiota of con- and heterospecific hosts from four species were independently manipulated. In a third experiment, we tested the combined effects of soil and phyllosphere...

Data from: Why concatenation fails near the anomaly zone

Fabio K. Mendes & Matthew W. Hahn
Genome-scale sequencing has been of great benefit in recovering species trees, but has not provided final answers. Despite the rapid accumulation of molecular sequences, resolving short and deep branches of the tree of life has remained a challenge, and has prompted the development of new strategies that can make the best use of available data. One such strategy – the concatenation of gene alignments – can be successful when coupled with many tree estimation methods,...

Data from: An experimental test of the relationship between yolk testosterone and the social environment in a colonial passerine

Alexandra B. Bentz, Victoria A. Andreasen & Kristen J. Navara
Maternal hormones can be transferred to offspring during prenatal development in response to the maternal social environment, and may adaptively alter offspring phenotype. For example, numerous avian studies show that aggressive competition with conspecifics tends to result in females allocating more testosterone to their egg yolks, and this may cause offspring to have more competitive phenotypes. However, deviations from this pattern of maternal testosterone allocation are found, largely in studies of colonial species, and have...

Data from: Adaptive maternal behavioral plasticity and developmental programming mitigate the transgenerational effects of temperature in dung beetles

Anna L. M. Macagno, Eduardo E. Zattara, Onye Ezeakudo, Armin P. Moczek & Cristina C. Ledon-Rettig
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to cope with rapid environmental change. Yet exactly when during ontogeny plastic responses are elicited, whether plastic responses produced in one generation influence phenotypic variation and fitness in subsequent generations, and the role of plasticity in shaping population divergences, remains overall poorly understood. Here, we use the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus to assess plastic responses to temperature at several life stages bridging three generations and compare these responses across three recently...

Data from: Mate choice in the eye and ear of the beholder? Female multimodal sensory configuration influences her preferences

Kelly Ronald, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Jeffrey Lucas, Jeffrey R. Lucas & Kelly L. Ronald
A common assumption in sexual selection studies is that receivers decode signal information similarly. However, receivers may vary in how they rank signallers if signal perception varies with an individual’s sensory configuration. Furthermore, receivers may vary in their weighting of different elements of multimodal signals based on their sensory configuration. This could lead to complex levels of selection on signalling traits. We tested whether multimodal sensory configuration could affect preferences for multimodal signals. We used...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Assessing biological factors affecting post-speciation introgression

Jennafer Hamlin, Mark Hibbins & Leonie Moyle
An increasing number of phylogenomic studies have documented a clear ‘footprint’ of post-speciation introgression among closely-related species. Nonetheless, systematic genome-wide studies of factors that determine the likelihood of introgression remain rare. Here, we propose an a priori hypothesis-testing framework that uses introgression statistics—including a new metric of estimated introgression, Dp —to evaluate general patterns of introgression prevalence and direction across multiple closely related species. We demonstrate this approach using whole genome sequences from 32 lineages...

Data from: The evolution of reduced antagonism – a role for host-parasite coevolution

Amanda Kyle Gibson, Kayla S. Stoy, Ian A. Gelarden, McKenna J. Penley, Curtis M. Lively & Levi T. Morran
Why do some host-parasite interactions become less antagonistic over evolutionary time? Vertical transmission can select for reduced antagonism. Vertical transmission also promotes coevolution between hosts and parasites. Therefore, we hypothesized that coevolution itself may underlie transitions to reduced antagonism. To test the coevolution hypothesis, we selected for reduced antagonism between the host Caenorhabditis elegans and its parasite Serratia marcescens. This parasite is horizontally transmitted, which allowed us to study coevolution independently of vertical transmission. After...

Local adaptation from afar: migratory bird populations diverge in the initiation of reproductive timing while wintering in sympatry

Sarah Wanamaker, Devraj Singh, Allison Byrd, Tara Smiley & Ellen Ketterson
The initiation of reproduction in many seasonally breeding animals is controlled by photoperiod and tends to be clinal: populations at higher latitudes breed later than those at lower latitudes, often reflecting a higher photoperiodic threshold. Migratory animals presumably time reproduction to match conditions at their breeding grounds at least in part by cues perceived on their wintering grounds. We asked how closely related dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) populations that overwinter in sympatry but breed in...

Data from: Desiccation resistance and pigmentation variation reflects bioclimatic differences in the Drosophila americana species complex

Jeremy S Davis & Leonie Moyle
Background: Disentangling the selective factors shaping adaptive trait variation is an important but challenging task. Many studies—especially in Drosophila—have documented trait variation along latitudinal or altitudinal clines, but frequently lack resolution about specific environmental gradients that could be causal selective agents, and often do not investigate covariation between traits simultaneously. Here we examined variation in multiple macroecological factors across geographic space and their associations with variation in three physiological traits (desiccation resistance, UV resistance, and...

Genotypic variation in parasite avoidance behavior and other mechanistic, non-linear components of transmission

Alexander Strauss
Traditional epidemiological models assume that transmission increases proportionally to the density of parasites. However, empirical data frequently contradict this assumption. General yet mechanistic models can explain why transmission depends non-linearly on parasite density and thereby identify potential defensive strategies of hosts. For example, hosts could decrease their exposure rates at higher parasite densities (via behavioral avoidance) or decrease their per-parasite susceptibility when encountering more parasites (e.g., via stronger immune responses). To illustrate, we fit mechanistic...

Data from: City sicker? a meta-analysis of wildlife health and urbanization

Maureen H. Murray, Cecilia A. Sanchez, Daniel J. Becker, Kaylee A. Byers, Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks & Meggan E. Craft
Urban development can alter resource availability, land use, and community composition, in turn influencing wildlife health. Generalizable relationships between wildlife health and urbanization have yet to be quantified, and could vary across health metrics and animal taxonomy. We present a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 516 records spanning 81 wildlife species from 106 studies comparing the toxicant loads, parasitism, body condition, or stress of urban and non-urban wildlife populations in 30 countries. We find a significantly negative...

Data from: Suppression of bacteriocin resistance using live, heterospecific competitors

Amrita Bhattacharya, Alexander Stacy & Farrah Bashey
Rapidly spreading antibiotic resistance has led to the need for novel alternatives and sustainable strategies for antimicrobial use. Bacteriocins are a class of proteinaceous anticompetitor toxins under consideration as novel therapeutic agents. However, bacteriocins, like other antimicrobial agents, are susceptible to resistance evolution, and will require the development of sustainable strategies to prevent or decelerate the evolution of resistance. Here we conduct proof-of-concept experiments to test whether introducing a live, heterospecific competitor along with a...

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