145 Works

Data from: Comparative genomics to explore phylogenetic relationship, cryptic sexual potential and host specificity of Rhynchosporium species on grasses

Daniel Penselin, Martin Muensterkoetter, Susanne Kirsten, Marius Felder, Stefan Taudien, Matthias Platzer, Kevin Ashelford, Konrad H. Paskiewicz, Richard J. Harrison, David J. Hughes, Thomas Wolf, Ekaterina Shelest, Jenny Graap, Jan Hoffmann, Claudia Wenzel, Nadine Woeltje, Kevin M. King, Bruce D. L. Fitt, Ulrich Gueldener, Anna Avrova & Wolfgang Knogge
Background: The Rhynchosporium species complex consists of hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens specialized to different sweet grass species including the cereal crops barley and rye. A sexual stage has not been described, but several lines of evidence suggest the occurrence of sexual reproduction. Therefore, a comparative genomics approach was carried out to disclose the evolutionary relationship of the species and to identify genes demonstrating the potential for a sexual cycle. Furthermore, due to the evolutionary very young...

Data from: The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests

Peter Schall, Martin M. Gossner, Steffi Heinrichs, Markus Fischer, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Kirsten Jung, Vanessa Baumgartner, Stefan Blaser, Stefan Böhm, Francois Buscot, Rolf Daniel, Kezia Goldmann, Kirstin Kaiser, Tiemo Kahl, Markus Lange, Jörg Müller, Jörg Overmann, Swen C. Renner, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Johannes Sikorski, Marco Tschapka, Manfred Türke, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Bernd Wemheuer … & Kristin Kaiser
For managed temperate forests, conservationists and policymakers favour fine-grained uneven-aged management over more traditional coarse-grained even-aged management, based on the assumption that within-stand habitat heterogeneity enhances biodiversity. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We investigated for the first time how differently grained forest management systems affect the biodiversity of multiple above- and below-ground taxa across spatial scales. We sampled 15 taxa of animals, plants, fungi and bacteria within the largest contiguous...

Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe

Miren Del Río, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Evy Ampoorter, Peter Annighöfer, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Gediminas Brazaitis, Lluis Coll, Lars össler, Marek Fabrika, David I. Forrester, Michael Heym, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylyak, Magnus Löf, Fabio Lombardi, Ekaterina Makrickiene, Bratislav Matovic, Frits Mohren, Renzo Motta, Jan Den Ouden, Maciej Pach, Quentin Ponette, Gerhard Schütze … & Lars Drössler
1.There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest...

Data for: Topological defects produce kinks in biopolymer filament bundles

Qingda Hu, Maximilian Grill, Elliot Botvinick, Wolfgang Wall, Valentin Slepukhin & Alex Levine
Bundles of stiff filaments are ubiquitous in the living world, found both in the cytoskeleton and in the extracellular medium. These bundles are typically held together by smaller cross-linking molecules. We demonstrate, analytically, numerically, and experimentally, that such bundles can be kinked, that is, have localized regions of high curvature that are long-lived metastable states. We propose three possible mechanisms of kink stabilization: a difference in trapped length of the filament segments between two cross-links,...

Water potential gradient, root conduit size and root xylem hydraulic conductivity determine the extent of hydraulic redistribution in temperate trees

Benjamin D Hafner, Benjamin D Hesse, Taryn L Bauerle & Thorsten EE Grams
1. Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is widely described, however its extent, especially in temperate trees, remains unclear. Here, we quantified redistributed water of five temperate tree species. We hypothesized that both, HR within a plant and into the soil increases with higher water-potential gradients, larger root conduit diameters and root-xylem hydraulic conductivities. 2. Saplings of conifer (Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii), diffuse-porous (Acer pseudoplatanus) and ring-porous species (Castanea sativa, Quercus robur)...

