33 Works

Data from: Tillage and herbicide reduction mitigate the gap between conventional and organic farming effects on foraging activity of insectivorous bats

Kévin Barré, Isabelle Le Viol, Romain Julliard, François Chiron & Christian Kerbiriou
The increased use of pesticides and tillage intensification is known to negatively affect biodiversity. Changes in these agricultural practices such as herbicide and tillage reduction have variable effects among taxa, especially at the top of the trophic network including insectivorous bats. Very few studies compared the effects of agricultural practices on such taxa, and overall, only as a comparison of conventional versus organic farming without accurately accounting for underlying practices, especially in conventional where many...

Data from: Effects of riparian forest harvest on streams: a meta-analysis

John S. Richardson & Salomé Béraud
1. Riparian forest harvesting impacts streams in many ways, from altering temperature regimes, shifting geomorphic structure, increasing sediment fluxes and affecting fish populations. However, we have noted considerable variation in the results between studies that led us to ask whether the effects of forest harvesting on streams were consistent between studies. We used meta-analysis of 34 replicated studies to address the effects of riparian logging on biological and chemical components of streams in contrast to...

Data from: The cost of growing large: sex-specific costs of post-weaning growth on body mass senescence in a wild mammal

Frédéric Douhard, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Maryline Pellerin, Laurent Jacob & Jean-François Lemaître
Individual body mass often positively correlates with survival and reproductive success, whereas fitness costs of growing large are rarely detected in vertebrates in the wild. Evidence that adult body mass progressively declines with increasing age is accumulating across mammalian populations. Growing fast to a large body can increase the cellular damage accumulated throughout life, leading body growth in early life to be negatively associated with the rate of body mass senescence. Moreover, the onset of...

Data from: Contagious fear: escape behaviour increases with flock size in European gregarious birds

Federico Morelli, Yanina Benedetti, Mario Diaz, Tomas Grim, Juan Ibáñez-Álamo, Jukka Jokimäki, Marja-Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, Kunter Tätte, Gábor Markó, Yiting Jiang, Piotr Tryjanowski & Anders P. Møller
Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which individuals take flight when approached by a potential (human) predator, is a tool for understanding predator-prey interactions. Among the factors affecting FID, tests of effects of group size (i.e. number of potential prey) on FID have yielded contrasting results. Group size or flock size could either affect FID negatively (i.e. the dilution effect caused by the presence of many individuals) or positively (i.e. increased vigilance due to...

Data from: Inference of adaptive shifts for multivariate correlated traits

Paul Bastide, Cecile Ane, Stéphane Robin & Mahendra Mariadassou
To study the evolution of several quantitative traits, the classical phylogenetic comparative framework consists of a multivariate random process running along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process is sometimes preferred to the simple Brownian Motion (BM) as it models stabilizing selection toward an optimum. The optimum for each trait is likely to be changing over the long periods of time spanned by large modern phylogenies. Our goal is to automatically detect...

Data from: Biological traits, rather than environment, shape detection curves of large vertebrates in neotropical rainforests

Thomas Denis, Cécile Richard-Hansen, Olivier Brunaux, Marie-Pierre Etienne, Stéphane Guitet & Bruno Hérault
Line transect surveys are widely used in neotropical rainforests to estimate the population abundance of medium- and large-sized vertebrates. The use of indices such as Encounter Rate has been criticized because the probability of animal detection may fluctuate due to the heterogeneity of environmental conditions among sites. In addition, the morphological and behavioral characteristics (biological traits) of species affect their detectability. In this study, we compared the extent to which environmental conditions and species’ biological...

Data from: Feedback between environment and traits under selection in a seasonal environment: consequences for experimental evolution

Dorian Collot, Thibault Nidelet, Johan Ramsayer, Olivier Martin, Sylvie Méléard, Christine Dillmann, Delphine Sicard, Judith Legrand & Olivier C. Martin
Batch cultures are frequently used in experimental evolution. Even though they are generally considered to simply drive a growth rate increase, traits evolution can be more complex. Indeed, recurrent batches form a seasonal environment as different phases repeat periodically and different traits can be under selection in the different seasons. Moreover, during culture the impact of organisms on the environment is important since the system is closed. Thus, the study of adaptation should take into...

Data from: Fungal adaptation to contemporary fungicide applications: the case of Botrytis cinerea populations from Champagne vineyards (France)

Anne-Sophie Walker, Virginie Ravigné, Adrien Rieux, S. Ali, F. Carpentier, Elisabeth Fournier, V. Ravigne & A.-S. Walker
In addition to being one of the most acute problems impeding chemical control of fungal diseases, the evolution of fungicide resistance is an emblematic case of local adaptation to spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable selection pressures. Here we dissected the adaptation of Botrytis cinerea (the causal agent of grey mould) populations on grapes to several fungicides. We carried out a 2-year survey (four collection dates) on three treated/untreated pairs of plots from vineyards in Champagne...

