55 Works

Data from: Barn Owls select uncultivated habitats for hunting in a winegrape growing region of California

Matt Johnson
Large-scale conversion of uncultivated land to agriculture threatens wildlife and can diminish ecosystem services provided by nature. Understanding how wildlife provision ecosystem services may incentivize wildlife conservation in agricultural landscapes. Attracting Barn Owls (Tyto furcata) to nest on farms for pest management has been implemented worldwide, but has not been evaluated in vineyard agroecosystems. Napa Valley, California is a renowned winegrape growing region, and viticulturists encourage Barn Owl occupancy to help minimize damage from Botta’s...

Data from: Palynology of a short sequence of the Lower Devonian Beartooth Butte Formation at Cottonwood Canyon (Wyoming): Age, depositional environments and plant diversity

Alexandru Tomescu, Sol Noetinger & Alexander Bippus
The Beartooth Butte Formation hosts the most extensive Early Devonian macroflora of western North America. The age of the flora at Cottonwood Canyon (Wyoming) has been constrained to the Lochkovian-Pragian interval, based on fish biostratigraphy and unpublished palynological data. We present a detailed palynological analysis of the plant-bearing layers at Cottonwood Canyon. The palynomorphs comprise 32 spore, five cryptospore, two prasinophycean algae and an acritarch species. The stratigraphic ranges of these palynomorphs indicate a late...

Au croisement du nouchi et du coupé-décalé : un défi à l’appartenance nationale

Marie STOLL
Most scholars dealing with nouchi perceive it as a means of expressing the Ivoirian identity, or even as a vector for national unity, given that it is used today in various contexts, regardless of the social status of its speakers. However, this thesis seems contradictory to the cultural reality of the country, characterized by its ethnic, linguistic and socio-economic multiplicity, but it also ingores the origin of nouchi, which is above all an urban slang...

Data from: The 15-year post-treatment response of a mixed-conifer understory plant community to thinning and burning treatments

Matthew Hurteau, Marrissa Goodwin, Malcolm North, Harold Zald & Brandon Collins
Disturbance is central to maintaining diversity in forest ecosystems. In the dry forests of the western United States, over a century of fire exclusion has altered the fire regimes of these forests, resulting in high fuel loads and a loss of plant diversity. Mechanical thinning and prescribed fire are widely used to restore structural complexity and species diversity in many western U.S. forests. While studies have shown that the reintroduction of fire into these forests...

Data from: Multiple plant traits shape the genetic basis of herbivore community assembly

Matthew A. Barbour, Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal, Elizabeth T. Wu, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Carol E. Ritland, Allyson E. Miscampbell, Erik S. Jules & Gregory M. Crutsinger
1. Community genetics research has posited a genetic basis to the assembly of ecological communities. For arthropod herbivores in particular, there is strong support that genetic variation in host plants is a key factor shaping their diversity and composition. However, the specific plant phenotypes underlying herbivore responses remain poorly explored for most systems. 2. We address this knowledge gap by examining the influence of both genetic and phenotypic variation in a dominant host-plant species, Salix...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Pushing the limits to tree height: could foliar water storage compensate for hydraulic constraints in Sequoia sempervirens

Hiroaki Ishii, Wakana Azuma, Keiko Kuroda, Stephen C. Sillett & H. Roaki Ishii
1. The constraint on vertical water transport is considered an important factor limiting height growth and maximum attainable height of trees. Here we show evidence of foliar water storage as a mechanism that could partially compensate for this constraint in Sequoia sempervirens, the tallest species. 2. We measured hydraulic and morpho-anatomical characteristics of foliated shoots of tall S. sempervirens trees near the wet, northern and dry, southern limits of its geographic distribution in California, USA....

Data from: Novel concordance between geographic, environmental and genetic structure in the ecological generalist prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) in California

Jason Baumsteiger, Andrew P. Kinziger & Andres Aguilar
Ecological generalists may contain a wealth of information concerning diversity, ecology, and geographic connectivity throughout their range. We explored these ideas in prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), a small generalist freshwater fish species where coastal forms have potentially undergone radiations into inland lacustrine and riverine environments. Using a 962bp cytochrome b mtDNA marker and 11 microsatellites, we estimated diversity, divergence times, gene flow, and structure among populations at 43 locations throughout California. We then incorporated genetic...

The Pacific lamprey genomic divergence, association mapping, temporal Willamette Falls, spatial rangewide datasets

Jon Hess, Jeramiah Smith, Nataliya Timoshevskaya, Cyndi Baker, Christopher Caudill, David Graves, Matthew Keefer, Andrew Kinziger, Mary Moser, Laurie Porter, Greg Silver, Steven Whitlock & Shawn Narum
High rates of dispersal can breakdown coadapted gene complexes. However, concentrated genomic architecture (i.e., genomic islands of divergence) can suppress recombination to allow evolution of local adaptations despite high gene flow. Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is a highly dispersive anadromous fish. Observed trait diversity and evidence for genetic basis of traits suggests it may be locally adapted. We addressed whether concentrated genomic architecture could influence local adaptation for Pacific lamprey. Using two new whole genome...

