15 Works

Data from: Heterozygosity is linked to the costs of immunity in nestling great tits (Parus major)

Beatrice Voegeli, Verena Saladin, Michèle Wegmann & Heinz Richner
There is growing evidence that heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) are more pronounced under harsh conditions. Empirical evidence suggests a mediating effect of parasite infestation on the occurrence of HFCs. Parasites have the potential to mediate HFCs not only by generally causing high stress levels but also by inducing resource allocation tradeoffs between the necessary investments in immunity and other costly functions. To investigate the relative importance of these two mechanisms, we manipulated growth conditions of great...

Data from: Divergent evolutionary processes associated with colonization of offshore islands

Natália Martínková, Ross Barnett, Thomas Cucchi, Rahel Struchen, Marine Pascal, Michel Pascal, Martin C. Fischer, Thomas Higham, Selina Brace, Simon Y. W. Ho, Jean-Pierre Quéré, Paul O'Higgins, Laurent Excoffier, Gerald Heckel, A. Rus Hoelzel, Keith M. Dobney & Jeremy B. Searle
Oceanic islands have been a test ground for evolutionary theory, but here, we focus on the possibilities for evolutionary study created by offshore islands. These can be colonized through various means and by a wide range of species, including those with low dispersal capabilities. We use morphology, modern and ancient sequences of cytochrome b (cytb) and microsatellite genotypes to examine colonization history and evolutionary change associated with occupation of the Orkney archipelago by the common...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Repeated and predictable patterns of ecotypic differentiation during a biological invasion: lake-stream divergence in parapatric Swiss stickleback

Kay Lucek, Arjun Sivasundar, Denis Roy & Ole Seehausen
The relative importance of ecological selection and geographical isolation in promoting and constraining genetic and phenotypic differentiation among populations is not always obvious. Interacting with divergent selection, restricted opportunity for gene flow may in some cases be as much a cause as a consequence of adaptation, with the latter being a hallmark of ecological speciation. Ecological speciation is well studied in parts of the native range of the three-spined stickleback. Here, we study this process...

Data from: Relaxed trait covariance in interspecific cichlid hybrids predicts morphological diversity in adaptive radiations

Oliver M. Selz, Kay Lucek, Kyle A. Young & Ole Seehausen
The process of adaptive radiation involves multiple events of speciation in short succession, associated with ecological diversification. Understanding this process requires identifying the origins of heritable phenotypic variation that allows adaptive radiation to progress. Hybridization is one source of genetic and morphological variation that may spur adaptive radiation. We experimentally explored the potential role of hybridization in facilitating the onset of adaptive radiation. We generated first- and second-generation hybrids of four species of African cichlid...

Data from: The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming

Willy Tinner, Daniele Colombaroli, Oliver Heiri, Paul Henne, Marco Steinacher, Johanna Untenecker, Elisa Vescovi, Judy Allen, Gabriele Carraro, Marco Conedera, Fortunat Joos, André Lotter, Jürg Luterbacher, Stephanie Samartin & Verushka Valsecchi
Paleoecology can provide valuable insights into the ecology of species that complement observation and experiment-based assessments of climate-impact dynamics. New paleoecological records (e.g. pollen, macrofossils) from the Italian Peninsula suggest a much wider climatic niche of the important European tree species Abies alba (silver fir) than observed in its present spatial range. To explore this discrepancy between current and past distribution we analyse climatic data (e.g. temperature, precipitation, frost, humidity, sunshine) and vegetation-independent paleoclimatic reconstructions...

Data from: Hybridisation increases invasive knotweed success

Madalin Parepa, Markus Fischer, Christine Krebs & Oliver Bossdorf
Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we...

Data from: Transient dominance in a central African rain forest

David McClintock Newbery, Xander M. Van Der Burgt, Martin Worbes & George B. Chuyong
The large-crowned emergent tree Microberlinia bisulcata dominates rainforest groves at Korup, along with two co-dominants Tetraberlinia bifoliolata and T. korupensis. M. bisulcata has a pronounced modal size frequency distribution around ~110 cm stem diameter: its recruitment potential is very poor. It is a long-lived light-demanding species, one of many found in African forests. Tetraberlinia species lack modality, are more shade-tolerant and recruit better. All three species are ectomycorrhizal. M. bisulcata dominates grove basal area, even...

