130 Works

Data from: Urbanization and plant invasion alter the structure of litter microarthropod communities

Bruce Malloch, Scott MacIvor, Shinichi Tatsumi, Sebastian Seibold & Marc Cadotte
Anthropogenic activity underpins the creation of urban ecosystems, often with introduced or invasive species playing a large role in structuring ecological communities. While the effects of urbanization on charismatic taxa such as birds, bees or butterflies have received much attention, the impacts on small and inconspicuous organisms remain poorly understood. Here, we assess how the community structure of leaf litter-inhabiting microarthropods in city parks varies along an urbanization gradient in Toronto, Canada. At each park,...

Escape from natural enemies depends on the enemies, the invader, and competition

Jacob Lucero, Nafiseh Arab, Sebastian Meyer, Robert Pal, Rebecca A. Fletcher, Dávid Nagy, Ragan M. Callaway & Wolfgang Weisser
The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) attributes the success of some exotic plant species to reduced top-down effects of natural enemies in the non-native range relative to the native range. Many studies have tested this idea, but very few have considered the simultaneous effects of multiple kinds of enemies on more than one invasive species in both the native and non-native ranges. Here, we examined the effects of two important groups of natural enemies – insect...

Data from: LiDAR-derived canopy structure supports the more-individuals hypothesis for arthropod diversity in temperate forests

Jörg Müller, Roland Brandl, Martin Brändle, Bernhard Förster, Bruno Cancian De Araujo, Martin M. Gossner, Alexander Ladas, Martin Wagner, Mark Maraun, Peter Schall, Stefan Schmidt, Marco Heurich, Simon Thorn & Sebastian Seibold
Despite considerable progress in the ability to measure the complex 3-D structure of forests with the improvement of remote-sensing techniques, our mechanistic understanding of how biodiversity is linked to canopy structure is still limited. Here we tested whether the increase in arthropod abundance and richness in beech forest canopies with increasing canopy complexity supports the more-individuals hypothesis or the habitat-heterogeneity hypothesis. We used fogging to collect arthropod samples from 80 standardized plots from canopies of...

Data from: Population signatures of large-scale, long-term disjunction and small-scale, short-term habitat fragmentation in an Afromontane forest bird

Jan Christian Habel, Luc Lens, Martin Husemann, Ronald K. Mulwa, Luca Borghesio, Franz Gassert, Dennis Rödder & Werner Ulrich
The Eastern Afromontane cloud forests occur as geographically distinct mountain exclaves. The conditions of these forests range from large to small and from fairly intact to strongly degraded. For this study, we sampled individuals of the forest bird species, the Montane White-eye Zosterops poliogaster from 16 sites and four mountain archipelagos. We analysed 12 polymorphic microsatellites and three phenotypic traits, and calculated Species Distribution Models (SDMs) to project past distributions and predict potential future range...

Data from: Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities

Markus Klemens Zaplata, Susanne Winter, Anton Fischer, Johannes Kollmann & Werner Ulrich
Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover...

Data from: Targeted re-sequencing of coding DNA sequences for SNP discovery in non-model species

Daniel W. Förster, James K. Bull, Dorina Lenz, Marijke Autenrieth, Johanna L.A. Paijmans, Robert H.S. Kraus, Carsten Nowak, Helmut Bayerl, Ralph Kuehn, Alexander P. Saveljev, Magda Sindičić, Michael Hofreiter, Krzysztof Schmidt, Joerns Fickel, Johanna L. A. Paijmans & Robert H. S. Kraus
Targeted capture coupled with high throughput sequencing can be used to gain information about nuclear sequence variation at hundreds to thousands of loci. Divergent reference capture makes use of molecular data of one species to enrich target loci in other (related) species. This is particularly valuable for non-model organisms, for which often no a priori knowledge exists regarding these loci. Here, we have used targeted capture to obtain data for 809 nuclear coding DNA sequences...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Incubator-independent cell-culture perfusion platform for continuous long-term microelectrode array electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging

Dirk Saalfrank, Anil Krishna Konduri, Shahrzad Latifi, Rouhollah Habibey, Asiyeh Golabchi, Aurel Vasile Martiniuc, Alois Knoll, Sven Ingebrandt & Axel Blau
Most in vitro electrophysiology studies extract information and draw conclusions from representative, temporally limited snapshot experiments. This approach bears the risk of missing decisive moments that may make a difference in our understanding of physiological events. This feasibility study presents a simple benchtop cell-culture perfusion system adapted to commercial microelectrode arrays (MEAs), multichannel electrophysiology equipment and common inverted microscopy stages for simultaneous and uninterrupted extracellular electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging at ambient CO2 levels. The concept...

