208 Works

Data from: Sedentary songbirds maintain higher prevalence of haemosporidian parasite infections than migratory conspecifics during seasonal sympatry

Samuel P. Slowinski, Adam M. Fudickar, Alex M. Hughes, Raeann D. Mettler, Oxana V. Gorbatenko, Garth M Spellman, Ellen D. Ketterson & Jonathan W. Atwell
Long-distance migrations influence the physiology, behavior, and fitness of migratory animals throughout their annual cycles, and fundamentally alter their interactions with parasites. Several hypotheses relating migratory behavior to the likelihood of parasitism have entered the literature, making conflicting, testable predictions. To assess how migratory behavior of hosts is associated with parasitism, we compared haemosporidian parasite infections between two closely related populations of a common North American sparrow, the dark-eyed junco, that co-occur in shared habitats...

Data from: Predatory lizards perceive plant-derived volatile odorants

Jay K. Goldberg, Genevieve Pintel, Stacey L. Weiss & Emilia P. Martins
Many lizards are olfactory foragers and prey upon herbivorous arthropods, yet their responses to common herbivore‐associated plant volatiles remain unknown. As such, their role in mediating plant indirect defenses also remains largely obscured. In this paper, we use a cotton‐swab odor presentation assay to ask whether lizards respond to two arthropod‐associated plant‐derived volatile compounds: 2‐(E)‐hexenal and hexanoic acid. We studied the response of two lizard species, Sceloporus virgatusand Aspidoscelis exsanguis, because they differ substantially in...

Data from: Rapid evolution rescues hosts from competition and disease but—despite a dilution effect—increases the density of infected hosts

Alexander T. Strauss, Jessica L. Hite, Marta S. Shocket, Carla E. Cáceres, Meghan A. Duffy & Spencer R. Hall
Virulent parasites can depress the densities of their hosts. Taxa that reduce disease via dilution effects might alleviate this burden. However, ‘diluter’ taxa can also depress host densities through competition for shared resources. The combination of disease and interspecific competition could even drive hosts extinct. Then again, genetically variable host populations can evolve in response to both competitors and parasites. Can rapid evolution rescue host density from the harm caused by these ecological enemies? How...

Data from: Virulent disease epidemics can increase host density by depressing foraging of hosts

Rachel Penczykowski, Marta Shocket, Jessica Housley Ochs, Brian Lemanski, Hema Sundar, Meghan Duffy & Spencer Hall
All else equal, parasites that harm host fitness should depress densities of their hosts. However, parasites that alter host traits may increase host density via indirect ecological interactions. Here, we show how depression of foraging rate of infected hosts can produce such a hydra effect. Using a foraging assay, we quantified reduced foraging rates of a zooplankton host infected with a virulent fungal parasite. We then parameterized a dynamical model of hosts, parasites, and resources...

Evolution and plasticity of morph-specific integration in the bull-headed dung beetle Onthophagus taurus

Patrick T. Rohner, Anna Macagno & Armin Moczek
Developmental and evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic variation frequently target several traits simultaneously, thereby causing covariation, or integration, among phenotypes. While phenotypic integration can be neutral, correlational selection can drive adaptive covariation. Especially the evolution and development of exaggerated secondary sexual traits may require the adjustment of other traits that support, compensate for, or otherwise function in a concerted manner. Although phenotypic integration is ubiquitous, the interplay between genetic, developmental, and ecological conditions in shaping integration...

Don’t stand so close to me: microbiota-facilitated enemy release dynamics in introduced Onthophagus taurus dung beetles.

Erik Parker
Microbial symbionts can influence their hosts in stunningly diverse ways. Emerging research suggests that an underappreciated facet of these relationships is the influence microbes can have on their host’s responses to novel, or stressful, environmental conditions. We sought to address these and related questions in populations resulting from the recent introduction and subsequent rapid range expansion of Onthophagus taurus dung beetles. Specifically, we manipulated both microbial communities and rearing temperature to detect signatures of developmental...

The macroecology and evolution of avian competence for Borrelia burgdorferi

Daniel Becker & Barbara Han
Aim: Predicting novel reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens would be improved by identifying inter-specific drivers of host competence, the ability to transmit pathogens to new hosts or vectors. Tick-borne pathogens can provide a useful model system, as larvae become infected only when feeding on a competent host during their first bloodmeal. For tick-borne diseases, competence has been best studied for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), which causes Lyme borreliosis. Major reservoirs include several small mammal species,...

Evolutionary and plastic variation in larval growth and digestion reveal the complex underpinnings of size and age at maturation in dung beetles

Patrick T. Rohner & Armin Moczek
Age and size at maturity are key life history components, yet the proximate underpinnings that mediate intra- and interspecific variation in life history remain poorly understood. We studied the proximate underpinnings of species differences and nutritionally plastic variation in adult size and development time in four species of dung beetles. Specifically, we investigated how variation in insect growth mediates adult size variation, tested whether fast juvenile growth trades-off with developmental stability in adult morphology, and...

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