27 Works

Data from: Distance, elevation, and environment as drivers of diversity and divergence in bumble bees across latitude and altitude

Jason M. Jackson, Meaghan L. Pimsler, Kennan Jeannet Oyen, Jonathan B. Koch-Uhuad, James D. Herndon, James P. Strange, Michael E. Dillon & Jeffrey D. Lozier
Identifying drivers of dispersal limitation and genetic differentiation is a key goal in biogeography. We examine patterns of population connectivity and genetic diversity using Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) in two bumble bee species, Bombus vosnesenskii and Bombus bifarius across latitude and altitude in mountain ranges from California, Oregon, and Washington, U.S.A. Bombus vosnesenskii, which occurs across a broader elevational range at most latitudes, exhibits little population structure while B. bifarius, which occupies a relatively...

Data from: Genetic analysis of an ephemeral intraspecific hybrid zone in the hypervariable tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, on Hawai'i Island

Elizabeth A. Stacy, Jennifer B. Johansen, Tomoko Sakishima & Donald K. Price
Intraspecific hybrid zones involving long-lived woody species are rare and can provide insights into the genetic basis of early-diverging traits in speciation. Within the landscape-dominant Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, are morphologically distinct successional varieties, incana and glaberrima, that dominate new and old lava flows, respectively, below 1200 me on volcanically active Hawai'i Island, with var. glaberrima also extending to higher elevations and bogs. Here, we use morphological measurements on 86 adult trees to document the...

A genome for Bidens hawaiensis: a member of a hexaploid Hawaiian plant adaptive radiation

M. Renee Bellinger, Erin M Datlof, Karen E Selph, Timothy J Gallaher & Matthew L Knope
Abstract The plant genus Bidens (Asteraceae or Compositae; Coreopsidae) is a species-rich and circumglobally distributed taxon. The 19 hexaploid species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands are considered an iconic example of adaptive radiation, of which many are imperiled and of high conservation concern. Until now, no genomic resources were available for this genus, which may serve as a model system for understanding the evolutionary genomics of explosive plant diversification. Here, we present a high-quality reference...

Ecologically diverse clades dominate the oceans via extinction resistance

Matthew Knope, Andrew M. Bush, Luke O. Frishkoff, Noel A. Heim & Jonathan L. Payne
Ecological differentiation is correlated with taxonomic diversity in many clades, and ecological divergence is often assumed to be a cause and/or consequence of high speciation rate. However, an analysis of 30,074 genera of living marine animals and 19,992 genera of fossil marine animals indicates that greater ecological differentiation in the modern oceans is actually associated with lower rates of origination over evolutionary time. Ecologically differentiated clades became taxonomically diverse over time because they were better...

Data from: Altitudinal migration and the future of an iconic Hawaiian honeycreeper in response to climate change and management

Alban Guillaumet, Wendy A. Kuntz, Michael D. Samuel & Eben H. Paxton
Altitudinal movement by tropical birds to track seasonally variable resources can move them from protected areas to areas of increased vulnerability. In Hawaiʻi, historical reports suggest that many Hawaiian honeycreepers such as the ‘I'iwi (Drepanis coccinea) once undertook seasonal migrations, but the existence of such movements today is unclear. Because Hawaiian honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria, currently minimal in high-elevation forests, understanding the degree to which honeycreepers visit lower elevation forests may be...

Data from: Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

Alban Guillaumet, Bethany L. Woodworth, Richard J. Camp & Eben H. Paxton
Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge,...

Data from: An extensive suite of functional traits distinguishes wet and dry Hawaiian forests and enables prediction of species vital rates

Camila D. Medeiros, Christine Scoffoni, Grace John, Megan Bartlett, Faith Inman-Narahari, Rebecca Ostertag, Susan Cordell, Christian Giardina, Lawren Sack, Megan K. Bartlett & Grace P. John
1. The application of functional traits to predict and explain plant species’ distributions and vital rates has been a major direction in functional ecology for decades, yet numerous physiological traits have not yet been incorporated into the approach. 2. Using commonly measured traits such as leaf mass per area (LMA) and wood density (WD), and additional traits related to water transport, gas exchange and resource economics, including leaf vein, stomatal, and wilting traits, we tested...

