89 Works

Mapping Digital Media: Canada

Jonathan Obar, Gregory Taylor, Derek Antoine, Rena Bivens, Nadia Caidi, Arndis Johnson, Catherine Middleton & David Skinner
The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political, economic, and social affairs. Canadians are among the most engaged and active users of digital media in the world, and digitization has had particular consequences for such a vast, largely urbanized and...

Data from: Do traits of plant species predict the efficacy of species distribution models for finding new occurrences?

J. L. McCune, Hanna Rosner-Katz, Joseph Bennett, Richard Schuster & Heather Kharouba
Species distribution models (SDMs) are used to test ecological theory and to direct targeted surveys for species of conservation concern. Several studies have tested for an influence of species traits on the predictive accuracy of SDMs. However, most used the same set of environmental predictors for all species and/or did not use truly independent data to test SDM accuracy. We built eight SDMs for each of 24 plant species of conservation concern, varying the environmental...

Data from: Environmental DNA surveys help to identify winter hibernacula of a temperate freshwater turtle

Wenxi Feng, Grégory Bulté & Stephen C. Lougheed
Background and aims Overwintering is a critical part of the annual cycle of animals living at high latitudes, and selection of overwintering sites (hibernacula) is important to population persistence. Identifying the overwintering sites of aquatic species is challenging in areas where water bodies are frozen for significant parts of the year. We tested whether environmental DNA (eDNA) approaches could help to locate them. Materials and methods We conducted environmental DNA surveys of underwater overwintering sites...

Configurational crop heterogeneity increases within-field plant diversity

Audrey Alignier, Xavier Solé-Senan, Irene Robleño, Barbara Baraibar, Fahrig Lenore, David Giralt, Nicolas Gross, Jean-Louis Martin, Jordi Recasens, Clelia Sirami, Gavin Siriwardena, Aliette Bosem Baillod, Colette Bertrand, Romain Carrie, Annika Hass, Laura Henckel, Paul Miguet, Isabelle Badenhausser, Jacques Baudry, Gerard Bota, Vincent Bretagnolle, Lluis Brotons, Francoise Burel, François Calatayud, Yann Clough … & Péter Batáry
1. Increasing landscape heterogeneity by restoring semi-natural elements to reverse farmland biodiversity declines is not always economically feasible or acceptable to farmers due to competition for land. We hypothesized that increasing the heterogeneity of the crop mosaic itself, hereafter referred to as crop heterogeneity, can have beneficial effects on within-field plant diversity. 2. Using a unique multi-country dataset from a cross-continent collaborative project covering 1451 agricultural fields within 432 landscapes in Europe and Canada, we...

Data from: Microsatellite evidence for obligate autogamy, but abundant genetic variation in the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata (Campanulaceae)

P. William Hughes & Andrew M. Simons
Although high levels of self-fertilization (>85%) are not uncommon in nature, organisms reproducing entirely through selfing are extremely rare. Predominant selfers are expected to have low genetic diversity because genetic variation is distributed among rather than within lineages, and is readily lost through genetic drift. We examined genetic diversity at 22 microsatellite loci in 105 individuals from a population of the semelparous herb Lobelia inflata L., and found (1) no evidence of heterozygosity through outcrossing,...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Lesser snow goose helminths show recurring and positive parasite infection-diversity relations

Felipe Dargent, André Morrill, Ray T. Alisauskas, J. Daniel McLaughlin, Dave Shutler & Mark R. Forbes
The patterns and mechanisms by which biological diversity is associated with parasite infection risk are important to study because of their potential implications for wildlife population's conservation and management. Almost all research in this area has focused on host species diversity and has neglected parasite diversity, despite evidence that parasites are important drivers of community structure and ecosystem processes. Here, we assessed whether presence or abundance of each of nine helminth species parasitizing lesser snow...

Data from: Body size affects the evolution of hidden colour signals in moths

Changku Kang, Reza Zahiri & Thomas N. Sherratt
Many cryptic prey have also evolved hidden contrasting colour signals which are displayed to would-be predators. Given that these hidden contrasting signals may confer additional survival benefits to the prey by startling/intimidating predators, it is unclear why they have evolved in some species, but not in others. Here, we have conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of colour traits in the family Erebidae (Lepidoptera), and found that the hidden contrasting colour signals are...

