13 Works

Data from: A molecular phylogeny of Eumorpha (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and the evolution of anti-predator larval eyespots

Francesca V. Ponce, Jesse W. Breinholt, Thomas Hossie, Jesse R. Barber, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs & Akito Y. Kawahara
Many insects possess conspicuous external circular ring markings that resemble the eye of a vertebrate. These ‘eyespots’ typically function to startle or otherwise deter predators, but few studies have examined how eyespots have evolved. We study the evolution of the posterior larval eyespot in the charismatic New World hawkmoth genus Eumorpha. While Eumorpha has a range of posterior larval eyespot shapes and sizes, little is known of how this trait has evolved because phylogenetic relationships...

Data from: Feather corticosterone reveals effect of moulting conditions in the autumn on subsequent reproductive output and survival in an Arctic migratory bird

N. Jane Harms, Pierre Legagneux, H. Grant Gilchrist, Joël Bêty, Oliver P. Love, Mark R. Forbes, Gary R. Bortolotti & Catherine Soos
For birds, unpredictable environments during the energetically stressful times of moulting and breeding are expected to have negative fitness effects. Detecting those effects however, might be difficult if individuals modulate their physiology and/or behaviours in ways to minimize short-term fitness costs. Corticosterone in feathers (CORTf) is thought to provide information on total baseline and stress-induced CORT levels at moulting and is an integrated measure of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal activity during the time feathers are grown. We predicted...

Data from: Annual movement patterns of endangered ivory gulls: the importance of sea ice

Nora C. Spencer, H. Grant Gilchrist & Mark L. Mallory
The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual...

Data from: Playing smart vs. playing safe: the joint expression of phenotypic plasticity and potential bet hedging across and within thermal environments

Andrew M. Simons
Adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves when cues reliably predict fitness consequences of life-history decisions, whereas bet hedging evolves when environments are unpredictable. These modes of response should be jointly expressed, because environmental variance is composed of both predictable and unpredictable components. However, little attention has been paid to the joint expression of plasticity and bet hedging. Here, I examine the simultaneous expression of plasticity in germination rate and two potential bet-hedging traits – germination fraction and...

Data from: Early evolution of sexual dimorphism and polygyny in Pinnipedia

Thomas M. Cullen, Danielle Fraser, Natalia Rybczynski & Claudia Schröder-Adams
Sexual selection is one of the earliest areas of interest in evolutionary biology. And yet, the evolutionary history of sexually dimorphic traits remains poorly characterized for most vertebrate lineages. Here, we report on evidence for the early evolution of dimorphism within a model mammal group, the pinnipeds. Pinnipeds show a range of sexual dimorphism and mating systems that span the extremes of modern mammals, from monomorphic taxa with isolated and dispersed mating to extreme size...

Data from: Ageing gracefully: physiology but not behaviour changes with age in a diving seabird

Kyle H. Elliott, James F. Hare, Maryline Le Vaillant, Anthony J. Gaston, Yan Ropert-Coudert & W. Gary Anderson
A higher proportion of long-lived animals die from senescence than short-lived animals, yet many long-lived homeotherms show few signs of physiological aging in the wild. This may, however, differ in long-lived diving homeotherms that frequently encounter hypoxic conditions and have very high metabolic rates. To examine aging within a long-lived diving homeotherm, we studied resting metabolism and thyroid hormones (N = 43), blood oxygen stores (N = 93), and foraging behaviour (N = 230) of...

Data from: Experimental evolution of bet hedging under manipulated environmental uncertainty in Neurospora crassa

Jeffrey K. Graham, Myron L. Smith & Andrew M. Simons
All organisms are faced with environmental uncertainty. Bet-hedging theory expects unpredictable selection to result in the evolution of traits that maximize the geometric-mean fitness even though such traits appear to be detrimental over the shorter term. Despite the centrality of fitness measures to evolutionary analysis, no direct test of the geometric-mean fitness principle exists. Here, we directly distinguish between predictions of competing fitness maximization principles by testing Cohen's 1966 classic bet-hedging model using the fungus...

