21 Works

Data from: Urbanization and plant invasion alter the structure of litter microarthropod communities

Bruce Malloch, Scott MacIvor, Shinichi Tatsumi, Sebastian Seibold & Marc Cadotte
Anthropogenic activity underpins the creation of urban ecosystems, often with introduced or invasive species playing a large role in structuring ecological communities. While the effects of urbanization on charismatic taxa such as birds, bees or butterflies have received much attention, the impacts on small and inconspicuous organisms remain poorly understood. Here, we assess how the community structure of leaf litter-inhabiting microarthropods in city parks varies along an urbanization gradient in Toronto, Canada. At each park,...

Escape from natural enemies depends on the enemies, the invader, and competition

Jacob Lucero, Nafiseh Arab, Sebastian Meyer, Robert Pal, Rebecca A. Fletcher, Dávid Nagy, Ragan M. Callaway & Wolfgang Weisser
The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) attributes the success of some exotic plant species to reduced top-down effects of natural enemies in the non-native range relative to the native range. Many studies have tested this idea, but very few have considered the simultaneous effects of multiple kinds of enemies on more than one invasive species in both the native and non-native ranges. Here, we examined the effects of two important groups of natural enemies – insect...

Population studies of the wild tomato species Solanum chilense reveal geographically structured major gene-mediated pathogen resistance

Parvinderdeep S. Kahlon, Shallet Mindih Seta, Gesche Zander, Daniela Scheikl, Ralph Hückelhoven, Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten & Remco Stam
Natural plant populations encounter strong pathogen pressure and defense-associated genes are known to be under selection dependent on the pressure by the pathogens. Here we use populations of the wild tomato Solanum chilense to investigate natural resistance against Cladosporium fulvum, a well-known ascomycete pathogen of domesticated tomatoes. Host populations used are from distinct geographical origins and share a defined evolutionary history. We show that distinct populations of S. chilense differ in resistance against the pathogen....

CO2 certificates for carbon sequestration in soils: methods, management practices and limitations

Martin Wiesmeier, Stefanie Mayer, Carsten Paul, Katharina Helming, Axel Don, Uwe Franko, Markus Steffens & Ingrid Kögel-Knabner

Satellite-based habitat monitoring reveals long-term dynamics of deer habitat in response to forest disturbances

Julian Oeser, Marco Heurich, Cornelius Senf, Dirk Pflugmacher & Tobias Kuemmerle
Disturbances play a key role in driving forest ecosystem dynamics, but how disturbances shape wildlife habitat across space and time often remains unclear. A major reason for this is a lack of information about changes in habitat suitability across large areas and longer time periods. Here, we use a novel approach based on Landsat satellite image time series to map seasonal habitat suitability annually from 1986 to 2017. Our approach involves characterizing forest disturbance dynamics...

Agricultural intensification reduces plant taxonomic and functional diversity across European arable systems.

Carlos P Carmona, Irene Guerrero, Begoña Peco, Manuel B. Morales, Juan J Onate, Tomas Pärt, Teja Tscharntke, Jaan Liira, Tsipe Aavik, Mark Emmerson, Frank Berendse, Piotr Ceryngier, Vincent Bretagnolle, Wolfgang Weisser & Jan Bengtsson
1. Agricultural intensification is one of the main drivers of species loss worldwide, but there is still a lack of information about its effect on functional diversity of arable weeds communities. 2. Using a large scale pan European study including 786 fields within 261 farms from eight countries, we analysed differences in the taxonomic and functional diversity of arable weeds assemblages across different levels of agricultural intensification in. We estimated weed species frequency in each...

Historical biogeography of Vochysiaceae reveals an unexpected perspective of plant evolution in the Neotropics

Deise Josely Pereira Goncalves, Gustavo H. Shimizu, Edgardo M. Ortiz, Robert K. Jansen & Beryl B. Simpson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Despite the fast pace of exploration of the patterns and processes influencing Neotropical plant hyperdiversity, taxa explored are mostly from large groups that are widely distributed, morphologically diverse or economically important. Vochysiaceae is an example of an undersampled taxon, providing an excellent system for investigating Neotropical biogeography. We present a phylogenomic-based hypothesis of species relationships in Vochysiaceae to investigate its evolutionary history through space and time. METHODS: We inferred a phylogeny...

