124 Works

Data from: A molecular phylogeny of Eumorpha (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and the evolution of anti-predator larval eyespots

Francesca V. Ponce, Jesse W. Breinholt, Thomas Hossie, Jesse R. Barber, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs & Akito Y. Kawahara
Many insects possess conspicuous external circular ring markings that resemble the eye of a vertebrate. These ‘eyespots’ typically function to startle or otherwise deter predators, but few studies have examined how eyespots have evolved. We study the evolution of the posterior larval eyespot in the charismatic New World hawkmoth genus Eumorpha. While Eumorpha has a range of posterior larval eyespot shapes and sizes, little is known of how this trait has evolved because phylogenetic relationships...

Data from: High flight costs, but low dive costs, in auks support the biomechanical hypothesis for flightlessness in penguins

Kyle H. Elliott, Robert E. Ricklefs, Anthony J. Gaston, Scott A. Hatch, John R. Speakman & Gail K. Davoren
Flight is a key adaptive trait. Despite its advantages, flight has been lost in several groups of birds, notably among seabirds, where flightlessness has evolved independently in at least five lineages. One hypothesis for the loss of flight among seabirds is that animals moving between different media face tradeoffs between maximizing function in one medium relative to the other. In particular, biomechanical models of energy costs during flying and diving suggest that a wing designed...

Data from: Demasculinization of male guppies increases resistance to a common and harmful ectoparasite

Felipe Dargent, Adam R. Reddon, William T. Swaney, Gregor F. Fussmann, Simon M. Reader, Marilyn E. Scott & Mark R. Forbes
Parasites are detrimental to host fitness and therefore should strongly select for host defence mechanisms. Yet, hosts vary considerably in their observed parasite loads. One notable source of inter-individual variation in parasitism is host sex. Such variation could be caused by the immunomodulatory effects of gonadal steroids. Here we assess the influence of gonadal steroids on the ability of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to defend themselves against a common and deleterious parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli). Adult male...

Data from: Grouping substitution types into different relaxed molecular clocks

Hui-Jie Lee, Hirohisa Kishino, Nicolas Rodrigue & Jeffrey L. Thorne
Different types of nucleotide substitutions experience different patterns of rate change over time. We propose clustering context-dependent (or context-independent) nucleotide substitution types according to how their rates change and then using the grouping for divergence time estimation. With our models, relative rates among types that are in the same group are fixed, whereas absolute rates of the types within a group change over time according to a shared relaxed molecular clock. We illustrate our procedure...

Data from: Spending limited resources on de-extinction could lead to net biodiversity loss

Joseph R. Bennett, Richard F. Maloney, Tammy E. Steeves, James Brazill-Boast, Hugh P. Possingham & Phillip J. Seddon
There is contentious debate surrounding the merits of de-extinction as a biodiversity conservation tool. Here, we use extant analogues to predict conservation actions for potential de-extinction candidate species from New Zealand and the Australian state of New South Wales, and use a prioritization protocol to predict the impacts of reintroducing and maintaining populations of these species on conservation of extant threatened species. Even using the optimistic assumptions that resurrection of species is externally sponsored, and...

Data from: Delusions of grandeur: seed count is not a good fitness proxy under individual variation in phenology

Lina Wen & Andrew Simons
The concept of fitness is central to evolutionary biology, yet it is difficult to define and to measure. In plant biology, fitness is often measured as seed count. However, under an array of circumstances, seed count may be a biased proxy of fitness; for example, when individuals vary in allocation to sexual vs. asexual reproduction. A more subtle example, but also likely to be important in natural populations, is when interindividual variation in conditions during...

Data from: Is repeatability of metabolic rate influenced by social separation? a test with a teleost fish

Huang Yan, Shijian Fu, Steven Cooke & Jigang Xia
Metabolic rates are typically thought to have important influences on fitness and more broadly be relevant to the ecology and evolution of animals. Previous studies demonstrate that metabolic rates are repeatable to a certain extent under constant conditions, but how social conditions influence the repeatability of metabolic rate remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the repeatability of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the highly-social crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after being socially separated for...

