42 Works

Data from: Independent evolution of ancestral and novel defenses in a genus of toxic plants (Erysimum, Brassicaceae)

Tobias Züst, Susan Strickler, Adrian Powell, Makenzie Mabry, Hong An, Mahdieh Mirzaei, Thomas York, Cynthia Holland, Pavan Kumar, Matthias Erb, Georg Petschenka, José-María Gomez, Francisco Perfectti, Caroline Mueller, Chris Pires, Lukas Mueller & Georg Jander
Phytochemical diversity is thought to result from coevolutionary cycles as specialization in herbivores imposes diversifying selection on plant chemical defenses. Plants in the speciose genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) produce both ancestral glucosinolates and evolutionarily novel cardenolides as defenses. Here we test macroevolutionary hypotheses on co-expression, co-regulation, and diversification of these potentially redundant defenses across this genus. We sequenced and assembled the genome of E. cheiranthoides and foliar transcriptomes of 47 additional Erysimum species to construct a...

Chironomid-based temperature reconstruction from Burgäschisee, Switzerland

Alexander Bolland, Fabian Rey, Erika Gobet, Willy Tinner & Oliver Heiri
The data herein presents a new chironomid record and associated chironomid-based temperature reconstruction covering the time interval 18,000-14,000 cal. BP from the lacustrine sediments of a kettle hole lake Burgäschisee, Switzerland. Chironomid assemblages show ecological turnover beginning 1,300 years before the onset of the Oldest Dryas / Bølling transition at ca. 14,700 cal. BP and associated increases in chironomid-based temperature reconstructions. These data also include non-chironomid invertebrate remains, including Ceratopogonidae, Daphnia and Ephemeroptera as well...

Data from: Heritable variation in root secondary metabolites is associated with recent climate

Zoe Bont, Tobias Züst, Carla Arce, Meret Huber & Matthias Erb
1. Plants can adapt to changing environments by adjusting the production and maintenance of diverse sets of bioactive secondary metabolites. To date, the impact of climatic conditions relative to other factors such as soil abiotic factors and herbivore pressure on the evolution of plant secondary metabolites is poorly understood, especially for plant roots. 2. We explored associations between root latex secondary metabolites in 63 Taraxacum officinale populations across Switzerland and climatic conditions, soil abiotic parameters,...

Data from: When does gene flow facilitate evolutionary rescue?

Matteo Tomasini & Stephan Peischl
Experimental and theoretical studies have highlighted the impact of gene flow on the probability of evolutionary rescue in structured habitats. Mathematical modelling and simulations of evolutionary rescue in spatially or otherwise structured populations showed that intermediate migration rates can often maximize the probability of rescue in gradually or abruptly deteriorating habitats. These theoretical results corroborate the positive effect of gene flow on evolutionary rescue that has been identified in experimental yeast populations. The observations that...

Data from: Adaptation via pleiotropy and linkage: association mapping reveals a complex genetic architecture within the stickleback Eda locus

Sophie Archambeault, Luis Bärtschi, Aurélie Merminod & Catherine Peichel
Genomic mapping of the loci associated with phenotypic evolution has revealed genomic “hotspots”, or regions of the genome that control multiple phenotypic traits. This clustering of loci has important implications for the speed and maintenance of adaptation and could be due to pleiotropic effects of a single mutation or tight genetic linkage of multiple causative mutations affecting different traits. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a powerful model for the study of adaptive evolution because...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data from: Sick plants in grassland communities: a growth-defense trade-off is the main driver of fungal pathogen abundance

Seraina Lisa Cappelli, Noémie Anna Pichon, Anne Kempel & Eric Allan
Aboveground fungal pathogens can substantially reduce biomass production in grasslands. However, we lack a mechanistic understanding of the drivers of fungal pathogen infection and impact. Using a grassland global change and biodiversity experiment we show that the trade-off between plant growth and defense is the main determinant of infection incidence. In contrast, nitrogen addition only indirectly increased incidence via shifting plant communities towards faster growing species. Plant diversity did not decrease incidence, likely because spillover...

Data from: Adapted dandelions trade dispersal for germination upon root herbivore attack

Zoe Bont, Marc Pfander, Christelle Robert, Meret Huber, Erik Poelman, Ciska Raaijmakers & Matthias Erb
A plant’s offspring may escape unfavourable local conditions through seed dispersal. Whether plants use this strategy to escape insect herbivores is not well understood. Here, we explore how different dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) populations, including diploid outcrossers and triploid apomicts, modify seed dispersal in response to root herbivore attack by their main root-feeding natural enemy, the larvae of the common cockchafer Melolontha melolontha. In a manipulative field experiment, root herbivore attack increased seed dispersal potential...