Data from: A rich diversity of opercle bone shape among teleost fishes

Charles B. Kimmel, Clayton M. Small & Matthew L. Knope
The opercle is a prominent craniofacial bone supporting the gill cover in all bony fish and has been the subject of morphological, developmental, and genetic investigation. We surveyed the shapes of this bone among 110 families spanning the teleost tree and examined its pattern of occupancy in a principal component-based morphospace. Contrasting with expectations from the literature that suggest the local morphospace would be only sparsely occupied, we find primarily dense, broad filling of the...

Data from: Intraspecific divergence and evolution of a life-history trade-off along a successional gradient in Hawaii’s Metrosideros polymorpha

Keenan R. Morrison & Elizabeth A. Stacy
The importance of environmental gradients in the diversification of long-lived tree species is poorly understood. Two morphologically distinct varieties of the endemic Hawaiian tree, 'ōhi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), are the canopy dominants at alternate extremes of a successional gradient formed by the recurring disturbance of lava flows on east Hawai'i Island. The maintenance of these varieties despite hybridization may be due to disruptive selection at either end of the successional gradient. To test this hypothesis,...

Data from: Patterns of primary succession of native and introduced plants in lowland wet forests in eastern Hawai‘i

Naupaka Zimmerman, R. Flint Hughes, Susan Cordell, Patrick Hart, Heather Kalei Chang, David Perez, Ryan Kaipoalohaakala Like & Rebecca Ostertag
The majority of Hawaii’s lowland wet forests no longer exist, with many of the last remaining patches found on the eastern, windward sides of the largest islands. To better understand successional patterns and invasion in these native systems, we quantified basal area (BA) and densities of woody species and understory cover at nine sites in the Puna district on the Island of Hawai‘i, representing age gradients of native stand development on both ‘a’ā and pāhoehoe...

Data from: Incipient ecological speciation between successional varieties of a dominant tree involves intrinsic postzygotic isolating barriers

Elizabeth A. Stacy, Bhama Paritosh, Melissa A. Johnson & Donald K. Price
Whereas disruptive selection imposed by heterogeneous environments can lead to the evolution of extrinsic isolating barriers between diverging populations, the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic barriers through divergent selection is less certain. Long-lived species such as trees may be especially slow to evolve intrinsic isolating barriers. We examined postpollination reproductive isolating barriers below the species boundary, in an ephemeral hybrid zone between two successional varieties of the landscape-dominant Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, on volcanically active Hawai'i...

Data from: The epidemiology of avian pox and interaction with avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

Michael D. Samuel, Bethany L. Woodworth, Carter T. Atkinson, Patrick J. Hart & Dennis A. LaPointe
Despite the purported role of avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) in the decline of endemic Hawaiian birds, few studies have been conducted on the dynamics of this disease, its impact on free-living avian populations, or its interactions with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We conducted four longitudinal studies of 3-7 years in length and used generalized linear models to evaluate cross–sectional prevalence of active pox infection and individuals with healed deformities that had recovered from pox. Our...

Data from: Isolation of Metrosideros (`Ohi`a) taxa on O`ahu increases with elevation and extreme environments

Elizabeth Stacy, Tomoko Sakishima, Heaven Tharp & Neil Snow
Species radiations should be facilitated by short generation times and limited dispersal among discontinuous populations. Hawaii’s hyper-diverse, landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros, is unique among the islands’ radiations for its massive populations that occur continuously over space and time within islands, its exceptional capacity for gene flow by both pollen and seed, and its extended life span (ca. >650 years). Metrosideros shows the greatest phenotypic and microsatellite DNA diversity on O`ahu, where taxa occur in tight sympatry...