Data from: Feather corticosterone reveals effect of moulting conditions in the autumn on subsequent reproductive output and survival in an Arctic migratory bird

N. Jane Harms, Pierre Legagneux, H. Grant Gilchrist, Joël Bêty, Oliver P. Love, Mark R. Forbes, Gary R. Bortolotti & Catherine Soos
For birds, unpredictable environments during the energetically stressful times of moulting and breeding are expected to have negative fitness effects. Detecting those effects however, might be difficult if individuals modulate their physiology and/or behaviours in ways to minimize short-term fitness costs. Corticosterone in feathers (CORTf) is thought to provide information on total baseline and stress-induced CORT levels at moulting and is an integrated measure of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal activity during the time feathers are grown. We predicted...

Data from: Phenotype-limited distributions: short-billed birds move away during times that prey bury deeply

Sjoerd Duijns, Jan A. Van Gils, Jennifer Smart & Theunis Piersma
In our seasonal world, animals face a variety of environmental conditions in the course of the year. To cope with such seasonality, animals may be phenotypically flexible, but some phenotypic traits are fixed. If fixed phenotypic traits are functionally linked to resource use, then animals should redistribute in response to seasonally changing resources, leading to a ‘phenotype-limited’ distribution. Here, we examine this possibility for a shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica; a long-billed and sexually...

Data from: Differential predation drives the geographical divergence in multiple traits in aposematic frogs

Changku Kang, Thomas N. Sherratt, Ye Eun Kim, Yujin Shin, Jongyeol Moon, Uhram Song, Jae Yeon Kang, Kyungmin Kim & Yikweon Jang
Prey have evolved a range of traits to enhance their survival against predators. These traits often show geographical variation due to the differences in local predation pressure. To date, there exists ample evidence of the geographical variation in single anti-predator traits such as coloration induced by differential predation. However, predation pressure often induces the shift in a suite of (correlated) prey traits, such as coloration and behavior, rather than a single trait in nature. In...

Data from: How to quantify a distance-dependent landscape effect on a biological response

Paul Miguet, Lenore Fahrig & Claire Lavigne
To quantify the effect of the surrounding landscape context on a biological response at a site, most studies measure landscape variables within discs centred on this biological response (threshold-based method). This implicitly assumes that the effect of a unit area of the landscape is consistent up to a threshold distance beyond which it drops to zero. However, it seems more likely that the landscape effect declines with increasing distance from the biological response point. Here...

Data from: Parasite infection leads to widespread glucocorticoid hormone increases in vertebrate hosts: a meta-analysis

Katie O’Dwyer, Felipe Dargent, Mark Forbes & Janet Koprivnikar
1. Parasites and pathogens (hereafter parasites) commonly challenge organisms, but the extent to which their infections are physiologically stressful to hosts remains unclear. Importantly, vertebrate hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs), have been reported to increase, decrease, or show no alterations stemming from infections, challenging the generality of parasite-associated GC responses and motivating a search for important moderator variables. 2. We undertook the first meta-analysis of changes in vertebrate GCs following experimental infection with parasites, extracting 146 effect...

Trophic structure and mercury transfer in the subarctic fish community of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

John Chételat, Jillian Rohonczy, Peter A. Cott, Amanda Benwell, Mark R. Forbes, Stacey A. Robinson, Maikel R. Rosabal & Marc Amyot
In recent decades, mercury concentrations have increased in fish of Great Slave Lake (GSL), a subarctic great lake in northern Canada with important recreational, subsistence, and commercial fisheries. This study characterized habitat use and trophic position of common fish species in GSL near the City of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), measured mercury concentrations in water and in taxa from lower trophic levels of the food web, and examined trophic and biological influences on mercury concentrations...

Data for: Birth order as a source of within-genotype diversification in the clonal duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza (Araceae: Lemnoideae)

Riley Morris, Andrew Simons & Mary Compton
Organismal persistence attests to adaptive response to environmental variation. Diversification bet hedging, in which risk is reduced at the cost of expected fitness, is increasingly recognized as an adaptive response, yet mechanisms by which a single genotype generates diversification remain obscure. The clonal greater duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza (L.), facultatively expresses a seed-like but vegetative form, the “turion”, that allows survival through otherwise lethal conditions. Turion reactivation phenology is a key fitness component, yet little is...

Data from: Annual movement patterns of endangered ivory gulls: the importance of sea ice

Nora C. Spencer, H. Grant Gilchrist & Mark L. Mallory
The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual...

Data from: Chemical defense and tonic immobility in early life stages of the Harlequin cabbage bug, Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

Eric Guerra-Grenier, Rui Liu, John T. Arnason & Thomas N. Sherratt
Antipredation strategies are important for the survival and fitness of animals, especially in more vulnerable life stages. In insects, eggs and early juvenile stages are often either immobile or unable to rapidly flee and hide when facing predators. Understanding what alternative antipredation strategies they use, but also how those change over development time, is required to fully appreciate how species have adapted to biotic threats. Murgantia histrionica is a stink bug, conspicuously colored from egg...

