55 Works

Data from: Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids

David A. Puts, Alexander K. Hill, Drew H. Bailey, Robert S. Walker, Drew Rendall, John R. Wheatley, Lisa L. M. Welling, Khytam Dawood, Rodrigo A. Cárdenas, Robert P. Burriss, Nina G. Jablonski, Mark D. Shriver, Daniel J. Weiss, Adriano R. Lameira, Coren L. Apicella, Michael J. Owren, Claudia Barelli, Mary E. Glenn & Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez
In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism...

Data from: Evidence of weaker phenotypic plasticity by prey to novel cues from non-native predators

Johan Hollander & Paul E. Bourdeau
A central question in evolutionary biology is how coevolutionary history between predator and prey influences their interactions. Contemporary global change and range expansion of exotic organisms impose a great challenge for prey species, which are increasingly exposed to invading non-native predators, with which they share no evolutionary history. Here, we complete a comprehensive survey of empirical studies of coevolved and naive predator−prey interactions to assess whether a shared evolutionary history with predators influences the magnitude...

Data from: Corralling a black swan: natural range of variation in a forest landscape driven by rare, extreme events

Daniel C. Donato, Joshua S. Halofsky & Matthew J. Reilly
The natural range of variation (NRV) is an important reference for ecosystem management, but has been scarcely quantified for forest landscapes driven by infrequent, severe disturbances. Extreme events such as large, stand-replacing wildfires at multi-century intervals are typical for these regimes; however, data on their characteristics are inherently scarce, and, for land management, these events are commonly considered too large and unpredictable to integrate into planning efforts (the proverbial ‘Black Swan’). Here, we estimate the...

Data from: Mast seeding patterns are asynchronous at a continental scale

Jalene LaMontagne, Ian Pearse, David Greene & Walter Koenig
Resource pulses are rare events with a short duration and high magnitude that drive the dynamics of both plant and animal populations and communities. Mast seeding is perhaps the most common type of resource pulse that occurs in terrestrial ecosystems, is characterized by the synchronous and highly variable production of seed crops by a population of perennial plants, is widespread both taxonomically and geographically, and is often associated with nutrient scarcity. The rare production of...

Growth and flowering responses of eelgrass to simulated grazing and fecal addition by brant geese

Daniel Barton, Frank Shaughnessy, Susannah Ferson, Adam Frimodig, Matthew Hurst & Jeffrey Black
These data represent the responses of eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds to a series of experimental treatments conducted in 2004 and 2005 in the vicinity of Hookton Channel, Humboldt Bay, California, USA. We measured eelgrass density, growth, biomass, and flowering as the primary response variables to clipping, brant (Branta bernicla) fecal addition, clipping and fecal addition, and control treatments in a 2004 destructively sampled randomized block design meant to simulate different effects of brant grazing and...

Admixture may be extensive among hyperdominant Amazon rainforest tree species

Drew Larson, Oscar Vargas, Alberto Vicentini & Christopher W. Dick
Admixture is a mechanism by which species of long-lived plants may acquire novel alleles. However, the potential role of admixture in the origin and maintenance of tropical plant diversity is unclear. We ask whether admixture occurs in an ecologically important clade of Eschweilera (Parvifolia clade, Lecythidaceae), which includes some of the most widespread and abundant tree species in Amazonian forests. Using target capture sequencing, we conducted a detailed phylogenomic investigation of 33 species in the...

Data from: The effects of phylogeny, habitat, and host characteristics on the thermal sensitivity of helminth development

Jessica Phillips, Juan Vargas Soto, Samraat Pawar, Janet Koprivnikar, Daniel Benesh & Péter Molnár
Helminth parasites are part of almost every ecosystem, with more than 300 000 species worldwide. Helminth infection dynamics are expected to be altered by climate change, but predicting future changes is difficult due to lacking thermal sensitivity data for greater than 99.9% of helminth species. Here, we compiled the largest dataset to date on helminth temperature sensitivities and used the Metabolic Theory of Ecology to estimate activation energies (AEs) for parasite developmental rates. The median...

Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna) physiological response to novel thermal and hypoxic conditions at high elevations

Austin Spence, Hannah LeWinter & Morgan Tingley
Many species have not tracked their thermal niches upslope as predicted by climate change, potentially because higher elevations are associated with abiotic challenges beyond temperature. To better predict if organisms can continue to move upslope with rising temperatures, we need to understand their physiological performance when subjected to novel high elevation conditions. Here, we captured Anna’s hummingbirds – a species expanding their elevational distribution in concordance with rising temperatures – from across their current elevational...

Data from: Speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a species of conservation concern

Andrew D. Gottscho, Sharyn B. Marks & William Bryan Jennings
The North America deserts were impacted by both Neogene plate tectonics and Quaternary climatic fluctuations, yet it remains unclear how these events influenced speciation in this region. We tested published hypotheses regarding the timing and mode of speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a sand dune specialist endemic to the Mojave Desert of California and Arizona. We sampled 109 individual lizards representing 22 insular dune localities, obtained DNA...