Disentangling effects of climate and land use on biodiversity and ecosystem services – a multi-scale experimental design

Sarah Redlich, Jie Zhang, Caryl Benjamin, Maninder Singh Dhillon, Jana Englmeier, Jörg Ewald, Ute Fricke, Cristina Ganuza, Maria Hänsel, Thomas Hovestadt, Johannes Kollmann, Thomas Koellner, Carina Kübert-Flock, Harald Kunstmann, Annette Menzel, Christoph Moning, Wibke Peters, Rebekka Riebl, Thomas Rummler, Sandra Rojas Botero, Cynthia Tobisch, Johannes Uhler, Lars Uphus, Jörg Müller & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
1. Climate and land-use change are key drivers of environmental degradation in the Anthropocene, but too little is known about their interactive effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Long-term data on biodiversity trends are currently lacking. Furthermore, previous ecological studies have rarely considered climate and land use in a joint design, did not achieve variable independence or lost statistical power by not covering the full range of environmental gradients. 2. Here, we introduce a multi-scale...

Re-evaluating deep neural networks for phylogeny estimation: the issue of taxon sampling

Martin Grosshauser, Paul Zaharias & Tandy Warnow
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are powerful machine learning models that are widely used for classification problems, and have been recently proposed for quartet tree phylogeny estimation (Survorov et al. Systematic Biology 2020 and Zou et al. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2020). Here we present a study evaluating recently trained DNNs (from Zou et al., MBE 2020) in comparison to a collection of standard phylogeny estimation methods, including UPGMA, neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood,...

Urinary tract infections in patients with renal insufficiency and dialysis – epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Jürgen E Scherberich, Reinhard Fünfstück & Kurt G. Naber
Epidemiological studies show an increasing number of patients worldwide suffering from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), which are associated with a risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). CKD patients stage 2–5, patients with regular chronic dialysis treatment (hemo- or peritoneal dialysis), and patients suffering from kidney allograft dysfunction are at high risk to develop infections, e.g. urinary tract infections (UTI) and/or sepsis (urosepsis). These groups show metabolic disturbance, chronic inflammation, and impaired immunocompetence. Escherichia...

NOX5-induced uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase is a causal mechanism and theragnostic target of an age-related hypertension endotype

Harald H. H. W. Schmidt, Mahmoud H. Elbatreek, Sepideh Sadegh, Elisa Anastasi, Emre Guney, Cristian Nogales, Tim Kacprowski, Ahmed A. Hassan, Andreas Teubner, Po-Hsun Huang, Chien-Yi Hsu, Paul M. H. Schiffers, Ger M. Janssen, Pamela W. M. Kleikers, Anil Wipat, Jan Baumbach & Jo G. R. De Mey
Hypertension is the most important cause of death and disability in the elderly. In 9 out of 10 cases, the molecular cause, however, is unknown. One mechanistic hypothesis involves impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Indeed, ROS forming NADPH oxidase (Nox) genes associate with hypertension, yet target validation has been negative. We re-investigate this association by molecular network analysis and identify NOX5, not present in rodents, as a sole neighbor to human...

Technoregulierung in China: bayerische Unternehmen im Sozialkreditsystem

Omar Ramon Serrano Oswald, Sandra Selmanovic, Benjamin Lee & Laura Arndt
Seit Einführung des chinesischen Sozialkreditsystems (SKS) in den Jahren 2014–2020 stehen Bedenken darüber im Raum, welche Auswirkungen dieses System auf Unternehmen und Einzelpersonen hat, die in China Handel treiben. In der vorliegenden Studie untersuchen wir den Einfluss des chinesischen Sozialkreditsystems (SKS) auf bayerische Unternehmen. Wir ermitteln, wie große, mittlere, kleine und kleinste, in China aktive bayerische Unternehmen im SKS klassifiziert und bewertet werden. Das öffentlich zugängliche System zielt darauf ab, bestimmte Geschäftsaktivitäten entweder als erwünscht...

Healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in urology

José Medina-Polo, Kurt Georg Naber & Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen
The purpose of the present review is to report the incidence and characteristics of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (HAUTIs) in urology with their microbiological and resistance patterns. Urinary tract infections are the main type of healthcare-associated infection in patients hospitalized in a urology ward. Patients admitted to urology departments report a high prevalence of urinary tract catheterization, up to 75% during the hospitalization period, and up to 20% had a urinary catheter before admission. An...

Data from: Invasion strategies in round goby (Neogobius melanostomus): is bigger really better?