The sodium/proton exchanger NHA2 regulates blood pressure through a WNK4-NCC dependent pathway in the kidney

Daniel Fuster, Manuel Anderegg, Giuseppe Albano, Daniela Hanke, Christine Deisl, Dominik E. Uehlinger, Simone Brandt, Rajesh Bhardwaj & Matthias A. Hediger
NHA2 is sodium/hydrogen exchanger that was associated with arterial hypertension in humans, but the role of NHA2 in kidney function and blood pressure homeostasis is currently unknown. Here we show that NHA2 localizes almost exclusively to distal convoluted tubules in the kidney. NHA2 knock-out mice displayed reduced blood pressure, normocalcemic hypocalciuria and an attenuated response to the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium/chloride cotransporter NCC and its upstream activating kinase Ste20/SPS1-related proline/alaninerich kinase...

Predator-induced maternal effects via eggs shape offspring behaviour and their expression of growth genes in a highly social fish

Sakshi Sharda, Tobias Zuest, Matthias Erb & Barbara Taborsky
Predator-induced non-genetic maternal effects may influence how offspring cope with predation theat. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms and the stages in ontogeny when these take effect effects operate are still largely unresolved. In this integrative study, we investigated maternal effects via egg composition on offspring gene expression, growth, survival and anti-predator escape behaviour. We exposed pairs of the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologous pulcher to visual and chemical cues of its natural predator Lepidolamprogous elongatus, or...

Imagining a `‘Buddhist Government‘ ’ (mo. törö šasin) in seventeenth century Mongolia/ MONGOLICA XXIII №1

Karenina Kollmar-Paulenz

The genome of Draba nivalis shows signatures of adaptation to the extreme environmental stresses of the Arctic

Michael Nowak, Siri Birkeland, Terezie Mandáková, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Xinyi Guo, Lovisa Gustafsson, Abel Gizaw, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Marco Fracassetti, Anne Brysting, Loren Rieseberg, Tanja Slotte, Christian Parisod, Martin Lysak & Christian Brochmann
The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here we present the first complete genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that...

Globally, plant-soil feedbacks are weak predictors of plant abundance

Kurt Reinhart, Jonathan Bauer, Sarah McCarthy-Neumann, Andrew MacDougall, José Hierro, Mariana Chiuffo, Scott Mangan, Johannes Heinze, Joana Bergmann, Jasmin Joshi, Richard Duncan, Jeff Diaz, Paul Kardol, Gemma Rutten, Markus Fischer, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Bezemer & John Klironomos
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here, we synthesize PSF experiments from tropical forests to semiarid grasslands, and test for a positive relationship between plant abundance in the field and PSFs...

Experimental predator intrusions in a cooperative breeder reveal threat-dependent task partitioning

Dario Josi, Annika Freudiger, Michael Taborsky & Joachim G. Frommen
In cooperatively breeding species, non-breeding individuals provide alloparental care and help in territory maintenance and defence. Antipredator behaviours of subordinates can enhance offspring survival, which may provide direct and indirect fitness benefits to all group members. Helping abilities and involved costs and benefits, risks and outside options (e.g. breeding independently) usually diverge between group members, which calls for status-specific differentiated behavioural responses. Such role differentiation within groups may generate task-specific division of labour, as exemplified...

Light availability and light demand of plants shape the arbuscular fungal communities in their roots

Lena Neuenkamp, Martin Zobel, Kadri Koorem, Teele Jairus, John Davison, Maarj Öpik, Martti Vasar & Mari Moora
Plants involved in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis trade photosynthetically derived carbon for fungal-provided soil nutrients. However, little is known about how plant light demand and ambient light conditions influence root-associating AM fungal communities. We conducted a manipulative field experiment to test whether plants’ shade tolerance influences their root AM fungal communities in open and shaded grassland sites. We found similar light-dependent shifts shifts in AM fungal community structure for experimental bait plant roots and...

Data from: Plasticity via feedback reduces the cost of developmental instability

Remi Matthey-Doret
Costs of plasticity are thought to have important physiological and evolutionary consequences. A commonly predicted cost to plasticity is that plastic genotypes are likely to suffer from developmental instability. Adaptive plasticity requires that the developing organism can in some way sense what environment it is in or how well it is performing in that environment. These two information pathways—an “environmental signal” or a “performance signal” that indicates how well a developing phenotype matches the optimum...

Deer density drives habitat use of establishing wolves in the Western European Alps

Stefanie Roder, François Biollaz, Stéphane Mettaz, Fridolin Zimmermann, Ralph Manz, Marc Kery, Sergio Vignali, Luca Fumagalli, Raphaël Arlettaz & Veronika Braunisch
1. The return of top carnivores to their historical range triggers conflicts with the interests of different stakeholder groups. Anticipating such conflicts is key to appropriate conservation management, which calls for reliable spatial predictions of future carnivore occurrence. Previous models have assessed general habitat suitability for wolves, but the factors driving the settlement of dispersing individuals remain ill-understood. In particular, little attention has been paid to the role of prey availability in the recolonization process....