Data from: Species distribution models of an endangered rodent offer conflicting measures of habitat quality at multiple scales

William T. Bean, R. Stafford, H. Scott Butterfield, Laura R. Prugh, Michael Westphal & Justin S. Brashares
1. The high cost of directly measuring habitat quality has led ecologists to test alternate methods for estimating and predicting this critically important ecological variable. In particular, it is frequently assumed but rarely tested that models of habitat suitability (“species distribution models”, SDMs) may provide useful indices of habitat quality, either from an individual animal or manager’s perspective. Critically, SDMs are increasingly used to estimate species’ ranges, with an implicit assumption that areas of high...

Data from: Small founding number and low genetic diversity in an introduced species exhibiting limited invasion success (speckled dace, Rhinichthys osculus)

Andrew P. Kinziger, Rodney J. Nakamoto, Eric C. Anderson & Bret C. Harvey
Molecular evaluations of successful invaders are common, however studies of introduced species that have had limited invasion success, or have died out completely, are rare. We studied an introduced population of speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) from northern California, USA that has rapidly increased in abundance but remained restricted to a 25-km stretch of river since its introduction in the mid-1980s. Field and laboratory analyses indicate that invasion success of speckled dace is constrained by the...

Data from: Seed predation has the potential to drive a rare plant to extinction

Helen M. Kurkjian, Sydney K. Carothers & Erik S. Jules
1. Pre-dispersal seed predation is sometimes considered unlikely to dramatically affect plant population growth because plants are generally expected to produce more seeds than there are safe sites for germination. Lupinus constancei is a rare herb of limited distribution, with fewer than 400 reproductive individuals restricted to a single square kilometre of north-western California, USA. In addition to the vulnerability resulting from its extremely small population size, L. constancei faces heavy seed predation by small...

Data from: Historical population size change and differentiation of relict populations of the endangered giant kangaroo rat

Mark J. Statham, William T. Bean, Nathan Alexander, Michael F. Westphal & Benjamin N. Sacks
From a conservation management perspective it is important to understand how genetic diversity is partitioned across a species’ range, including (1) identification of evolutionarily distinct units versus those recently isolated through anthropogenic activities and (2) the relative genetic contributions among components of fragmented (meta)populations. To address these questions, we investigated the phylogeography and metapopulation structure among relict populations of the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens) in the highly altered San Joaquin Desert Ecosystem. This...

Data from: Strong dispersal limitation in post-fire regeneration of Baker cypress, a rare serotinous conifer

Jeffrey Kane, Bret McNamara & David Greene
PREMISE: Dispersal capacity primarily determines the spatial establishment patterns that drive range expansions and contractions in tree species. For Baker cypress (Hesperocyparis bakeri [(Jeps.) Bartel]), seedling establishment relies predominantly on fire events due to its cone serotiny, shade intolerance, and small seeds requiring the optimal conditions of fire-exposed, mineral soil seedbeds. METHODS: This study quantified the density and spatial distribution of post-disturbance seedlings following the 2014 Eiler fire in northern California and compared the observed...

Predicted distribution of a rare and understudied forest carnivore: Humboldt martens (Martes caurina humboldtensis)

Katie Moriarty, Joel Thompson, Matthew Delheimer, Brent Barry, Mark Linnell, Taal Levi, Keith Hamm, Desiree Early, Holly Gamblin, Micaela Szykman-Gunther, Jordan Ellison, Janet Prevey, Jennifer Hartman & Raymond Davis
Many mammalian species have experienced range contractions. Following a reduction in distribution that has resulted in apparently small and disjunct populations, the Humboldt marten (Martes caurina humboldtensis) was recently designated as federally Threatened and state Endangered. This subspecies of Pacific marten occurring in coastal Oregon and northern California, also known as coastal martens, appear unlike martens that occur in snow-associated regions in that vegetation associations appear to differ widely between Humboldt marten populations. We expected...

Redwood Creek Chinook salmon life cycle model code and data

Emily Chen, Nicholas Som, John Deibner-Hanson, David Anderson & Mark Henderson
Understanding the spatial and temporal habitat use of a population is a necessary step for restoration decision making. For Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), variation in their migration and habitat use complicate predicting how restoring habitats will impact total recruitment. To evaluate how juvenile life history variation affects a population’s response to potential restoration, we developed a stage-structured model for a Chinook salmon population in a northern California river with a seasonally closed estuary. We modeled...