Organic farming benefits birds most in regions with more intensive agriculture

David Anthony Kirk, Amanda Martin & Kathryn Freemark Lindsay
1. Organic farming is considered beneficial for biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes but the role of agricultural land use intensity (‘agricultural intensity’), particularly at regional scales, has often been neglected. 2. We used breeding season bird abundance estimates from paired organic-conventional fields in Saskatchewan (31 pairs), Ontario (36), and Québec (15), Canada to test two alternative predictions: That the positive effect of organic farming on bird abundance was; a) smaller when controlling for overall effects...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in norms of reaction of phenology in the greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza

Harry Hitsman & Andrew Simons
Variable environments may result in the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity when cues reliably indicate an appropriate phenotype-environment match. Although adaptive plasticity is well established for phenological traits expressed across environments, local differentiation in norms of reaction is less well studied. The switch from the production of regular fronds to overwintering “turions” in the greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza is vital to fitness and is expressed as a norm of reaction induced by falling temperatures associated...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

The influence of a priori grouping on inference of genetic clusters: simulation study and literature review of the DAPC method

Joshua Miller, Catherine Cullingham & Rhiannon Peery
Inference of genetic clusters is a key aim of population genetics, sparking development of numerous analytical methods. Within these, there is a conceptual divide between finding de novo structure versus assessment of a priori groups. Recently developed, Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC), combines discriminant analysis (DA) with principal component (PC) analysis. When applying DAPC, the groups used in the DA (specified a priori or described de novo) need to be carefully assessed. While DAPC...

Data from: Delaying conservation actions matters for species vulnerable to climate change

Ilona Naujokaitis-Lewis, Lars Y. Pomara & Benjamin Zuckerberg
1. Most climate change adaptation efforts emphasize where to implement management actions, whereas timing remains largely overlooked. The rate of modern climate change introduces urgency in evaluating whether delaying conservation actions compromises their efficacy for reaching important conservation targets. 2. We evaluated the importance of multiple climate change adaptation strategies including timing of actions on preventing extinctions for a threatened climate-sensitive species, the Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus). We parameterised a range-wide population viability analysis...

Autumn larval cold tolerance does not predict the northern range limit of a widespread butterfly species

Heather Kharouba, Philippe Tremblay, Heath MacMillan & Heather Kharouba
Climate change is driving range shifts, and a lack of cold tolerance is hypothesized to constrain insect range expansion at poleward latitudes. However, few, if any, studies have tested this hypothesis during autumn when organisms are subjected to sporadic low temperature exposure but may not have become cold tolerant yet. In this study, we integrated organismal thermal tolerance measures into species distribution models for larvae of the Giant Swallowtail butterfly, Papilio cresphontes, living at the...

Data from: Bark beetles use a spring-loaded mechanism to produce variable song patterns

Amanda A Lindeman & Jayne E Yack
Many insects vary their song patterns to communicate different messages, but the underlying biomechanisms are often poorly understood. Here we report on the mechanics of sound production and variation in an elytro-tergal stridulator, male Dendroctonus valens bark beetles. Using ablation experiments coupled with high-speed video and audio recordings, we show that (1) chirps are produced using a stridulatory file on the left elytron (forewing) and a protrusion (plectrum) on the seventh abdominal segment, (2) chirps...

Direct mapping of curve-crossing dynamics in IBr by attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

Yuki Kobayashi, Kristina Chang, Tao Zeng, Daniel Neumark & Stephen Leone
Herein is the experimental data set for the publication titled "Direct mapping of curve-crossing dynamics in IBr by attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy." The abstract of the paper is as follows: The electronic character of photoexcited molecules can abruptly change at avoided crossings and conical intersections. Here, we report direct mapping of the coupled interplay between electrons and nuclei in a prototype molecule, iodine monobromide (IBr), using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A few-femtosecond visible pulse resonantly...

A new model of forelimb ecomorphology for predicting the ancient habitats of fossil turtles

Thomas Dudgeon, Marissa Livius, Noel Alfonso, Stéphanie Tessier & Jordan Mallon
Various morphological proxies have been used to infer habitat preferences among fossil turtles and their early ancestors, but most are tightly linked to phylogeny, thereby minimizing their predictive power. One particularly widely used model incorporates linear measurements of the forelimb (humerus + ulna + manus) but, in addition to the issue of phylogenetic correlation, it does not estimate the likelihood of habitat assignment. Here, we introduce a new model that uses intramanual measurements (digit III...