Data from: Ecological mechanisms and phylogeny shape invertebrate stoichiometry: a test using detritus-based communities across Central and South America

Angélica L. González, Régis Céréghino, Olivier Dézerald, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Céline Leroy, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Gustavo Q. Romero & Diane S. Srivastava
1. Stoichiometric differences among organisms can affect trophic interactions and rates of nutrient cycling within ecosystems. However, we still know little about either the underlying causes of these stoichiometric differences, or the consistency of these differences across large geographic extents. 2. Here we analyze elemental (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) composition of 872 aquatic macroinvertebrates (71 species) inhabiting tank bromeliads (n = 140) from five distantly located sites across Central and South America to (1) test phylogenetic,...

Data from: Balancing yield with resilience and conservation objectives in harvested predator-prey communities

Eric Tromeur & Nicolas Loeuille
The global overexploitation of fish stocks is endangering many marine food webs. Scientists and managers now call for an ecosystem-based fisheries management, able to take into account the complexity of marine ecosystems and the multiple ecosystem services they provide. By contrast, many fishery management plans only focus on maximizing the productivity of harvested stocks. Such practices are suggested to affect other ecosystem services, altering the integrity and resilience of natural communities. Here we show that...

Data from: How persistent are the impacts of logging roads on Central African forest vegetation?

Fritz Kleinschroth, John R. Healey, Plinio Sist, Frédéric Mortier & Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury
1. Logging roads can trigger tropical forest degradation by reducing the integrity of the ecosystem and providing access for encroachment. Therefore, road-management is crucial in reconciling selective logging and biodiversity conservation. Most logging roads are abandoned after timber harvesting, however little is known about their long-term impacts on forest vegetation and accessibility, especially in Central Africa. 2. In 11 logging concessions in the Congo Basin we field-sampled a chronosequence of roads that, judged by satellite...

Data from: Effects of interspecific coexistence on laying date and clutch size in two closely related species of hole‐nesting birds

Anders Pape Møller, Javier Balbontin, André A. Dhondt, Vladimir Remeš, Frank Adriaensen, Clotilde Biard, Jordi Camprodon, Mariusz Cichoń, Blandine Doligez, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Anne E. Goodenough, Andrew G. Gosler, Lars Gustafsson, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A. Hinsley, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Toni Laaksonen, Bernard Leclercq, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Rudi G. Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson … & Ruedi G. Nager
Coexistence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole‐nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co‐occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variations in coexistence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across...

Data from: Sympatry and interference of divergent Microbotryum pathogen species.

Michael E Hood, Janis Antonovics, Monroe Wolf, Zachariah L Stern, Tatiana Giraud & Jessie L Abbate
The impact of infectious diseases in natural ecosystems is strongly influenced by the degree of pathogen specialization and by the local assemblies of potential host species. This study investigated anther-smut disease, caused by fungi in the genus Microbotryum, among natural populations of plants in the Caryophyllaceae. A broad geographic survey focused on sites of the disease on multiple host species in sympatry. Analysis of molecular identities for the pathogens revealed that sympatric disease was most...

Data from: The ecological significance of extremely large flocks of birds

Anders Pape Møller & Karsten Laursen
Population size is generally limited by resource availability during and outside the breeding season. Therefore, maximum size of flocks may provide important information on population regulation and the influence of diet and trophic level on maximal degree of sociality. We hypothesized that (a) flock size should increase with nutrient availability; (b) flock size should decrease with latitude because productivity is higher at lower latitude; (c) aquatic habitats should have larger flocks than terrestrial habitats because...

Data from: Combining noninvasive genetics and a new mammalian sex-linked marker provides new tools to investigate population size, structure and individual behaviour: an application to bats

Diane Zarzoso-Lacoste, Pierre-Loup Jan, Lisa Lehnen, Thomas Girard, Anne-Laure Besnard, Sebastien J. Puechmaille & Eric J. Petit
Monitoring wild populations is crucial for their effective management. Noninvasive genetic methods provide robust data from individual free-ranging animals, which can be used in capture-mark-recapture (CMR) models to estimate demographic parameters without capturing or disturbing them. However, sex- and status-specific behaviour, which may lead to differences in detection probabilities, is rarely considered in monitoring. Here, we investigated population size, sex ratio, sex- and status-related behaviour in 19 Rhinolophus hipposideros maternity colonies (Northern France) with a...

Data from: Phylogenetic comparative methods on phylogenetic networks with reticulations

Paul Bastide, Claudia Solis-Lemus, Ricardo Kriebel, Kenneth William Sparks & Cécile Ané
The goal of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods (PCMs) is to study the distribution of quantitative traits among related species. The observed traits are often seen as the result of a Brownian Motion (BM) along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. Reticulation events such as hybridization, gene flow or horizontal gene transfer, can substantially affect a species' traits, but are not modeled by a tree. Phylogenetic networks have been designed to represent reticulate evolution. As they become...