Evolutionary history constrains heat tolerance of native and exotic tropical Zingiberales

Georgia G. Hernández, Timothy M. Perez, Oscar M. Vargas, W. John Kress, Ramón Molina-Bravo, Roberto A. Cordero & Carlos García-Robledo
Tropical wet forest plants experience relatively stable temperatures throughout the year. However, tropical forests represent a mosaic of habitats characterized by different temperatures. Heat tolerances are expected to be adapted to temperatures specific to their habitats. Although the heat tolerance of species sharing similar environments is expected to be similar, it is also possible that heat tolerance is constrained by evolutionary history because closely related species usually display similar physiologies. When exotic species are introduced...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Multiple plant traits shape the genetic basis of herbivore community assembly

Matthew A. Barbour, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Elizabeth T. Wu, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Carol E. Ritland, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Erik S. Jules & Gregory M. Crutsinger
1. Community genetics research has posited a genetic basis to the assembly of ecological communities. For arthropod herbivores in particular, there is strong support that genetic variation in host plants is a key factor shaping their diversity and composition. However, the specific plant phenotypes underlying herbivore responses remain poorly explored for most systems. 2. We address this knowledge gap by examining the influence of both genetic and phenotypic variation in a dominant host-plant species, Salix...

Data from: Pushing the limits to tree height: could foliar water storage compensate for hydraulic constraints in Sequoia sempervirens

Hiroaki Ishii, Wakana Azuma, Keiko Kuroda, Stephen C. Sillett & H. Roaki Ishii
1. The constraint on vertical water transport is considered an important factor limiting height growth and maximum attainable height of trees. Here we show evidence of foliar water storage as a mechanism that could partially compensate for this constraint in Sequoia sempervirens, the tallest species. 2. We measured hydraulic and morpho-anatomical characteristics of foliated shoots of tall S. sempervirens trees near the wet, northern and dry, southern limits of its geographic distribution in California, USA....

Data from: Novel concordance between geographic, environmental and genetic structure in the ecological generalist prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) in California

Jason Baumsteiger, Andrew P. Kinziger & Andres Aguilar
Ecological generalists may contain a wealth of information concerning diversity, ecology, and geographic connectivity throughout their range. We explored these ideas in prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), a small generalist freshwater fish species where coastal forms have potentially undergone radiations into inland lacustrine and riverine environments. Using a 962bp cytochrome b mtDNA marker and 11 microsatellites, we estimated diversity, divergence times, gene flow, and structure among populations at 43 locations throughout California. We then incorporated genetic...

Data from: Severe fire weather and intensive forest management increase fire severity in a multi-ownership landscape

Harold S.J. Zald, Christopher J. Dunn & Harold S. J. Zald
Many studies have examined how fuels, topography, climate, and fire weather influence fire severity. Less is known about how different forest management practices influence fire severity in multi-owner landscapes, despite costly and controversial suppression of wildfires that do not acknowledge ownership boundaries. In 2013, the Douglas Complex burned over 19,000 ha of Oregon & California Railroad (O&C) lands in Southwestern Oregon, USA. O&C lands are comprised of a checkerboard of private industrial and federal forestland...

Data from: The 15-year post-treatment response of a mixed-conifer understory plant community to thinning and burning treatments

Matthew Hurteau, Marrissa Goodwin, Malcolm North, Harold Zald & Brandon Collins
Disturbance is central to maintaining diversity in forest ecosystems. In the dry forests of the western United States, over a century of fire exclusion has altered the fire regimes of these forests, resulting in high fuel loads and a loss of plant diversity. Mechanical thinning and prescribed fire are widely used to restore structural complexity and species diversity in many western U.S. forests. While studies have shown that the reintroduction of fire into these forests...

The Pacific lamprey genomic divergence, association mapping, temporal Willamette Falls, spatial rangewide datasets

Jon Hess, Jeramiah Smith, Nataliya Timoshevskaya, Cyndi Baker, Christopher Caudill, David Graves, Matthew Keefer, Andrew Kinziger, Mary Moser, Laurie Porter, Greg Silver, Steven Whitlock & Shawn Narum
High rates of dispersal can breakdown coadapted gene complexes. However, concentrated genomic architecture (i.e., genomic islands of divergence) can suppress recombination to allow evolution of local adaptations despite high gene flow. Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is a highly dispersive anadromous fish. Observed trait diversity and evidence for genetic basis of traits suggests it may be locally adapted. We addressed whether concentrated genomic architecture could influence local adaptation for Pacific lamprey. Using two new whole genome...

Scaling and development of elastic mechanisms: the tiny strikes of larval mantis shrimp

Jacob Harrison, Megan Porter, Matthew McHenry, H. Eve Robinson & Sheila Patek
Latch-mediated spring actuation (LaMSA) is used by small organisms to produce high acceleration movements. Mathematical models predict that acceleration increases as LaMSA systems decrease in size. Adult mantis shrimp use a LaMSA mechanism in their raptorial appendages to produce extremely fast strikes. Until now, however, it was unclear whether mantis shrimp at earlier life-history stages also strike using elastic recoil and latch mediation. We tested whether larval mantis shrimp (Gonodactylaceus falcatus) use LaMSA and, because...

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