17 Works

Data from: Parasite resistance predicts fitness better than fecundity in a natural population of the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Dorota Paczesniak, Kirsten Klappert, Kirstin Kopp, Maurine Neiman, Katri Seppälä, Curtis M. Lively & Jukka Jokela
The cost of males should give asexual females an advantage when in competition with sexual females. In addition, high-fecundity asexual genotypes should have an advantage over low-fecundity clones, leading to reduction in clonal diversity over time. To evaluate fitness components in a natural population, we measured the annual reproductive rate of individual sexual and asexual female Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail, in field enclosures that excluded competitors and predators. We used allozyme genotyping...

Multi-dimensional biodiversity hotspots and the future of taxonomic, ecological, and phylogenetic diversity: a case study of North American rodents

Tara Smiley, Pascal Title, Miriam Zelditch & Rebecca Terry
Aim: We investigate geographic patterns across taxonomic, ecological, and phylogenetic diversity to test for spatial (in)congruency and identify aggregate diversity hotspots in relation to present land-use and future climate. Simulating extinctions of imperiled species, we demonstrate where losses across diversity dimensions and geography are predicted. Location: North America Time period: Present-day, future Major taxa studied: Rodentia Methods: Using geographic range maps for rodent species, we quantified spatial patterns for eleven dimensions of diversity: taxonomic (species,...

A Bayesian extension of phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS): incorporating uncertainty in the comparative study of trait relationships and evolutionary rates

Jesualdo Arturo Fuentes González, P. David Polly & Emília P. Martins
Phylogenetic comparative methods use tree topology, branch lengths, and models of phenotypic change to take into account non-independence in statistical analysis. However, these methods normally assume that trees and models are known without error. Approaches relying on evolutionary regimes also assume specific distributions of character states across a tree, which often result from ancestral state reconstructions that are subject to uncertainty. Several methods have been proposed to deal with some of these sources of uncertainty,...

Data from: Serotonin differentially affects morph-specific behavior in divergent populations of a horned beetle

Keeley D. Newsom, Armin P. Moczek & Daniel B. Schwab
Associations between animal weapons and corresponding aggressive behaviors are among the most characteristic features of species, yet at the same time their co-expression is itself often strongly dependent on context, such as male condition or population ecology. Yet the mechanisms that modulate associations between aggression, morphology, and biological context remain poorly understood. The biogenic amine serotonin has been shown to regulate a wide range of aggressive and morph-specific behaviors in diverse insect species. However, the...

Macroimmunology: the drivers and consequences of spatial patterns in wildlife immune defense

Daniel Becker, Gregory Albery, Maureen Kessler, Tamika Lunn, Caylee Falvo, Gábor Czirják, Lynn Martin & Raina Plowright
1. Spatial variation in parasite pressure, abiotic and biotic conditions, and anthropogenic factors can all shape immune phenotypes across spatial scales. Identifying the most important spatial drivers of immunity could help preempt infectious disease risks, especially in the context of how large-scale factors such as urbanization affect defense by changing environmental conditions. 2. We provide a synthesis of how to apply macroecological approaches to the study of ecoimmunology (i.e., macroimmunology). We first review spatial factors...

Rapid reversal of a potentially constraining genetic covariance between leaf and flower traits in Silene latifolia

Janet Steven, Ingrid Anderson, Edmund Brodie & Lynda Delph
Genetic covariance between two traits generates correlated responses to selection, and may either enhance or constrain adaptation. Silene latifolia exhibits potentially constraining genetic covariance between specific leaf area and flower number in males. Flower number is likely to increase via fecundity selection but the correlated increase in specific leaf area increases mortality, and specific leaf area is under selection to decrease in dry habitats. We selected on trait combinations in two selection lines for four...

Data from: Density-dependent fitness, not dispersal movements, drives temporal variation in spatial genetic structure in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)

Eric B. Liebgold, Nicole M. Gerlach & Ellen D. Ketterson
Some studies have found that dispersal rates and distances increase with density, indicating that density-dependent dispersal likely affects spatial genetic structure. In an 11-year mark-recapture study on a passerine, the dark-eyed junco, we tested whether density affected dispersal distance and/or fine-scale spatial genetic structure. Contrary to expectations, we found no effect of pre-dispersal density on dispersal distance or the proportion of locally-produced juveniles returning to the population from which they hatched. However, even though density...

Herbivore-mediated negative frequency-dependent selection underlies a trichome dimorphism in nature

Jay Goldberg, Curtis Lively, Genevieve Pintel, Sonya Sternlieb, J. Hare, Michael Morrissey & Lynda Delph
Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) has been shown to maintain polymorphism in a diverse array of traits. The action of NFDS has been confirmed through modelling, experimental approaches, and genetic analyses. In this study, we investigated NFDS in the wild using morph-frequency changes spanning a 20-year period from over 30 dimorphic populations of Datura wrightii. In these populations plants either possess glandular (sticky) or non-glandular (velvety) trichomes, and the ratio of these morphs varies substantially among...