Data from: Geography and end use drive the diversification of worldwide winter rye populations

Florence Parat, Grit Schwertfirm, Ulrike Rudolph, Thomas Miedaner, Viktor Korzun, Eva Bauer, Aurélien Tellier & Chris-Carolin Schön
To meet the current challenges in human food production, improved understanding of the genetic diversity of crop species that maximizes the selection efficacy in breeding programs is needed. The present study offers new insights into the diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of cultivated rye (Secale cereale L.). We genotyped 620 individuals from 14 global rye populations with a different end use (grain or forage) at 32 genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers. We reveal the...

Data from: Minimal effects on genetic structuring of a fungus-dwelling saproxylic beetle after recolonization of a restored forest

Sharon E. Zytynska, Inken Doerfler, Martin M. Gossner, Sarah Sturm, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Jörg Müller
1. Habitat restoration aims to improve local habitat conditions for threatened species. While such restorations are widespread, rigorous evaluations of their success are rare. This is especially true of those considering species dynamics. Increasingly, deadwood is a target for forest restoration as many species directly and indirectly depend on this resource. 2. In a broadleaf forest in southern Germany, we explored the effect of landscape-wide deadwood restoration on the population genetic structure of the specialist...

Data from: Membrane-assisted extraction of monoterpenes: from in-silico solvent screening towards biotechnological process application

Lars Janoschek, Ljubomir Grozdev & Sonja Berensmeier
This work focuses on the process development of membrane-assisted solvent extraction of hydrophobic compounds such as monoterpenes. Beginning with the choice of suitable solvents, quantum chemical calculations with the simulation tool COSMO-RS were carried out to predict the partition coefficient (logP) of (S)-(+)-carvone and terpinen-4-ol in various solvent-water systems and validated afterwards with experimental data. COSMO-RS results show good prediction accuracy for nonpolar solvents like n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-heptane even in the presence of...

Data from: Portable bacteria-capturing chip for direct surface-enhanced Raman scattering identification of urinary tract infection pathogens

Danting Yang, Haibo Zhou, Nicoleta E. Dina & Christoph Haisch
Acute urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common nosocomial bacterial infections, which affect almost 50% of the population at least once in their lifetime. UTIs may lead to lethal consequences if they are left undiagnosed and untreated properly. Early, rapid and accurate uropathogens detection methods play a pivotal role in clinical process. In this work, a portable bacteria-grasping surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) chip for identification of three species of uropathogens (E. coli...

Data from: Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

Michael Gonsior, Juliana Valle, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Norbert Hertkorn, David Bastviken, Jenna Luek, Mourad Harir, Wanderley Bastos & Alex Enrich-Prast
Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM)...

Data from: Soil organic carbon stability in forests: distinct effects of tree species identity and traits

Gerrit Angst, Kevin E. Mueller, David M. Eissenstat, Susan Trumbore, Katherine H. Freeman, Sarah E. Hobbie, Jon Chorover, Jacek Oleksyn, Peter B. Reich & Carsten W. Mueller
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased interest in the potential for forest ecosystems and soils to act as carbon (C) sinks. While soil organic C contents often vary with tree species identity, little is known about if, and how, tree species influence the stability of C in soil. Using a 40‐year‐old common garden experiment with replicated plots of eleven temperate tree species, we investigated relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) stability in mineral soils and...