Data from: No selection on immunological markers in response to a highly virulent pathogen in an Arctic breeding bird

Pierre Legagneux, Lisha L. Berzins, Mark Forbes, Naomi Jane Harms, Holly L. Hennin, H. G. Gilchrist, Sophie Bourgeon, Joël Bêty, Catherine Soos, Oliver P. Love, Jeffrey T. Foster, Sébastien Descamps & Gary Burness
In natural populations, epidemics provide opportunities to look for intense natural selection on genes coding for life history and immune or other physiological traits. If the populations being considered are of management or conservation concern, then identifying the traits under selection (or ‘markers’) might provide insights into possible intervention strategies during epidemics. We assessed potential for selection on multiple immune and life history traits of Arctic breeding common eiders (Somateria mollissima) during annual avian cholera...

Data from: The fitness costs of antibiotic resistance mutations

Anita H. Melnyk, Alex Wong & Rees Kassen
Antibiotic resistance is increasing in pathogenic microbial populations and is thus a major threat to public health. The fate of a resistance mutation in pathogen populations is determined in part by its fitness. Mutations that suffer little or no fitness cost are more likely to persist in the absence of antibiotic treatment. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the fitness costs associated with single mutational events that confer resistance. Generally, these mutations...

Data from: The continuum between semelparity and iteroparity: plastic expression of parity in response to season length manipulation in Lobelia inflata.

P. William Hughes & Andrew M. Simons
Background: Semelparity and iteroparity are considered to be distinct and alternative life-history strategies, where semelparity is characterized by a single, fatal reproductive episode, and iteroparity by repeated reproduction throughout life. However, semelparous organisms do not reproduce instantaneously; typically reproduction occurs over an extended time period. If variation in reproductive allocation exists within such a prolonged reproductive episode, semelparity may be considered iteroparity over a shorter time scale.This continuity hypothesis predicts that “semelparous” organisms with relatively...

Data from: Secondary reproduction in the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata: time-constrained primary reproduction does not result in increased deferral of reproductive effort

P. William Hughes & Andrew M. Simons
Background: Although semelparity is a life history characterized by a single reproductive episode within a single reproductive season, some semelparous organisms facultatively express a second bout of reproduction, either in a subsequent season (“facultative iteroparity”) or later within the same season as the primary bout (“secondary reproduction”). Secondary reproduction has been explained as the adaptive deferral of reproductive potential under circumstances in which some fraction of reproductive success would otherwise have been lost (due, for...

Data from: Environmental dependency of amphibian-ranavirus genotypic interactions: evolutionary perspectives on infectious diseases

Pierre Echaubard, Joel Leduc, Bruce Pauli, V. Gregory Chinchar, Jacques Robert & David Lesbarrères
The context-dependent investigations of host–pathogen genotypic interactions, where environmental factors are explicitly incorporated, allow the assessment of both coevolutionary history and contemporary ecological influences. Such a functional explanatory framework is particularly valuable for describing mortality trends and identifying drivers of disease risk more accurately. Using two common North American frog species (Lithobates pipiens and Lithobates sylvaticus) and three strains of frog virus 3 (FV3) at different temperatures, we conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the...

Data from: Towards a synthesis of frameworks in nutritional ecology: interacting effects of protein, carbohydrate, and phosphorus on field cricket fitness

Sarah J. Harrison, David Raubenheimer, Stephen J. Simpson, Jean-Guy J. Godin & Susan M. Bertram
Phosphorus has been identified as an important determinant of nutrition-related biological variation. The macronutrients protein (P) and carbohydrates (C), both alone and interactively, are known to affect animal performance. No study, however, has investigated the importance of phosphorus relative to dietary protein or carbohydrates, or the interactive effects of phosphorus with these macronutrients, on fitness-related traits in animals. We used a nutritional geometry framework to address this question in adult field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Our...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Carleton University
  • University of Saskatchewan
  • University of Windsor
  • Environment Canada
  • Acadia University
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Rochester Medical Center
  • Hubert Curien Multi-disciplinary Institute
  • Northern Arizona University
  • Canadian Museum of Nature