Data from: Multispecies conservation of freshwater fish assemblages in response to climate change in the southeastern United States

Michelle VanCompernolle, Jason H. Knouft & Darren L. Ficklin
Aim: Streamflow and water temperature are primary variables influencing the distribution of freshwater taxa. Climate-induced changes in these variables are already causing shifts in species distributions, with continued changes projected in the coming decades. The Mobile River Basin (MRB), located in the southeastern United States, contains some of the highest levels of temperate freshwater biodiversity in North America. We integrated species distribution data with contemporary and future streamflow and water temperature data as well as...

Intraspecific mating system evolution and its effect on complex male secondary sexual traits: does male-male competition increase selection on size or shape?

Julian Baur, Jeannine Roy, Martin A. Schäfer, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Patrick T. Rohner
Sexual selection is generally held responsible for the exceptional diversity in secondary sexual traits in animals. Mating system evolution is therefore expected to profoundly affect the covariation between secondary sexual traits and mating success. While there is such evidence at the interspecific level, data within species remain scarce. We here investigate sexual selection acting on the exaggerated male fore femur and the male wing in the common and widespread dung flies Sepsis punctum and S....

Data from: Controlled clinical trial of canine therapy versus usual care to reduce patient anxiety in the emergency department

Jeffrey A. Kline
Objective: Test if therapy dogs can reduce anxiety in emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: In this controlled clinical trial (NCT03471429), medically stable, adult patients were approached if the physician believed that the patient had “moderate or greater anxiety.” Patients were allocated on a 1:1 ratio to either 15 min exposure to a certified therapy dog and handler (dog), or usual care (control). Patient reported anxiety, pain and depression were assessed using a 0-10 scale (10=worst)....

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Desiccation resistance and pigmentation variation reflects bioclimatic differences in the Drosophila americana species complex

Jeremy S Davis & Leonie Moyle
Background: Disentangling the selective factors shaping adaptive trait variation is an important but challenging task. Many studies—especially in Drosophila—have documented trait variation along latitudinal or altitudinal clines, but frequently lack resolution about specific environmental gradients that could be causal selective agents, and often do not investigate covariation between traits simultaneously. Here we examined variation in multiple macroecological factors across geographic space and their associations with variation in three physiological traits (desiccation resistance, UV resistance, and...

Genotypic variation in parasite avoidance behavior and other mechanistic, non-linear components of transmission

Alexander Strauss
Traditional epidemiological models assume that transmission increases proportionally to the density of parasites. However, empirical data frequently contradict this assumption. General yet mechanistic models can explain why transmission depends non-linearly on parasite density and thereby identify potential defensive strategies of hosts. For example, hosts could decrease their exposure rates at higher parasite densities (via behavioral avoidance) or decrease their per-parasite susceptibility when encountering more parasites (e.g., via stronger immune responses). To illustrate, we fit mechanistic...

Data from: City sicker? a meta-analysis of wildlife health and urbanization

Maureen H. Murray, Cecilia A. Sanchez, Daniel J. Becker, Kaylee A. Byers, Katherine E. L. Worsley-Tonks & Meggan E. Craft
Urban development can alter resource availability, land use, and community composition, in turn influencing wildlife health. Generalizable relationships between wildlife health and urbanization have yet to be quantified, and could vary across health metrics and animal taxonomy. We present a phylogenetic meta-analysis of 516 records spanning 81 wildlife species from 106 studies comparing the toxicant loads, parasitism, body condition, or stress of urban and non-urban wildlife populations in 30 countries. We find a significantly negative...

Data from: Suppression of bacteriocin resistance using live, heterospecific competitors

Amrita Bhattacharya, Alexander Stacy & Farrah Bashey
Rapidly spreading antibiotic resistance has led to the need for novel alternatives and sustainable strategies for antimicrobial use. Bacteriocins are a class of proteinaceous anticompetitor toxins under consideration as novel therapeutic agents. However, bacteriocins, like other antimicrobial agents, are susceptible to resistance evolution, and will require the development of sustainable strategies to prevent or decelerate the evolution of resistance. Here we conduct proof-of-concept experiments to test whether introducing a live, heterospecific competitor along with a...

Data from: Predatory lizards perceive plant-derived volatile odorants

Jay K. Goldberg, Genevieve Pintel, Stacey L. Weiss & Emilia P. Martins
Many lizards are olfactory foragers and prey upon herbivorous arthropods, yet their responses to common herbivore‐associated plant volatiles remain unknown. As such, their role in mediating plant indirect defenses also remains largely obscured. In this paper, we use a cotton‐swab odor presentation assay to ask whether lizards respond to two arthropod‐associated plant‐derived volatile compounds: 2‐(E)‐hexenal and hexanoic acid. We studied the response of two lizard species, Sceloporus virgatusand Aspidoscelis exsanguis, because they differ substantially in...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    17

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    17

Affiliations

  • Indiana University Bloomington
    17
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • National University of Singapore
    2
  • University of Montana
    1
  • Guangxi Institute of Botany
    1
  • Utah State University
    1
  • Columbia University
    1
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
    1
  • Christopher Newport University
    1
  • Field Museum of Natural History
    1