145 Works

Conversion of Andean montane forests into plantations: effects on soil characteristics, microorganisms and microarthropods

Franca Marian, Pablo Ramirez Castillo, Carlos Iñiguez Armijos, Sven Günter, Mark Maraun & Stefan Scheu
Tropical montane forests in the Andes are subjected to deforestation and subsequent transformation into pastures. Abandoned pastures are frequently reforested by planting monoculture timber plantations, resulting in reduced aboveground diversity and changes in soil characteristics compared to primary forests. In this study, we evaluated differences in soil properties (litter layer thickness, pH, water content and C-to-N ratio) between degraded primary montane forest and monoculture pine (Pinus patula) and alder (Alnus acuminata) plantations and their effect...

Data from: Filamentation and restoration of normal growth in Escherichia coli using a combined CRISPRi sgRNA/antisense RNA approach

Andrea Mückl, Matthaeus Schwarz-Schilling, Katrin Fischer & Friedrich C. Simmel
CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) using dCas9-sgRNA is a powerful tool for the exploration and manipulation of gene functions. Here we quantify the reversible switching of a central process of the bacterial cell cycle by CRISPRi and an antisense RNA mechanism. Reversible induction of filamentous growth in E. coli has been recently demonstrated by controlling the expression levels of the bacterial cell division proteins FtsZ/FtsA via CRISPRi. If FtsZ falls below a critical level, cells cannot divide....

Data from: Niche divergence promotes rapid diversification of East African sky island white-eyes (Aves: Zosteropidae)

Siobhan C. Cox, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Jan C. Habel, Bernard A. Amakobe & Julia J. Day
The Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot composed of highly fragmented forested highlands (sky islands) harbours exceptional diversity and endemicity, particularly within birds. To explain their elevated diversity within this region, models founded on niche conservatism have been offered, although detailed phylogeographic studies are limited to a few avian lineages. Here we focus on the recent songbird genus Zosterops, represented by montane and lowland members, to test the roles of niche conservatism versus niche divergence in the...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores

Nash E. Turley, Walter C. Odell, Hanno Schaefer, Georg Everwand, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew...

Asymmetry in kinematic generalization between visual and passive lead-in movements are consistent with a forward model in the sensorimotor system

Ian S Howard, Sae Franklin & David W Franklin
In our daily life we often make complex actions comprised of linked movements, such as reaching for a cup of coffee and bringing it to our mouth to drink. Recent work has highlighted the role of such linked movements in the formation of independent motor memories, affecting the learning rate and ability to learn opposing force fields. In these studies, distinct prior movements (lead-in movements) allow adaptation of opposing dynamics on the following movement. Purely...

Data from: Trophic level, successional age and trait matching determine specialization of deadwood-based interaction networks of saproxylic beetles

Beate Wende, Martin M. Gossner, Ingo Grass, Tobias Arnstadt, Martin Hofrichter, Andreas Floren, Karl Eduard Linsenmair, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
The specialization of ecological networks provides important insights into possible consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning. However, mostly mutualistic and antagonistic interactions of living organisms have been studied, whereas detritivore networks and their successional changes are largely unexplored. We studied the interactions of saproxylic (deadwood-dependent) beetles with their dead host trees. In a large-scale experiment, 764 logs of 13 tree species were exposed to analyse network structure of three trophic groups of saproxylic beetles...

Data from: Incorporating ecological functions in conservation decision making

Emilia Decker, Simon Linke, Virgilio Hermoso & Juergen Geist
Systematic conservation planning has become a standard approach globally, but prioritization of conservation efforts hardly considers species traits in decision-making. This can be important for species persistence and thus adequacy of the conservation plan. Here, we developed and validated a novel approach of incorporating trophic information into a systematic conservation planning framework. We demonstrate the benefits of this approach by using fish data from Europe´s second largest river, the Danube. Our results show that adding...