Ethische Deliberation für agile Softwareprozesse: EDAP-Schema

Niina Zuber, Severin Kacianka, Alexander Pretschner & Julian Nida-Rümelin
Wie trifft man eine ethisch richtige Entscheidung? Aufgrund des zunehmenden Einsatzes von Softwaresystemen in immer mehr gesellschaftlichen Bereichen kommt dieser Frage bei der Entwicklung von Softwaresystemen eine wachsende Bedeutung zu. Ethische Entscheidungen, die sich auch in Algorithmen abbilden, haben durch ihre Anwendung im Maschinellen Lernen oder in autonomen Systemen oft Auswirkungen auf sehr viele Menschen. Es ist daher wichtig, dass Entscheidungen, die das Design der Softwareanwendung bedingen, klar argumentiert und nachvollziehbar sind. Derzeit gibt es...

Biomarkers in urinary tract infections – which ones are suitable for diagnostics and follow-up?

József Horváth, Björn Wullt, Kurt G. Naber & Béla Köves
Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections worldwide. Under special circumstances, clinicians must rely on laboratory findings, which might have a weak predicting value, misguiding the practitioners and leading to incorrect diagnosis and overuse of antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need for reliable biomarkers in UTIs. Methods: We performed a literature search for biomarkers used in UTIs from January 1999 until May 2020. We used “urinary tract infection” and...

Die Brücke über die Majrada in Chimtou

Ulrike Hess, Klaus Müller & Mustapha Khanoussi
Simitthus 5

Improving user comfort in auditory-steady-state-response brain-computer interface by using a co-adaptive stimulus

Isabelle Hoxha, Fulvia Del Duca, Stefan K. Ehrlich, Florian Bergner, Nicolas Berberich & Gordon Cheng

Lameness detection and scoring

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Juan Haladjian, Stefan Nüske, Dorothée Ledoux, Dave Humphries, Lene Munksgaard & Isabelle Veissier
Enting concluded lameness, from an economic perspective, as the third most costly health disease, following mastitis and reproductive failure issues, in cattle units. Archer estimated the incidence rate of lameness in the United Kingdom cattle herds roughly 50 cases/100 cows in a year; nevertheless, due to poor correlation between incidence rates and records of treatments in farms, the actual number seems to be higher. Surprisingly, the significance of lameness associated with cattle welfare, health and...

Re-evaluating deep neural networks for phylogeny estimation: the issue of taxon sampling

Martin Grosshauser, Paul Zaharias & Tandy Warnow
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are powerful machine learning models that are widely used for classification problems, and have been recently proposed for quartet tree phylogeny estimation (Survorov et al. Systematic Biology 2020 and Zou et al. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2020). Here we present a study evaluating recently trained DNNs (from Zou et al., MBE 2020) in comparison to a collection of standard phylogeny estimation methods, including UPGMA, neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood,...

Invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) threatens an exceptionally large population of the depressed river mussel (Pseudanodonta complanata) in a postglacial lake

Małgorzata Ożgo, Maria Urbańska, Philipp Hoos, Hannes Imhof, Malgorzata Kirschenstein, Julia Mayr, Florian Michl, Rafał Tobiasz, Marie Von Wesendonk, Stefan Zimmermann & Juergen Geist
Freshwater mussels are in decline worldwide, with the depressed river mussel Pseudanodonta complanata being one of the rarest and most endangered species in Europe. Invasive mussels are suspected to be an important factor of decline, but there is little information on their interaction with native species. This study analysed densities, depth distribution and individual sizes and weights in one of the largest known populations of P. complanata in Europe in relation to the co-occurring invasive...

Are native and non-native pollinator friendly plants equally valuable for native wild bee communities?

Nicola Seitz, Dennis VanEngelsdorp & Sara D. Leonhardt
Bees rely on floral pollen and nectar for food. Therefore, pollinator friendly plantings are often used to enrich habitats in bee conservation efforts. As part of these plantings, non-native plants may provide valuable floral resources, but their effects on native bee communities have not been assessed in direct comparison with native pollinator friendly plantings. In this study, we performed a common garden experiment by seeding mixes of 20 native and 20 non-native pollinator friendly plant...