The weakest link: Haploid honey bees are more susceptible to neonicotinoid insecticides

Lars Straub, Andrea Friedli, Geoffrey R. Williams, Selina Bruckner & Peter Neumann
Neonicotinoid insecticides are currently of major concern for the health of wild and managed insects that provide key ecosystem services like pollination. Even though sublethal effects of neonicotinoids are well known, there is surprisingly little information on how they possibly impact developmental stability, and to what extent genetics are involved. This holds especially true for haploid individuals because they are hemizygous at detoxification loci and may be more susceptible. Here we take advantage of haplodiploidy...

Eco-genetic additivity of diploids in allopolyploid wild wheats

Christian Parisod, Stella Huynh, Olivier Broennimann, Antoine Guisan & Francois Felber
Underpinnings of the distribution of allopolyploid species (hybrids with duplicated genome) along spatial and ecological gradients are elusive. As allopolyploid speciation combines the range of genetic and ecological characteristics of divergent diploids, allopolyploids initially show their additivity and are predicted to evolve differentiated ecological niches to establish in face of their competition. Here, we use four diploid wild wheats that differentially combined into four independent allopolyploid species to test for such additivity and assess the...

The super-rich and cropland expansion via direct investments in agriculture

Michele Graziano Ceddia
Cropland expansion represents an important cause of tropical deforestation, contributing to the loss of ecosystems’ functions. Flex-crops (e.g., oil palm, soy, sugar cane) account for an increasing share of cropland and contribute significantly to carbon emissions and biodiversity loss. Various forms of inequality have been shown to impact on agricultural expansion, yet the effect of wealth concentration among the super-rich is understudied. Here I show how, over the period 1991-2014, the large amount of wealth...

Decomposition disentangled: a test of the multiple mechanisms by which nitrogen enrichment alters litter decomposition

Eric Allan, Noémie Pichon, Seraina Cappelli, Santiago Soliveres, Norbert Hölzel, Valentin Klaus & Till Kleinebecker
Nitrogen (N) enrichment has direct effects on ecosystem functioning by altering soil abiotic conditions and indirect effects by reducing plant diversity and shifting plant functional composition from dominance by slow to fast growing species. Litter decomposition is a key ecosystem function and is affected by N enrichment either by a change in litter quality (the recalcitrance of the plant material) or through a change in soil quality (the abiotic and biotic components of the soil...

Data from: The effect of root-associated microbes on plant growth and chemical defence traits across two contrasted elevations,

Ludovico Formenti, Veronica Caggia, Jeremy Puissant, Tim Goodall, Gaëtan Glauser, Robert Griffiths & Sergio Rasmann
1. Ecotypic differences in plant growth and anti-herbivore defence phenotypes are determined by the complex interactions between the abiotic and the biotic environment. 2. Root-associated microbes (RAMs) are pervasive in nature, vary over climatic gradients, and have been shown to influence the expression of multiple plant functional traits related to biomass accumulation and biotic interactions. We addressed how variation in climatic conditions between lowland and sub-alpine habitats in the Alps and RAMs can independently or...

Secondary contact zones of closely-related Erebia butterflies overlap with narrow phenotypic and parasitic clines

Kay Lucek, Roger Butlin & Theofania Patsiou
Zones of secondary contact between closely related taxa are a common legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Despite their abundance, the factors that keep species apart and prevent hybridisation are often unknown. Here we study a very narrow contact zone between three closely related butterfly species of the Erebia tyndarus species complex. Using genomic data, we first determined if gene flow occurs and then assessed whether it might be hampered by differences in chromosome number...

Fine-scale empirical data on niche divergence and homeolog expression patterns in an allopolyploid and its diploid progenitor species

Reiko Akiyama, Jainqiang Sun, Masaomi Hatakeyama, Heidi Lischer, Roman Briskine, Angela Hay, Xiangchao Gan, Miltos Tsiantis, Hiroshi Kudoh, Masahiro Kanaoka, Jun Sese, Kentaro Shimizu & Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi
Polyploidization is pervasive in plants, but little is known about the niche divergence of wild allopolyploids (species that harbor polyploid genomes originating from different diploid species) relative to their diploid progenitor species and the gene expression patterns that may underlie such ecological divergence. We conducted a fine-scale empirical study on habitat and gene expression of an allopolyploid and its diploid progenitors. We quantified soil properties and light availability of habitats of an allotetraploid Cardamine flexuosa...

Data from: Disentangling the spatial and temporal causes of decline in a bird population

Floriane Plard, Raphaël Arlettaz, Alain Jacot & Michael Schaub
The difficulties in understanding the underlying reasons of a population decline lie in the typical short duration of field studies, the often too small size already reached by a declining population or the multitude of environmental factors that may influence population trend. In this difficult context, useful demographic tools such as integrated population models (IPM) may help disentangling the main reasons for a population decline. To understand why a hoopoe Upupa epops population has declined,...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    42

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    40
  • Text
    2

Affiliations

  • University of Bern
    42
  • Netherlands Institute of Ecology
    4
  • University of Münster
    3
  • University of Neuchâtel
    3
  • University of British Columbia
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
    2
  • University of Göttingen
    2
  • University of Zurich
    2