Data from: Frequency and characteristics of MODY 1 (HNF4A mutation) and MODY 5 (HNF1B mutation) - Analysis from the DPV database

Katharina Warncke, Sebastian Kummer, Klemens Raile, Jürgen Grulich-Henn, Joachim Woelfle, Elisabeth Steichen, Nicole Prinz & Reinhard W. Holl
Objective. To characterize initial presentation and clinical course of patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4A- and HNF1B-MODY in a multinational registry. Design, setting and participants. Within the Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registry, 44 patients with HNF4A- and 35 patients with HNF1B-MODY were characterized and compared with patients < 20years old with type 1 diabetes (T1D)/type 2 diabetes (T2D). Main outcome measure. Clinical and laboratory parameters, therapy, metabolic control, and extrapancreatic symptoms in patients with...

Data from: Effect of plant chemical variation and mutualistic ants on the local population genetic structure of an aphid herbivore

Sharon E. Zytynska, Yasemin Guenay, Sarah Sturm, Mary V. Clancy, Matthias Senft, Joerg-Peter Schnitzler, Saurabh Dilip Pophaly, Christine Wurmser & Wolfgang W. Weisser
1.Plants exhibit impressive genetic and chemical diversity, not just between species but also within species, and the importance of plant intraspecific variation for structuring ecological communities is well known. When there is variation at the local population level, this can create a spatially‐heterogeneous habitat for specialized herbivores potentially leading to non‐random distribution of individuals across host‐plants. 2.Plant variation can affect herbivores directly and indirectly via a third species, resulting in variable herbivore growth rates across...

Data from: Development of an extracorporeal perfusion device for small animal free flaps

Andreas M. Fichter, Lucas M. Ritschl, Anna Borgmann, Martin Humbs, Peter B. Luppa, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff & Thomas Mücke
Background: Extracorporeal perfusion (ECP) might prolong the vital storage capabilities of composite free flaps, potentially opening a wide range of clinical applications. Aim of the study was the development a validated low-cost extracorporeal perfusion model for further research in small animal free flaps. Methods: After establishing optimal perfusion settings, a specially designed extracorporeal perfusion system was evaluated during 8-hour perfusion of rat epigastric flaps followed by microvascular free flap transfer. Controls comprised sham-operation, ischemia and...

Persistence of plant-mediated microbial soil legacy effects in soil and inside roots

Emilia Hannula, Robin Heinen, Martine Huberty, Katja Steinauer, Jonathan De Long, Renske Jongen & Martijn Bezemer
Plant-soil feedbacks are shaped by microbial legacies that plants leave in the soil. We tested the persistence of these legacies after subsequent colonization by the same or other plant species. Soil fungal legacies were detectable for months, but the current plant effect on fungi amplified in time. Contrary, in bacterial communities, legacies faded away rapidly and bacteria communities were influenced strongly by the current plant. However, both fungal and bacterial legacies were conserved inside the...

Global impacts of climate change on avian functional diversity

Peter Stewart, Alke Voskamp, Luca Santini, Matthias Biber, Adam Devenish, Christian Hof, Stephen Willis & Joseph Tobias
Climate change is predicted to drive geographical range shifts, leading to fluctuations in species richness worldwide. However, the effect of these changes on functional diversity remains unclear, in part because comprehensive species-level trait data are generally lacking at global scales. Here we use morphometric and ecological traits for 8268 bird species to estimate the impact of climate change on avian functional diversity (FD). We show that future bird assemblages are likely to undergo substantial shifts...

Regionalized dynamic climate series for ecological climate impact research in modern controlled environment facilities

Bálint Jákli, Roman Meier, Ulrike Gelhardt, Margaret Bliss, Ludger Grünhage & Manuela Baumgarten
Modern controlled environment facilities (CEFs) enable the simulation of dynamic microclimates in controlled ecological experiments through their technical ability to precisely control multiple environmental parameters. However, few CEF studies exploit the technical possibilities of their facilities, as climate change treatments are frequently applied by static manipulation of an inadequate number of climate change drivers, ignoring intra-annual variability and co-variation of multiple meteorological variables. We present so called Test Reference Years (TRY) that consist of typical...