Relative effects of climate and litter traits on decomposition change with time, climate and trait variability

Rafaella Canessa, Liesbeth Van Den Brink, Alfredo Saldana, Rodrigo Rios, Stephan Hattenschwiler, Carsten Mueller, Isabel Prater, Katja Tielboerger & Maaike Bader
Climate and litter quality drive litter decomposition, but there is currently little consensus on their relative importance, likely because studies differ in the duration, the climatic gradients, and variability in litter-trait values. Understanding these drivers is important because they determine the direct and indirect (via vegetation composition) effects of climate change on decomposition and thereby on carbon and nutrient cycling. We studied how microclimate (soil moisture and temperature) and litter traits interactively affect litter mass...

The impact of subsoil management on the delivery of ecosystem services

Sophie Ittner, Holger Gerdes, Miriam Athmann, Sara Luise Bauke, Martina Gocke, Julien Guigue, Sanjay Jaiswal, Timo Kautz, Oliver Schmittmann, Stefanie Schulz & Sabine Seidel
In recent years, the interest in subsoil has increased, since it can hold immense reservoirs of nutrients, organic matter and water. The subsoil can therefore provide important ecosystem services for the agricultural production system and beyond. This paper assesses the sustainability of two subsoil management measures with regard to the delivery of soil-related ecosystem services: a) the cultivation of deep-rooted pre-crops (biological approach) and b) stripwise mechanical subsoil loosening in combination with the incorporation of...

CO2-Zertifikate für die Festlegung atmosphärischen Kohlenstoffs in Böden: Methoden, Maßnahmen und Grenzen

Martin Wiesmeier, Stefanie Mayer, Carsten Paul, Katharina Helming, Axel Don, Uwe Franko, Markus Franko & Ingrid Kögel-Knabner
Agrarböden besitzen durch den Aufbau von organsicher Bodensubstanz (Humus), die zu etwa 58% aus Kohlenstoff (Corg) besteht, ein großes Potential zur Kohlenstoffbindung. Positive Anstrengungen im Humusmanagement könnten daher einen wesentlichen Beitrag für den Klimaschutz leisten. Für Landwirtinnen und Landwirte stellen so genannte CO2-Zertifikate für den Aufbau von Corg („Humuszertifikate“) einen zusätzlichen Anreiz dar, humusfördernde Bewirtschaftungsmaßnahmen umzusetzen. Diese CO2-Zertifikate werden von privatwirtschaftlichen Initiativen und Unternehmen im Bereich des freiwilligen CO2-Markts vergeben. Insbesondere im Bereich der Landwirtschaft...

Das Dipylon

Gottfried Gruben & Klaus Müller
Kerameikos 22

Data from: Hidden genetic variance contributes to increase the short-term adaptive potential of selfing populations

Josselin Clo, Joëlle Ronfort & Diala Abu Awad
Standing genetic variation is considered a major contributor to the adaptive potential of species. The low heritable genetic variation observed in self-fertilising populations has led to the hypothesis that species with this mating system would be less likely to adapt. However, a non-negligible amount of cryptic genetic variation for polygenic traits, accumulated through negative linkage disequilibrium, could prove to be an important source of standing variation in self-fertilising species. To test this hypothesis we simulated...

Asymmetry in kinematic generalization between visual and passive lead-in movements are consistent with a forward model in the sensorimotor system

Ian S Howard, Sae Franklin & David W Franklin
In our daily life we often make complex actions comprised of linked movements, such as reaching for a cup of coffee and bringing it to our mouth to drink. Recent work has highlighted the role of such linked movements in the formation of independent motor memories, affecting the learning rate and ability to learn opposing force fields. In these studies, distinct prior movements (lead-in movements) allow adaptation of opposing dynamics on the following movement. Purely...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    21

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    12
  • Text
    9

Affiliations

  • Technical University Munich
    12
  • Technical University of Munich
    7
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    2
  • Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    2
  • Humboldt University of Berlin
    2
  • Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research
    2
  • Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau
    2
  • Technische Universität München
    2
  • Wageningen University & Research
    2
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
    2