Additional file 4 of COVID-19 prevalence and infection control measures at homeless shelters and hostels in high-income countries: a scoping review

Justine Levesque, Jordan Babando, Nathaniel Loranger, Shantel Johnson & David Pugh
Additional file 4. Data extraction tool.

Additional file 4 of COVID-19 prevalence and infection control measures at homeless shelters and hostels in high-income countries: a scoping review

Justine Levesque, Jordan Babando, Nathaniel Loranger, Shantel Johnson & David Pugh
Additional file 4. Data extraction tool.

Additional file 2 of COVID-19 prevalence and infection control measures at homeless shelters and hostels in high-income countries: a scoping review

Justine Levesque, Jordan Babando, Nathaniel Loranger, Shantel Johnson & David Pugh
Additional file 2. Articles.

Data from: Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays

Lauren P. Fitzsimmons & Susan M. Bertram
Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and lab-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment, and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether...

Data from: The fitness costs of antibiotic resistance mutations

Anita H. Melnyk, Alex Wong & Rees Kassen
Antibiotic resistance is increasing in pathogenic microbial populations and is thus a major threat to public health. The fate of a resistance mutation in pathogen populations is determined in part by its fitness. Mutations that suffer little or no fitness cost are more likely to persist in the absence of antibiotic treatment. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the fitness costs associated with single mutational events that confer resistance. Generally, these mutations...

Data from: No assortative mating based on size in black guillemots breeding in the Canadian Arctic

Lisha L. Berzins, H. Grant Gilchrist & Gary Burness
The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle) is a monomorphic, socially monogamous member of the Alcidae. Although aspects of their breeding and foraging ecology have been extensively studied, less is known about possible sex-based differences in morphology, nor whether Black Guillemots mate assortatively based on body size. Using molecular techniques, we identified the sex of 26 male and 21 female Black Guillemots captured in the Canadian Arctic, and measured six external body measurements: outer tarsus length, wing...

Data from: No selection on immunological markers in response to a highly virulent pathogen in an Arctic breeding bird

Pierre Legagneux, Lisha L. Berzins, Mark Forbes, Naomi Jane Harms, Holly L. Hennin, H. G. Gilchrist, Sophie Bourgeon, Joël Bêty, Catherine Soos, Oliver P. Love, Jeffrey T. Foster, Sébastien Descamps & Gary Burness
In natural populations, epidemics provide opportunities to look for intense natural selection on genes coding for life history and immune or other physiological traits. If the populations being considered are of management or conservation concern, then identifying the traits under selection (or ‘markers’) might provide insights into possible intervention strategies during epidemics. We assessed potential for selection on multiple immune and life history traits of Arctic breeding common eiders (Somateria mollissima) during annual avian cholera...

Data from: The influence of landscape context on short- and long-term forest change following a severe ice storm

Jed Immanuel Lloren, Lenore Fahrig, Joseph R. Bennett, Thomas A. Contreras & Jenny L. McCune
1. When deforestation results in small forest fragments surrounded by a non-forest matrix, forest stands within these fragments experience changes in structure and community composition. They also continue to experience natural disturbances like hurricanes and ice storms. It is unclear whether the landscape context of forest stands influences plant community response to natural disturbances. 2. Using data from surveys of forested plots in the years immediately following and 19 years after a severe ice storm,...

Data from: Abrupt shortening of bird W chromosomes in ancestral Neognathae

Root Gorelick, Danielle Fraser, Melissa Mansfield, Jeff W. Dawson, Sanoji Wijenayake & Susan M. Bertram
As a result of suppressed recombination, heterogametic sex chromosomes (either Y or W) are usually assumed to gradually shorten over evolutionary time as a way to remove accumulated mutations. However, suppressed recombination removes the most obvious mechanism for excising portions of sex chromosomes. We examined ratios of W/Z chromosome size across 224 bird species from 146 genera. Much of the data were obtained from a previous study (Rutkowska et al. 2012. Biology Letters 8: 636–638),...

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