Data from: Dry-season decline in tree sapflux is correlated with leaf turgor loss point in a tropical rainforest

Isabelle Maréchaux, Damien Bonal, Megan K. Bartlett, Benoît Burban, Sabrina Coste, Elodie A. Courtois, Maguy Dulormne, Jean-Yves Goret, Eléonore Mira, Ariane Mirabel, Lawren Sack, Clément Stahl & Jerome Chave
1. Water availability is a key determinant of forest ecosystem function and tree species distributions. While droughts are increasing in frequency in many ecosystems, including in the tropics, plant responses to water supply vary with species and drought intensity, and are therefore difficult to model. Based on physiological first principles, we hypothesized that trees with a lower turgor loss point (πtlp), i.e., a more negative leaf water potential at wilting, would maintain water transport for...

Data from: Human paths have positive impacts on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis

Meredith Root-Bernstein & Jens-Christian Svenning
We assess the impacts of human paths, trails and roads on plant species richness and Shannon diversity. Most reviews of this topic have not considered community-level measures, and have focused on excessive tourism impacts. We found significant positive effects of paths on plant richness and diversity. The effect size for richness was highest when studies included roads (paved) or trails (unpaved). The effect size found for diversity was highest when studies were in grasslands. We...

Data from: Genome skimming by shotgun sequencing helps resolve the phylogeny of a pantropical tree family

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Léa Bardon, Guillaume Besnard, Eric Coissac, Frédéric Delsuc, Julien Engel, Emeline Lhuillier, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Alexandra Tinaut & Jérôme Chave
Whole genome sequencing is helping generate robust phylogenetic hypotheses for a range of taxonomic groups that were previously recalcitrant to classical molecular phylogenetic approaches. As a case study, we performed a shallow shotgun sequencing of eight species in the tropical tree family Chrysobalanaceae to retrieve large fragments of high-copy number DNA regions and test the potential of these regions for phylogeny reconstruction. We were able to assemble the nuclear ribosomal cluster (nrDNA), the complete plastid...

Data from: Co-occurrence among three divergent plant-castrating fungi in the same silene host species

Jessica L. Abbate, Pierre Gladieux, Michael E. Hood, Damien M. De Vienne, Janis Antonovics, Alodie Snirc & Tatiana Giraud
The competitive exclusion principle postulates that different species can only coexist in sympatry if they occupy distinct ecological niches. The goal of this study was to understand the geographical distribution of three species of Microbotryum anther-smut fungi that are distantly related but infect the same host plants, the sister species Silene vulgaris and S. uniflora, in western Europe. We used microsatellite markers to investigate pathogen distribution in relation to host specialization and ecological factors. Microbotryum...

Data from: Parallel declines in abundance of insects and insectivorous birds in Denmark over 22 years

Anders Pape Møller
Farmers in most western countries have increased use of fertilizer and pesticides with impact on wild animals and plants, including the abundance of insects and their predators. I used 1,375 surveys of insects killed on car windscreens as a measure of insect abundance during 1997–2017 at two transects in Denmark. I cross‐validated this method against three other methods for sampling insect abundance, and I investigated the effects of this measure of insect abundance on the...

Data from: Biophysical dependences among functional wood traits

Jana Dlouhá, Tancrède Alméras, Jacques Beauchêne, Bruno Clair & Meriem Fournier
1. Wood properties and especially wood density have been used as functional traits organized along major axes of species life history and strategy. Beyond statistical analyses, a better mechanistic understanding of relationships among wood traits is essential for ecologically relevant interpretation of wood trait variations. 2. A set of theoretical relationships mechanistically linking wood basic density with some other wood traits is derived from cellular material physics. These theoretical models picture basic physical constraints and...

Data from: Changes in breeding phenology and population size of birds

Peter O. Dunn & Anders P. Møller
1. Although the phenology of numerous organisms has advanced significantly in response to recent climate change, the life history and population consequences of earlier reproduction remain poorly understood. 2. We analyzed extensive data on temporal change in laying date and clutch size of birds from Europe and North America to test whether these changes were related to recent trends in population size. 3. Across studies, laying date advanced significantly while clutch size did not change....

I alternate therefore I generalize: how the intrinsic resistance risk of fungicides counterbalances their durability

Agathe Ballu, Philomène Despréaux, Clémentine Duplaix, Anne Dérédec, Florence Carpentier & Anne-Sophie Walker
The evolution of resistance to pesticides is a major burden in agriculture. Resistance management involves maximizing selection pressure heterogeneity, particularly by combining active ingredients with different modes of action. We tested the hypothesis that alternation may delay the build-up of resistance not only by spreading selection pressure over longer periods, but also by decreasing the rate of evolution of resistance to alternated fungicides, by applying an experimental evolution approach to the economically important crop pathogen...

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