Joerg Brandner, Alexander F. Cerwenka, Ulrich K. Schliewen & Juergen Geist
Few studies have systematically investigated mid- or long-term temporal changes of biological characteristics in invasive alien species considering the different phases of an invasion. We studied the invasion performance of one of the most invasive species worldwide, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, from total absence over first occurrence until establishment from 2010 to 2015 in the upper Danube River. After an upstream movement of the invasion front of about 30 river km within four years,...

Data from: Genetic differentiation and regional adaptation among seed origins used for grassland restoration: lessons from a multispecies transplant experiment

Anna Bucharova, Stefan Michalski, Julia-Maria Hermann, Karola Heveling, Norbert Hölzel, Johannes Kollmann, Walter Durka & Oliver Bossdorf
One of the key questions in ecosystem restoration is the choice of seed material for restoring plant communities. More and more scientists and practitioners are currently advocating the use of regional seed sources, based on the argument that plants are often adapted to local or regional environmental conditions, and thus, regional seed sources should provide the best restoration success. However, there is still substantial debate about this approach, partly because of a lack of solid...

Data from: A systematic approach to evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on eDNA detection success in aquatic ecosystems

Bernhard C. Stoeckle, Sebastian Beggel, Alexander Cerwenka, Elena Motivans, Ralph Kuehn & Juergen Geist
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to determine the presence and distribution of aquatic organisms has become an important tool to monitor and investigate freshwater communities. The successful application of this method in the field, however, is dependent on the effectiveness of positive DNA verification, which is influenced by site-specific environmental parameters. Factors affecting lower eDNA concentrations in aquatic ecosystems include flow conditions, and the presence of substances that possess DNA-binding properties or inhibitory effects....

Data from: Light availability experienced in the field affects ability of following generations to respond to shading in an annual grassland plant

Tina Heger
For plants competing for light, grasslands represent complex environments. Grassland microhabitats vary in the amount of available light and in the spatial distribution of patches with full sunlight, light shade and deep shade. Plant populations have been shown to adapt to specific competitors and shading conditions, but it is an open question how tightly the responses of populations to different shading situations are linked to the light availability previously experienced in the field. Using maternal...

Data from: A comprehensive analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home range estimation

Michael J. Noonan, Marlee A. Tucker, Christen H. Fleming, Tom S. Akre, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Jeanne Altmann, Pamela C. Antunes, Jerrold L. Belant, Dean Beyer, Niels Blaum, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, , Rogerio De Paula Cunha, Jasja Dekker, Jonathan Drescher-Lehman, Nina Farwig, Claudia Fichtel, Christina Fischer, Adam T. Ford, Jacob R. Goheen, René Janssen, Florian Jeltsch, Matthew Kauffman, Peter M. Kappeler … & Justin M. Calabrese
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While advances in animal tracking technology have increased our capacity to collect data to support home range analysis, these same advances have also resulted in increasingly autocorrelated data. Consequently, the question of which home range estimator to use on modern, highly autocorrelated tracking data remains open. This question is particularly relevant given that most estimators assume independently sampled data. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of...

Data from: N balance and cycling of Inner Mongolia typical steppe - a comprehensive case study of grazing effects

Marcus Giese, Holger Brueck, Yingzhi Gao, Shan Lin, Markus Steffens, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Thomas Glindemann, Andreas Susenbeth, Friedhelm Taube, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Xunhua Zheng, Carsten Hoffmann, Yongfei Bai & Xingguo Han
Increasing grazing pressure and climate change affect nitrogen (N) dynamics of grassland ecosystems in the Eurasian Steppe belt with unclear consequences for future delivery of essential services such as forage production, C sequestration, and diversity conservation. The identification of key processes responsive to grazing is crucial to optimize grassland management. In this comprehensive case study of a Chinese typical steppe, we present an in-depth analysis of grazing effects on N dynamics including the balance of...