Data from: Severe fire weather and intensive forest management increase fire severity in a multi-ownership landscape

Harold S.J. Zald, Christopher J. Dunn & Harold S. J. Zald
Many studies have examined how fuels, topography, climate, and fire weather influence fire severity. Less is known about how different forest management practices influence fire severity in multi-owner landscapes, despite costly and controversial suppression of wildfires that do not acknowledge ownership boundaries. In 2013, the Douglas Complex burned over 19,000 ha of Oregon & California Railroad (O&C) lands in Southwestern Oregon, USA. O&C lands are comprised of a checkerboard of private industrial and federal forestland...

Data from: Insectivorous bat occupancy is mediated by drought and agricultural land use in a highly modified ecoregion

Trinity Smith, Brett Furnas, Misty Nelson, Daniel Barton & Barbara Clucas
Abstract Aim California’s Central Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions worldwide, is home to a high number of at-risk species due to habitat conversion. Amplifying the issue, the Central Valley faces severe droughts, creating water scarcity in surrounding natural areas. At least 14 insectivorous bat species live in this region, and prior studies show mixed results regarding the impact of agriculture and drought on bats. The aim of this study was to investigate...

Scaling and development of elastic mechanisms: the tiny strikes of larval mantis shrimp

Jacob Harrison, Megan Porter, Matthew McHenry, H. Eve Robinson & Sheila Patek
Latch-mediated spring actuation (LaMSA) is used by small organisms to produce high acceleration movements. Mathematical models predict that acceleration increases as LaMSA systems decrease in size. Adult mantis shrimp use a LaMSA mechanism in their raptorial appendages to produce extremely fast strikes. Until now, however, it was unclear whether mantis shrimp at earlier life-history stages also strike using elastic recoil and latch mediation. We tested whether larval mantis shrimp (Gonodactylaceus falcatus) use LaMSA and, because...

Mast seeding records in North American Pinaceae and summer temperature data (1960-2014)

Jalene LaMontagne, Miranda Redmond, Andreas Wion & David Greene
Mast seeding database compilation for conifer tree reproduction in North America (belonging to genus: Abies, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga). All data included in analyses met the criteria that they: i) had at least 6 years of mast seeding data for a species of coniferous tree in North America, ii) data were collected on a continuous scale (e.g., based on seed traps, visual cone counts, or cone scars), iii) occurred between 1960-2014, and iv) for a taxon...

Drought and coyotes mediate mesopredator response to human disturbance

Molly Parren
Mesopredators in western North America are facing major changes to their ecosystems, including drought and the expansion of human disturbance. To balance resource needs and risk-taking on the landscape, mesopredators are likely shifting their habitat use as well as their interspecies interactions. As part of a large-scale study to help evaluate responses of terrestrial wildlife to severe drought, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife surveyed mesopredator presence across 585 sites in the Mojave Desert...

Effects of community richness and competitive asymmetry on protozoa evolution in Sarracenia purpurea leaves

Thomas Miller, Abigail Pastore, Catalina Cuellar-Gempeler, Erin Canter & Olivia Mason
Predicting evolution in natural systems will require understanding how selection operates in multispecies communities. We predicted that the amount that traits evolve in multispecies mixtures would be less than the amount that would be predicted from the additive contributions of the pair-wise interactions and that subordinate species will be more likely to evolve in competitive systems than dominant species. We conducted an experimental test of these predictions using a guild of protozoans found in the...

Data from: What can aquatic gastropods tell us about phenotypic plasticity? A review and meta-analysis

Paul E. Bourdeau, Roger K. Butlin, Christer Brönmark, Timothy C. Edgell, Jason T. Hoverman & Johan Hollander
There have been few attempts to synthesise the growing body of literature on phenotypic plasticity to reveal patterns and generalities about the extent and magnitude of plastic responses. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis of published literature on phenotypic plasticity in aquatic (marine and freshwater) gastropods, a common system for studying plasticity. We identified 96 studies, using pre-determined search terms, published between 1985 and November 2013. The literature was dominated by studies of predator-induced...

Data from: The Rickettsia endosymbiont of Ixodes pacificus contains all the genes of de novo folate biosynthesis

Daniel J. Hunter, Jessica L. Torkelson, James Bodnar, Bobak Mortazavi, Timothy Laurent, Jeff Deason, Khanhkeo Thephavongsa & Jianmin Zhong
Ticks and other arthropods often are hosts to nutrient providing bacterial endosymbionts, which contribute to their host’s fitness by supplying nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids. It has been detected, in our lab, that Ixodes pacificus is host to Rickettsia species phylotype G021. This endosymbiont is predominantly present, and 100% maternally transmitted in I. pacificus. To study roles of phylotype G021 in I. pacificus, bioinformatic and molecular approaches were carried out. MUMmer genome alignments...

Data from: Temporal genetic analysis of the endangered tidewater goby: metapopulation dynamics or drift in isolation?