Data from: Response of mountain Picea abies forests to stand-replacing bark beetle outbreaks: neighbourhood effects lead to self-replacement

Thorsten Zeppenfeld, Miroslav Svoboda, Robert Justin DeRose, Marco Heurich, Jörg Müller, Pavla Čížková, Martin Starý, Radek Bače & Daniel C. Donato
1. Large, severe disturbances drive many forest ecosystems over the long term, but pose management uncertainties when human experience with them is limited. Recent continent-scale outbreaks of bark beetles across the temperate Northern Hemisphere have raised major concerns as to whether coniferous forests will regenerate back towards pre-outbreak condition and meet possible reforestation objectives. To date, however, analyses of post-outbreak regeneration across broad spatial and temporal scales have been rare, and entirely lacking for many...

Data from: Forest management intensity affects aquatic communities in artificial tree holes

Jana S. Petermann, Anja Rohland, Nora Sichardt, Peggy Lade, Brenda Guidetti, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Martin M. Gossner
Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers...

Data from: Assessing patterns in introduction pathways of alien species by linking major invasion databases

Wolf-Christian Saul, Helen E. Roy, Olaf Booy, Lucilla Carnevali, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Piero Genovesi, Colin A. Harrower, Philip E. Hulme, Shyama Pagad, Jan Pergl & Jonathan M. Jeschke
1. Preventing the arrival of invasive alien species (IAS) is a major priority in managing biological invasions. However, information on introduction pathways is currently scattered across many databases that often use different categorisations to describe similar pathways. This hampers the identification and prioritisation of pathways in order to meet the main targets of recent environmental policies. 2. Therefore, we integrate pathway information from two major IAS databases, IUCN's Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) and the...

Population studies of the wild tomato species Solanum chilense reveal geographically structured major gene-mediated pathogen resistance

Parvinderdeep S. Kahlon, Shallet Mindih Seta, Gesche Zander, Daniela Scheikl, Ralph Hückelhoven, Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten & Remco Stam
Natural plant populations encounter strong pathogen pressure and defense-associated genes are known to be under selection dependent on the pressure by the pathogens. Here we use populations of the wild tomato Solanum chilense to investigate natural resistance against Cladosporium fulvum, a well-known ascomycete pathogen of domesticated tomatoes. Host populations used are from distinct geographical origins and share a defined evolutionary history. We show that distinct populations of S. chilense differ in resistance against the pathogen....

Relative impacts of gypsy moth outbreaks and insecticide treatments on forest resources and ecosystem: An experimental approach

Benjamin Leroy, Hannes Lemme, Philipp Braumiller, Torben Hilmers, Martin Jacobs, Sophia Hochrein, Sebastian Kienlein, Jörg Müller, Hans Pretzsch, Kilian Stimm, Sebastian Seibold, Jessica Jaworek, W. Andreas Hahn, Stefan Müller-Kroehling & Wolfgang Weisser
Gypsy moth outbreaks cause severe defoliation in Holarctic forests, both in North America where it is invasive, and in its native range in Eurasia. Severe defoliation can hamper timber production and impact ecological communities and processes. Aerial insecticide applications are regularly performed in outbreak areas to mitigate economic losses. These operations can be financially costly and harmful to non-target species and may disrupt species interaction networks. However, replicated studies of the relative impacts of gypsy...

Public food forest opportunities and challenges in small municipalities

Sarah Coffey, John Munsell, Rico Hübner & Curtis Friedel
The opportunities and challenges associated with public food forest initiatives in small municipalities are understudied compared to large metropolitan counterparts. Research in small population centers is needed to identify and understand factors affecting the growth of public food forests where resources more commonly available in cities often are lacking. To study these factors, we surveyed mayors in Virginia, United States serving communities with populations under 25,000. Out of 176 mayors who received a paper survey...

Biodiversity-productivity relationships are key to nature-based climate solutions

Akira Mori, Laura Dee, Andrew Gonzalez, Haruka Ohashi, Jane Cowles, Alexandra Wright, Michel Loreau, Yann Hautier, Tim Newbold, Peter Reich, Tetsuya Matsui, Wataru Takeuchi, Kei-Ichi Okada, Rupert Seidl & Forest Isbell
The global impacts of biodiversity loss and climate change are interlinked but the feedbacks between them are rarely assessed. Areas with greater tree diversity tend to be more productive, providing a greater carbon sink, and biodiversity loss could reduce these natural C sinks. Here, we quantify how tree and shrub species richness could affect biomass production at biome, national and regional scales. We find that greenhouse gas mitigation could help maintain tree diversity and thereby...