Species Abundance Distributions (SADs) for local tree communities in 1-ha forest plots on 20 tropical islands in the Indo-Pacific region

Thomas Ibanez
Species abundance distributions (SADs) characterise the distribution of individuals among species. This dataset was used to investigate the relative importance of disturbance regime (tropical cyclone regime) and island geography (the area and isolation of islands) on the shape of SADs.

Litter decomposition rates across tropical montane and lowland forests are controlled foremost by climate

Rebecca Ostertag, Carla Restrepo, Iveren Abeim, Roxana Aragón, Michelle Ataroff, Hazel Chapman, Belen Fadrique, Grizelle González, Achim Häger, Jürgen Homeier, Luis Daniel Llambí, Rikke Reese Næsborg, Laura Nohemy Poma López, Jorge Andrés Ramirez Correa, Klara Scharnagl, Conrado Tobón, James W. Dalling, Patrick H. Martin, Iveren Abiem, Shin‐Ichiro Aiba, Esteban Alvarez‐Dávila, Augusta Y. Cueva‐Agila, Romina D. Fernández, Sybil G. Gotsch, Carlos Iñiguez‐Armijos … & Cameron B. Williams
The “hierarchy of factors” hypothesis states that decomposition rates are controlled primarily by climatic, followed by biological and soil variables. Tropical montane forests (TMF) are globally important ecosystems, yet there have been limited efforts to provide a biome-scale characterization of litter decomposition. We designed a common litter decomposition experiment replicated in 23 tropical montane sites across the Americas, Asia, and Africa and combined these results with a previous study of 23 sites in tropical lowland...

Interrogating discordance resolves relationships in the rapid radiation of Old World fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)

Nicolas Nesi, Stephen Rossiter, Michael McGowen, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Burton Lim, Susan Tsang, Violaine Nicolas, Aude Lalis, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, Sigit Wiantoro, Alan Hitch, Javier Juste, Corinna Pinzari, Frank Bonaccorso, Nancy Simmons, Annette Scanlon & Christopher Todd
The family Pteropodidae (Old World fruit bats) comprises >200 species distributed across the Old World tropics and subtropics. Most pteropodids feed on fruit, suggesting an early origin of frugivory, although several lineages have shifted to nectar-based diets. Pteropodids are of exceptional conservation concern with >50% of species considered threatened, yet the systematics of this group has long been debated, with uncertainty surrounding early splits attributed to an ancient rapid diversification. Resolving the relationships among the...

Timing is everything: Acoustic niche partitioning in two tropical wet forest bird communities

Patrick Hart, Thomas Ibanez, Kristina Paxton & Esthér Sebastián-González
When acoustic signals sent from individuals overlap in frequency and time, acoustic interference and signal masking may occur. Under the acoustic niche hypothesis (ANH), signaling behavior has evolved to partition acoustic space and minimize overlap with other calling individuals through selection on signal structure and/or the sender’s ability to adjust the timing of signals. Alternately, under the acoustic clustering hypothesis, there is potential benefit to convergence and synchronization of the structural or temporal characteristics of...

Respiratory medium and circulatory anatomy constrain size evolution in marine macrofauna

Noel Heim, Saket Bakshi, Loc Buu, Stephanie Chen, Shannon Heh, Ashli Jain, Christopher Noll, Ameya Patkar, Noah Rizk, Sriram Sundararajan, Isabella Villante, Matthew Knope & Jonathan Payne
The typical marine animal has increased in biovolume by more than two orders of magnitude since the beginning of the Cambrian, but the causes of this trend remain unknown. We test the hypothesis that the efficiency of intra-organism oxygen delivery is a major constraint on body size evolution in marine animals. To test this hypothesis, we compiled a dataset comprising 13,723 marine animal genera spanning the Phanerozoic. We coded each genus according to its respiratory...