Data from: Phylogeography of Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera L.) across China: aggregate effects of refugia, introgression and riverine barriers

Lu Dong, Gerald Heckel, Wei Liang & Yanyun Zhang
The role of Pleistocene glacial cycles in forming the contemporary genetic structure of organisms has been well studied in China with a particular focus on the Tibetan Plateau. However, China has a complex topography and diversity of local climates, and how glacial cycles may have shaped the subtropical and tropical biota of the region remains mostly unaddressed. To investigate the factors that affected the phylogeography and population history of a widely distributed and nondeciduous forest...

Data from: Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder

Markus Zöttl, Joachim Frommen, Michael Taborsky, J. G. Frommen & M. Zottl
Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximise the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response...

Data from: Asymmetric effects of loss and gain of a floral trait on pollinator preference

Alexandre Dell'olivo & Cris Kuhlemeier
Shifts in pollination syndromes involve coordinated changes in multiple floral traits. This raises the question of how plants can cope with rapid changes in pollinator availability by the slow process of accumulation of mutations in multiple genes. Here we study the transition from bee to hawkmoth pollination in the genus Petunia. Interspecific crosses followed by single locus introgressions were used to recreate putative intermediate evolutionary stages in the evolution of moth pollination. The effect of...

Data from: Gene flow and the maintenance of species boundaries

Erica L. Larson, Thomas A. White, Charles L. Ross & Richard G. Harrison
Hybrid zones are regions where individuals from genetically differentiated populations meet and mate, resulting in at least some offspring of mixed ancestry. Patterns of gene flow (introgression) in hybrid zones vary across the genome, allowing assessment of the role of individual genes or genome regions in reproductive isolation. Here, we document patterns of introgression between two recently diverged species of field crickets. We sample at a very fine spatial scale and genotype crickets for 110...

Data from: Structure and dynamics of hybrid zones at multiple stages of speciation in the common vole (Microtus arvalis)

Mathias Beysard & Gerald Heckel
The genetic structure and dynamics of hybrid zones provides crucial information for the understanding of the processes and mechanisms of evolutionary divergence and speciation. In general, higher levels of evolutionary divergence between taxa are more likely to be associated with reproductive isolation and may result in suppressed or strongly restricted hybridization. In this study, we examined the structure and processes in two secondary contact zones between three deep evolutionary lineages in the common vole (Microtus...

Data from: Adaptive evolution during an ongoing range expansion: the invasive bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland.

Thomas A. White, Sarah E. Perkins, Gerald Heckel & Jeremy B. Searle
Range expansions are extremely common, but have only recently begun to attract attention in terms of their genetic consequences. As populations expand, demes at the wave front experience strong genetic drift, which is expected to reduce genetic diversity and potentially cause 'allele surfing', where alleles may become fixed over a wide geographic area even if their effects are deleterious. Previous simulation models show that range expansions can generate very strong selective gradients on dispersal, reproduction,...

Data from: The Oxytricha trifallax macronuclear genome: a complex eukaryotic genome with 16,000 tiny chromosomes

Estienne C. Swart, John R. Bracht, Vincent Magrini, Patrick Minx, Xiao Chen, Yi Zhou, Jaspreet S. Khurana, Aaron D. Goldman, Mariusz Nowacki, Klaas Schotanus, Seolkyoung Jung, Robert S. Fulton, Amy Ly, Sean McGrath, Kevin Haub, Jessica L. Wiggins, Donna Storton, John C. Matese, Lance Parsons, Wei-Jen Chang, Michael S. Bowen, Nicholas A. Stover, Thomas A. Jones, Sean R. Eddy, Thomas G. Doak … & Laura F. Landweber
The macronuclear genome of the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax displays an extreme and unique eukaryotic genome architecture with extensive genomic variation. During sexual genome development, the expressed, somatic macronuclear genome is whittled down to the genic portion of a small fraction (~5%) of its precursor “silent” germline micronuclear genome by a process of “unscrambling” and fragmentation. The tiny macronuclear “nanochromosomes” typically encode single, protein-coding genes (a small portion, 10%, encode 2–8 genes), have minimal noncoding regions,...

Registration Year

  • 2013
    15

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    15

Affiliations

  • University of Bern
    15
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
    4
  • Durham University
    2
  • Cornell University
    2
  • National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
    1
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • Princeton University
    1
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    1
  • University of Georgia
    1