CO2 certificates for carbon sequestration in soils: methods, management practices and limitations

Martin Wiesmeier, Stefanie Mayer, Carsten Paul, Katharina Helming, Axel Don, Uwe Franko, Markus Steffens & Ingrid Kögel-Knabner

Metabarcoding of canopy arthropods reveals negative impacts of forestry insecticides on community structure across multiple taxa

Benjamin Leroy, Sebastian Seibold, Jérôme Morinière, Vedran Bozicevic, Jessica Jaworek, Nicolas Roth, Sebastian Vogel, Sharon Zytynska, Ralf Petercord, Peter Eichel & Wolfgang Weisser
1. Insecticides used to combat outbreaks of forest defoliators can adversely affect non-target arthropods. Forest use insecticides typically suppress Lepidoptera larvae which are the keystone of the canopy community of deciduous oak forests. The abrupt removal of this dominant component of the food web could have far-reaching implications for forest ecosystems, yet it is rarely investigated in practice owing to several methodological shortcomings. The taxonomic impediment and the biased nature of arthropod sampling techniques particularly...

Kunststoffverpackungen im geschlossenen Kreislauf – Potenziale, Bedingungen, Herausforderungen

Peter Elsner, Thomas Müller-Kirschbaum, Katharina Schweitzer, Ronja Wolf, Elisa Seiler, Peter Désilets, Ralph Detsch, Christina Dornack, Josef Ferber, Claudia Fleck, Magnus Fröhling, Karl Hagspiel, Rüdiger Hahn, Christian Haupts, Christoph Hoffmann, Péter Krüger, Marko Lange, Thorsten Leopold, Michael Löscher, Peter Niedersüß, Tom Ohlendorf, Jutta Pattberg, Manfred Renner, Alois K. Schlarb, Michael Schmidt … & Susanne Kadner
Heutige Produktions- und Konsummuster folgen weitgehend einer linearen Logik: abbauen, herstellen, konsumieren, entsorgen. Nur neun Prozent der Weltwirtschaft sind laut Circular Gap Report 2020 kreislaufgeführt. Doch dieses Wirtschaftsprinzip trägt zu einer massiven Überschreitung der „Planetaren Grenzen“ und damit zu einer Destabilisierung der Ökosysteme und Lebensgrundlage der Menschen bei, wie etwa des Klimasystems und der Artenvielfalt. Demzufolge wird derzeit viel über einen Paradigmenwechsel in der Logik industrieller Wertschöpfung diskutiert – weg von einem ressourcenintensiven hin zu...

Zirkuläre Geschäftsmodelle: Barrieren überwinden, Potenziale freisetzen

Erik G. Hansen, Patrick Wiedemann, Fichter Klaus, Florian Lüdeke-Freund, Melanie Jaeger-Erben, Thomas Schomerus, Andres Alcayaga, Fenna Blomsma, Ursula Tischner, Ulrich Ahle, Daniela Büchle, Ann-Kathrin Denker, Karsten Fiolka, Magnus Fröhling, Alexander Häge, Volker Hoffmann, Holger Kohl, Tara Nitz, Christian Schiller, Rebecca Tauer, Dieter Vollkommer, Dieter Wilhelm, Hartmut Zefferer, Seda Akinci, Florian Hofmann … & Susanne Kadner
Heutige Produktions- und Konsummuster folgen weitgehend einer linearen Logik: abbauen, herstellen, konsumieren, entsorgen. Nur neun Prozent der Weltwirtschaft sind laut Circular Gap Report 2020 kreislaufgeführt. Doch dieses Wirtschaftsprinzip trägt zu einer massiven Überschreitung der „Planetaren Grenzen“ und damit zu einer Destabilisierung der Ökosysteme und Lebensgrundlage der Menschen bei, wie etwa des Klimasystems und der Artenvielfalt. Demzufolge wird derzeit viel über einen Paradigmenwechsel in der Logik industrieller Wertschöpfung diskutiert – weg von einem ressourcenintensiven hin zu...

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