Data from: Loss of fungal symbionts at the arid limit of the distribution range in a native Patagonian grass – resource ecophysiological relations

Cecilia Casas, Pedro E. Gundel, Eluney Deliens, Leopoldo J. Iannone, Guillermo García Martinez, María V. Vignale & Hans Schnyder
1. Crucial to our understanding of plant ecology is the consideration of the eco-physiological responses and constraints of plant-fungal symbioses throughout the native distribution range of their host. 2. We examined key eco-physiological roles of two co-occurring fungal symbionts [Epichloë endophytes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)] in the endemic grass Hordeum comosum across a wide bioclimatic gradient and contrasting grazing severity. We sampled H. comosum plants along four humid-to-arid transects in Patagonia, Argentina, covering its...

Data from: Traits mediate niches and co-occurrences of forest beetles in ways that differ among bioclimatic regions

Ryan C. Burner, Jörg G. Stephan, Lukas Drag, Tone Birkemoe, Jörg Muller, Tord Snäll, Otso Ovaskainen, Mária Potterf, Juha Siitonen, Olav Skarpaas, Inken Doerfler, Martin M. Gossner, Peter Schall, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Aim To investigate the role of traits in beetle community assembly and test for consistency in these effects among several bioclimatic regions. We asked (1) whether traits predicted species’ responses to environmental gradients (i.e., their niches), (2) whether these same traits could predict co-occurrence patterns, and (3) how consistent were niches and the role of traits among study regions. Location Boreal forests in Norway and Finland, temperate forests in Germany. Methods We complied capture records...

Data for: Growing faster, longer or both? Modelling plastic response of Juniperus communis growth phenology to climate change

Jan Tumajer, Allan Buras, Jesús Julio Camarero, Marco Carrer, Rohan Shetti, Martin Wilmking, Jan Altman, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda & Jiří Lehejček
Aim: Plant growth and phenology plastically respond to changing climatic conditions both in space and time. Species-specific levels of growth plasticity determine biogeographical patterns and the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. However, a direct assessment of spatial and temporal variability in radial-growth dynamics is complicated, as long records of cambial phenology do not exist. Location: 16 sites across European distribution margins of Juniperus communis L. (the Mediterranean, the Arctic, the Alps and the...

Will forest dynamics continue to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Northern Alps?

Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Patrick Laux, Gerhard Smiatek, Harald Kunstmann, Sebastian Seibold & Rupert Seidl
Observational evidence suggests that forests in the Northern Alps are changing at an increasing rate as a consequence of climate change. Yet, it remains unclear whether the acceleration of forest change will continue in the future, or whether downregulating feedbacks will eventually decouple forest dynamics from climate change. Here we studied future forest dynamics at Berchtesgaden National Park, Germany by means of a process-based forest landscape model, simulating an ensemble of 22 climate projections until...

Arthropod (per year, 2008-2017) and environmental data (climate, land use, land cover) from grasslands used in \"Unravelling insect declines: can space replace time?\", Biology Letters

Michael Staab & Nico Blüthgen
To compare trends in arthropod species numbers between space and time, arthropod data from the sweep net samples (2008-2017) in grasslands were used. We tested whether trends over time are also found within single years (i.e. in space). The dataset contains, pooled per sampling year, arthropod individual numbers (Araneae, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera) and associated environmental data (climate, land use, land cover). This data is only to complement the publication "Unravelling insect declines: can space replace...

Raw data on mortality, feeding rates, swimming behavior and energy reserves: Goetz et al 2022

Sebastian Beggel, Astrid Götz & Jürgen Geist
The abundance and persistence of plastic nanoparticles in aquatic habitats are considered a threat to marine and freshwater biota. However, the risk assessment of plastic particles is complicated due to various factors that need to be considered, including composition, size and environmental abundance. This study investigated the behavioural response of a key river species, Gammarus roeseli, to dietary exposure of plain biodegradable and non-biodegradable plastic as well as to natural small micro- and nanoparticles. Mortality,...

COVID-19 lockdown measures impacted citizen science hedgehog observation numbers in Bavaria, Germany

Fabio Sweet, Thomas Rödl & Wolfgang W. Weisser
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to temporary changes in human-animal interactions due to changes in human activities. Here we report on a surge in hedgehog observations during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany in 2020, on the citizen science web portal ‘Igel in Bayern’ (Hedgehogs in Bavaria) in Germany. This increase in comparison to previous years could be attributed to an increase in the number of people reporting hedgehog observations, rather than an increase in...

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