Data from: Resource-mediated indirect effects of grassland management on arthropod diversity

Nadja K. Simons, Martin M. Gossner, Thomas M. Lewinsohn, Steffen Boch, Markus Lange, Jörg Müller, Esther Pašalić, Stephanie A. Socher, Manfred Türke, Markus Fischer & Wolfgang W. Weisser
Intensive land use is a driving force for biodiversity decline in many ecosystems. In semi-natural grasslands, land-use activities such as mowing, grazing and fertilization affect the diversity of plants and arthropods, but the combined effects of different drivers and the chain of effects are largely unknown. In this study we used structural equation modelling to analyse how the arthropod communities in managed grasslands respond to land use and whether these responses are mediated through changes...

Data from: Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

Rupert Seidl, Jörg Müller, Torsten Hothorn, Claus Bässler, Marco Heurich & Markus Kautz
Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus...

Data from: Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple

Amandine Cornille, Tatiana Giraud, Céline Bellard, Aurélien Tellier, Bruno Le Cam, Marinus J. Smulders, Jörg Kleinschmit, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz & Pierre Gladieux
Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past climatic change is also critical for the conservation and sustainable management of forest and tree genetic resources, a timely endeavour as the Earth heads into a period of fast climate change. We used a combination...

Data from: Can Daphnia lumholtzi invade European lakes?

Meike Wittmann, Wilfried Gabriel, Eva-Maria Harz, Christian Laforsch & Jonathan Jeschke
The cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi is a subtropical and tropical zooplankter, and an invasive species in North America. Thus far, D. lumholtzi has not been detected in Europe. Here we investigated whether a hypothetical introduction to Europe could result in a successful invasion, either now or in the near future when facilitated by climate change. In laboratory experiments, we tested whether different clones of D. lumholtzi can invade a resident community consisting of native Daphnia from...

Data from: Ecosystem services and disservices provided by small rodents in arable fields: effects of local and landscape management

Christina Fischer, Christoph Gayer, Kornélia Kurucz, Friederike Riesch, Teja Tscharntke & Péter Batáry
1. In agriculture, both valuable ecosystem services and unwanted ecosystem disservices can be produced by the same organism group. For example, small rodents can provide biological control through weed seed consumption but may also act as pests, causing crop damage. 2. We studied the hypothesised causal relationships between ecosystem services (removal of weed seeds) and disservices (removal of wheat and crop damage) derived by small rodents (voles and mice) at multiple spatial scales. At the...

Data from: Genetic differentiation within multiple common grassland plants supports seed transfer zones for ecological restoration

Walter Durka, Stefan G. Michalski, Kenneth W. Berendzen, Oliver Bossdorf, Anna Bucharova, Julia-Maria Hermann, Norbert Hölzel & Johannes Kollmann
Ecological restoration of grasslands is increasingly based on regional seeds derived from predefined seed transfer zones. However, the degree and spatial pattern of genetic differentiation among provenances of different seed transfer zones is largely unknown. We assessed the genetic differentiation among eight out of 22 German seed transfer zones for seven common grassland species (Arrhenatherum elatius, Centaurea jacea, Daucus carota, Galium album, Hypochaeris radicata, Knautia arvensis and Lychnis flos-cuculi) using AFLP markers. We analysed genetic...

Data from: The impacts of climate change and disturbance on spatio-temporal trajectories of biodiversity in a temperate forest landscape

Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Thomas Dirnboeck, Jörg Müller, Johannes Kobler, Klaus Katzensteiner, Norbert Helm & Rupert Seidl
The ongoing changes to climate challenge the conservation of forest biodiversity. Yet, in thermally limited systems, such as temperate forests, not all species groups might be affected negatively. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the disturbance regime have the potential to mitigate climate-related impacts on forest species. Here, we (i) investigated the potential long-term effect of climate change on biodiversity in a mountain forest landscape, (ii) assessed the effects of different disturbance frequencies, severities and sizes and...

Data from: Shade tolerance and the functional trait - demography relationship in temperate and boreal forests

Aitor Ameztegui, Alain Paquette, Bill Shipley, Michael Heym, Christian Messier & Dominique Gravel
Despite being instrumental in forest ecology, the definition and nature of shade tolerance are complex and not beyond controversy. Moreover, the role it plays in the trait – demography relationship remains unclear. Here, we hypothesize that shade tolerance can be achieved by alternative combinations of traits depending on the species’ functional group (evergreen vs. deciduous species), and that its ability to explain the array of traits involved in demography will also vary between these two...

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