Microbiomes associated with avian malaria survival differ between susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers and sympatric malaria-resistant introduced birds

Amanda Navine, Kristina Paxton, Eben Paxton, Patrick Hart, Jeffrey Foster, Nancy McInerney, Robert Fleischer & Elin Videvall
Of the estimated 55 Hawaiian honeycreepers (subfamily Carduelinae) only 17 species remain, 9 of which the International Union for Conservation of Nature considers endangered. Among the most pressing threats to honeycreeper survival is avian malaria, caused by the introduced blood parasite Plasmodium relictum, which is increasing in distribution in Hawai`i as a result of climate change. Preventing further honeycreeper decline will require innovative conservation strategies that confront malaria from multiple angles. Research on mammals revealed...

Evolutionary winners are ecological losers among oceanic island plants

José María Fernández-Palacios, Rüdiger Otto, Michael K. Borregaard, Holger Kreft, Jonathan P. Price, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Patrick Weigelt & Robert J. Whittaker
Aim: Adaptive radiation, in which successful lineages proliferate by exploiting untapped niche space, provides a popular but potentially misleading characterization of evolution on oceanic islands. Here we analyse the respective roles of members of in situ diversified vs. non-diversified lineages in shaping the main ecosystems of an archipelago to explore the relationship between evolutionary and ecological ‘success’. Location: Canary Islands. Taxon: Vascular plants. Methods: We quantified the abundance/rarity of the native flora according to the...

A global ecological signal of extinction risk in terrestrial vertebrates

Maya Munstermann, Noel Heim, Douglas McCauley, Jonathan Payne, Nathan Upham, Steve Wang & Matthew Knope
To determine the distribution and causes of extinction threat across functional groups of terrestrial vertebrates, we assembled a dataset on ecological traits for 18,016 species and tested, using phylogenetic comparative methods, which categories of habitat association, mode of locomotion, and feeding mode best predict extinction risk. We found that cave-dwelling amphibians, brachiating mammals (all of which are primates), aerial and scavenging birds, and pedal squamates are all disproportionately threatened with extinction. Across four vertebrate classes,...

Data from: Symbiont type and environmental factors affect transcriptome-wide gene expression in the coral Montipora capitata

Martin Helmkampf, M. Renee Bellinger, Monika Frazier & Misaki Takabayashi
Populations of reef-building corals may harbor genetically distinct lineages of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium, which have been shown to affect important colony properties, including growth rates and resilience against environmental stress. However, the molecular processes underlying these differences are not well understood. In this study, we used whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to assess gene expression differences between 27 samples of the coral Montipora capitata predominantly hosting two different Symbiodinium types in clades C...

Data from: Multiple colonizations, hybridization and uneven diversification in Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) lineages on Hawai‘i Island

Melissa A. Johnson, Yohan Pillon, Tomoko Sakishima, Donald K. Price & Elizabeth A. Stacy
Aim The diversity and composition of species pools within oceanic archipelagos is determined by a combination of colonization, abiotic tolerance, in situ diversification, biotic interactions, and extinction. The signature of biogeographic events and evolutionary processes, however, may be masked by recent coalescence and hybridization between closely related species. We used the species-rich plant genus Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) to investigate the roles of colonization and hybridization in shaping community assemblages on the geologically young Hawaii Island. Location...

Data from: Functional coupling in the evolution of suction feeding and gill ventilation of sculpins (Perciformes: Cottoidei)

Stacy C. Farina, Matthew L. Knope, Katherine A. Corn, Adam P. Summers & William E. Bemis
Suction feeding and gill ventilation in teleosts are functionally coupled, meaning that there is an overlap in the structures involved with both functions. Functional coupling is one type of morphological integration, a term that broadly refers to any covariation, correlation, or coordination among structures. Suction feeding and gill ventilation exhibit other types of morphological integration, including functional coordination (a tendency of structures to work together to perform a function) and evolutionary integration (a tendency of...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

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