Andrew P. Kinziger, Michael Hellmair, William Tyler McCraney, David K. Jacobs & Greg Goldsmith
Extinction and colonization dynamics are critical to understanding the evolution and conservation of metapopulations. However, traditional field studies of extinction–colonization are potentially fraught with detection bias and have rarely been validated. Here, we provide a comparison of molecular and field-based approaches for assessment of the extinction–colonization dynamics of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) in northern California. Our analysis of temporal genetic variation across 14 northern California tidewater goby populations failed to recover genetic change expected with...

Data from: Minimally invasive collection of adipose tissue facilitates the study of eco-physiology in small-bodied mammals

Jeff Clerc, Theodore J. Weller, Jeffrey B. Schineller & Joseph M. Szewczak
Adipose tissue is the primary fuel storage for vertebrates and is an important component of energy budgets during periods of peak energetic demands. Investigating the composition of adipose tissue can provide information about energetics, migration, reproduction and other life-history traits. Until now, most field methods for sampling adipose tissue of small-bodied vertebrates have been destructive. Therefore, investigations of adipose tissue in small-bodied vertebrates have been limited in their broadscale application. We developed a field-ready micro-adipose...

Molecular sequencing and morphological identification reveal similar patterns in native bee communities across public and private grasslands of eastern North Dakota

Brian Darby, Russ Bryant, Abby Keller, Madison Jochim, Josephine Moe, Zoe Schreiner, Carrie Pratt, Ned H. Euliss, Mia Park, Rebecca Simmons & Clint Otto
Bees play a key role in the functioning of human-modified and natural ecosystems by pollinating agricultural crops and wild plant communities. Global pollinator conservation efforts need large-scale and long-term monitoring to detect changes in species’ demographic patterns and shifts in bee community structure. The objective of this project was to test a molecular sequencing pipeline that would utilize a commonly used locus, produce accurate and precise identifications consistent with morphological identifications, and generate data that...

Data from: An Early Devonian actinostelic euphyllophyte with secondary growth from the Emsian of Gaspé (Canada) and the importance of tracheid wall thickening patterns in early euphyllophyte systematics

Kelly Pfeiler & Alexandru Tomescu
Secondary growth is a tracheophyte structural feature whose earliest known occurrence dates to the late Pragian-early Emsian. Armoricaphyton, Franhueberia and an unnamed plant from eastern Canada represent the only instances of secondary growth documented to date for the Early Devonian. Here, we describe a new Early Devonian euphyllophyte exhibiting secondary growth, from the Emsian (c. 400-395 Ma) Battery Point Formation (Québec, Canada): Gmujij tetraxylopteroides gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by a mesarch actinostele with...

Data: Using environmental DNA and occupancy modeling to estimate rangewide metapopulation dynamics

Andrew Kinziger
We demonstrate the power of combining two emergent tools for resolving rangewide metapopulation dynamics. First, we employed environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys to efficiently generate multi-season rangewide site occupancy histories. Second, we developed a novel dynamic, spatial multiscale occupancy model to estimate metapopulation dynamics. The model incorporates spatial relationships, explicitly accounts for non-detection bias and allows direct evaluation of the drivers of extinction and colonization. We applied these tools to examine metapopulation dynamics of endangered tidewater...

Patterns of speciation are similar across mountainous and lowland regions for a Neotropical plant radiation (Costaceae: Costus)

Oscar M. Vargas, Brittany Goldston, Dena Louise Grossenbacher & Kathleen M. Kay
High species richness and endemism in tropical mountains are recognized as major contributors to the latitudinal diversity gradient. The processes underlying mountain speciation, however, are largely untested. The prevalence of steep ecogeographic gradients and the geographic isolation of populations by topographic features are predicted to promote speciation in mountains. We evaluate these processes in a species-rich Neotropical genus of understory herbs that range from the lowlands to montane forests and have higher species richness in...

Data on universities offering undergraduate degrees that train students for soil science careers at universities in the USA and its territories

Eric C. Brevik, Holly Dolliver, Susan Edinger-Marshall, Danny Itkin, Jodi Johnson-Maynard, Garrett Liles, Monday Mbila, Colby Moorberg, Yaniria Sanchez-De Leon, Joshua J. Steffan, April Ulery & Karen Vaughan
Several soil science education studies over the last 15 years have focused on the number of students enrolled in soil science programs. However, no studies have quantitatively addressed the number of undergraduate soil science preparatory programs that exist in the United States, which means we do not have solid data concerning whether overall program numbers are declining, rising, or holding steady. This also means we do not have complete data on the same trends for...

Data from: Hierarchical distance sampling to estimate population sizes of common lizards across a desert ecoregion

Brett J. Furnas, D. Scott Newton, Griffin D. Capehart & Cameron W. Barrows
1) Multi-species wildlife monitoring across large geographical regions is important for effective conservation planning in response to expected impacts from climate change and land use. Unlike many species of birds, mammals, and amphibians which can be efficiently sampled using automated sensors including cameras and sound recorders, reptiles are often much more challenging to detect, in part because of their typically cryptic behavior and generally small body sizes. Although many lizard species are more active during...

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