Canada's first known dinosaurs: Palaeontology and collecting history of upper Cretaceous vertebrates in Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, 1874-1889

Brigid Christison, Darren Tanke & Jordan Mallon
The early collecting history of dinosaurs and other fossil vertebrates in Western Canada during the 1870s and 1880s is poorly documented. Initial finds were made by the British North American Boundary Commission and the Geological Survey of Canada in modern Saskatchewan and Alberta but, beyond a few well-publicized examples, little is known about precisely what was found and where. Much of the collected material is now housed in the collections of the Canadian Museum of...

Identifying Policy-makers' Objectives: An Application to the Bank of Canada

Nicholas Rowe & James Yetman
In this paper, we develop a new way to test hypotheses about policy-makers' targets, and we implement that test for Canadian monetary policy. If, for example, the Bank of Canada is using interest rates to target an inflation rate of 2 per cent and there is an 8-quarter lag in the effect of the interest rate on inflation, then deviations of inflation from 2 per cent should be unforecastable and uncorrelated with any information in...

How to Improve Inflation Targeting at the Bank of Canada

Nicholas Rowe
This paper shows that if the Bank of Canada is optimally adjusting its monetary policy instrument in response to inflation indicators to target 2 per cent inflation at a two-year horizon, then deviations of inflation from 2 per cent represent the Bank's forecast errors, and should be uncorrelated with its information set, which includes two-year lagged values of the instrument and the indicators. Positive or negative correlations are evidence of systematic errors in monetary policy....

Data from: Bark beetles use a spring-loaded mechanism to produce variable song patterns

Amanda A Lindeman & Jayne E Yack
Many insects vary their song patterns to communicate different messages, but the underlying biomechanisms are often poorly understood. Here we report on the mechanics of sound production and variation in an elytro-tergal stridulator, male Dendroctonus valens bark beetles. Using ablation experiments coupled with high-speed video and audio recordings, we show that (1) chirps are produced using a stridulatory file on the left elytron (forewing) and a protrusion (plectrum) on the seventh abdominal segment, (2) chirps...

Data from: Demasculinization of male guppies increases resistance to a common and harmful ectoparasite

Felipe Dargent, Adam R. Reddon, William T. Swaney, Gregor F. Fussmann, Simon M. Reader, Marilyn E. Scott & Mark R. Forbes
Parasites are detrimental to host fitness and therefore should strongly select for host defence mechanisms. Yet, hosts vary considerably in their observed parasite loads. One notable source of inter-individual variation in parasitism is host sex. Such variation could be caused by the immunomodulatory effects of gonadal steroids. Here we assess the influence of gonadal steroids on the ability of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to defend themselves against a common and deleterious parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli). Adult male...

Data from: Delaying conservation actions matters for species vulnerable to climate change

Ilona Naujokaitis-Lewis, Lars Y. Pomara & Benjamin Zuckerberg
1. Most climate change adaptation efforts emphasize where to implement management actions, whereas timing remains largely overlooked. The rate of modern climate change introduces urgency in evaluating whether delaying conservation actions compromises their efficacy for reaching important conservation targets. 2. We evaluated the importance of multiple climate change adaptation strategies including timing of actions on preventing extinctions for a threatened climate-sensitive species, the Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus). We parameterised a range-wide population viability analysis...

Data from: A molecular phylogeny of Eumorpha (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and the evolution of anti-predator larval eyespots

Francesca V. Ponce, Jesse W. Breinholt, Thomas Hossie, Jesse R. Barber, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs & Akito Y. Kawahara
Many insects possess conspicuous external circular ring markings that resemble the eye of a vertebrate. These ‘eyespots’ typically function to startle or otherwise deter predators, but few studies have examined how eyespots have evolved. We study the evolution of the posterior larval eyespot in the charismatic New World hawkmoth genus Eumorpha. While Eumorpha has a range of posterior larval eyespot shapes and sizes, little is known of how this trait has evolved because phylogenetic relationships...

Data from: Is repeatability of metabolic rate influenced by social separation? a test with a teleost fish

Huang Yan, Shijian Fu, Steven Cooke & Jigang Xia
Metabolic rates are typically thought to have important influences on fitness and more broadly be relevant to the ecology and evolution of animals. Previous studies demonstrate that metabolic rates are repeatable to a certain extent under constant conditions, but how social conditions influence the repeatability of metabolic rate remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the repeatability of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the highly-social crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after being socially separated for...

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